View Full Version : The Ancient Egyptian Pyramids
Qatar Son 333
July 13th, 2009, 11:38 PM
The Ancient Egyptian Pyramids
There are 138 pyramids discovered in Egypt as of 2008
Abu Rawash (Djedefre)
Abu Rawash (also known as Abu Roach, Abu Roash), 8 km to the North of Giza ,is the site of Egypt's most northerly pyramid, Also known as the lost pyramid — the mostly ruined Pyramid of Djedefre, the son and successor of Khufu. Originally, it was thought that this pyramid had never been completed, but the current archaelogicical consensus is that not only was it completed, but that it was built about the same size as the Pyramid of Menkaure – the third largest of the Giza pyramids.
It is believed to have originally been the most beautiful of the pyramids, with an exterior of polished, imported granite, limestone and crowned with a large pyramidion. It is also believed for this reason the completed pyramid was largely deconstructed by the Roman Empire to build their own construction projects after the conquest of Egypt under Roman Emperor Augustus.
The rest will come soon =D
July 16th, 2009, 08:15 AM
Good stuff qatar son. How could we have an Egyptian forum without having a thread about the pyramids. :lol:
Qatar Son 333
July 16th, 2009, 03:10 PM
^^ Yeah i was wondering about that too LOL
Giza Pyramid Complex
The Giza Necropolis stands on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. This complex of ancient monuments includes the three pyramids known as the Great Pyramids, along with the massive sculpture known as the Great Sphinx. It is located some 8 km (5 mi) inland into the desert from the old town of Giza on the Nile, some 25 km (15 mi) southwest of Cairo city centre. One of the monuments, the Great Pyramid of Giza, is the only remaining monument of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Of the four major monuments, only Menkaure's Pyramid is seen today without any of its original polished limestone casing, with Khafre's Pyramid retaining a prominent display of casing stones at its apex, while Khufu's Pyramid maintains a more limited collection at its base. Khafre's Pyramid appears larger than the adjacent Khufu Pyramid by virtue of its more elevated location, and the steeper angle of inclination of its construction – it is, in fact, smaller in both height and volume.
Qatar Son 333
July 16th, 2009, 10:32 PM
LOL while contributing to this thread i am learning alot hehe
Pyramids of Zawyet el-Aryan
Near Cairo about halfway between Giza and Abusir is the village of Zawiyet el-Aryan on the banks of the Nile. Just west of the village is a necropolis on a slightly elevated area just on the edge of the desert. This location is about 7 km (4 miles) north of Saqqara. It is a small, relatively unknown pyramid field containing only two unfinished pyramids and nothing at all else. The most advanced, older of these two pyramids is called the Layer Pyramid by Egyptologists and Haram el-Meduwara, or the "Round Pyramid", by locals. The other pyramid is simply referred to as the "Unfinished Pyramid of Zawiyet el-Aryan".
The Layer Pyramid
The pyramid was first examined by Perring in 1839, who described it but did little else. It was also mentioned in a Lepsius expedition report. It was also examined by Maspero and later still by Morgan, who found the descending entrance passageway in 1896. However, no real investigation took place until around 1900, when Alexandre Barsanti, an Italian artist, restorer and archaeologist, became interested in the structure. He had already carried out excavation on the nearby pyramid of Unas at Saqqara. Later still, George Reisner and C. Fisher also investigated the pyramid, but neither he nor Barsanti completed their projects, and details between the two archaeologists, such as measurements, are contradicting. Furthermore, this area today lies within a military zone and so cannot be further investigated at this time.
Most of this pyramid has never really been investigated at all. A structure to the east of the pyramid on the edge of the desert may have been a valley temple associated with the pyramid. Locals call it el-gamal el-barek, or the "Recumbent Camel". However, if it was the valley temple, it would have been the first complex where this component was oriented east-west.
Just east of the pyramid are the remains of brick walls that may have been a mortuary temple, but nothing apparently can be determined from these ruins at this time.
This pyramid was built using the accretion layer method with 14 accretions, and the core was probably between five and seven steps. It is too damaged to really say for sure. Each accretion layer had a dressed outer face, with coarser masonry backing. This was all bonded with a thick, clay mortar. The pyramid actually started out as a step pyramid and if casing was ever applied to the structure, none of it has ever been found. This is why Egyptologists actually believe the pyramid was never finished. Interestingly, considerable mudbrick has been found about the pyramid, which led Reisner to formulate the idea that the pyramid had actually been cased in mudbrick, rather then limestone. Most modern Egyptologists, however, disagree with his theory. They believe that the bricks were used for construction ramps, that were never removed when work was halted on the pyramid.
The entrance to the pyramid substructure is located near the northeast corner of the pyramid in a trench. A steep staircase leads to a westward oriented rough, descending corridor, that in turn terminates at the northwest axis of the pyramid with a vertical shaft. At the base of the shaft, there is a U shaped corridor. On one of its sides, their is no less then 32 storage annexes intended for the burial equipment.
Another corridor leads directly to a burial chamber that is located exactly under the vertical axis of the pyramid. However, this corridor is small, and apparently it would have been difficult if not impossible to move any decent sized sarcophagus through it to the burial chamber. In fact, there was no sarcophagus found in the burial chamber, nor evidence of any burial.
A mastaba near the pyramid, designated Z-500, contained eight alabaster vessels with the name of Khaba, a 3rd Dynasty King. Therefore, the pyramid has been tentatively associated with this king, first, by Reisner and Fisher. However, others, and specifically Nabil Swwelim, believe that it might belong to Neferka, another 3rd Dynasty ruler, though this theory has now largely been contracticted. One way or another, Egyptologists believe that it probably dates to about the second half of the 3rd Dynasty, because of its location between the pyramids of Sekhemkhet's pyramid and that of Snofru's at Meidum. Also, the substructure of this pyramid is so very similar to the pyramid of Sekhemkhet that it must have been built very near in time to his.
Unfinished Pyramid of Zawiyet el-Aryan
Even less is know about the Unfinished Pyramid at Zawiyet el-Aryan then about the layered pyramid. It is probably a 4th dynasty pyramid, and it has been speculated that it was built by a king who ruled between the reigns of Khafre and Menkaure, but only for a very brief time. He may have been overlooked by the king lists. Fragmentary inscriptions have been found that might indicate a name such as Nebka, or Wehemka, but they are difficult to read and may refer to a Baka who was also known as Nebkare or Beufre, the Bicheris on Manetho's king list. At any rate, the work on this pyramid probably ended after only one year.
If finished, the pyramid would have been very nearly the size of Khafre's pyramid. Walls near the pyramid, made of fieldstone and clay, or similar to those found round the Giza pyramids. Within, a long, sloping corridor leads to a shaft about 21 meters (69 feet) deep. The bottom of the shaft was paved with huge blocks of granite and limestone. There was a massive granite sarcophagus in the form of an oval tub, with an intact cover, but no body within.
Qatar Son 333
July 17th, 2009, 01:12 AM
There are a total of 14 pyramids at this site, which served as the main royal necropolis during the Fifth dynasty. The quality of construction of the Abusir pyramids is inferior to those of the Fourth Dynasty; perhaps signalling a decrease in royal power or a less vibrant economy. They are smaller than their predecessors, and are built of low quality local stone.
The three major pyramids are those of Nyuserre Ini (which is also the most intact), Neferirkare and Sahure. The site is also home to the incomplete Pyramid of Neferefre. All of the major pyramids at Abusir were built as step pyramids, although the largest of them — the Pyramid of Neferirkare — is believed to have originally been built as a step pyramid some seventy metres in height and then later transformed into a "true" pyramid by having its steps filled in with loose masonry.
Pyramid of Neferirkare Kakai is the second pyramid to be built at the necropolis site of Abusir, south of the Giza plateau, in Egypt. The pyramid of Neferirkare is the tallest of all pyramids constructed in Ancient Egypt during its Fifth Dynasty.
Although incomplete at the time of pharaoh Neferirkare Kakai's death, the pyramid nevertheless reached a height of 70 metres in its original state, and even now stands some 50 metres high, despite significant deterioration in its external structure.
His pyramid complex was the first built at the new royal burial ground at Abusir a few kilometres north of Saqqara (though Userkaf had probably already built his solar temple there) and marks the decline of pyramid building, both in terms of size and quality, though many of the surviving fragments of reliefs which decorated the temple walls of both Sahure's and other Fifth Dynasty's kings are of high quality.
Because of the premature death of Neferefre, his successor hastily completed work on Neferefre's pyramid at Abusir, which acquired the form of a mastaba. Although it may share the same resemblance to a mastaba tomb, it is not situated north-south, and it is not rectangular in shape, but square on all sides. Known as the "Unfinished Pyramid", it stands just seven meters high, but from the constructed portions, the walls slope at a 64º angle. Similarly to other sites of other Ancient Egyptian pyramids, the burial site of Neferefre contains more than one pyramid, and his lines up the three pyramids, similarly to the Great Pyramids. Artifacts found at the site show that the name of his pyramid was called "Divine is Neferefre's Power." All the other buildings of Neferefre's mortuary complex were erected under the reign of his brother, Nyuserre Ini. While exploring ruins of the mortuary complex, a Czech archaeological expedition discovered papyri of temple accounts, statues of the king, decorated plates and many seal prints. Pieces of mummy wrappings and bones were also found, which were discovered to be the remains of Neferefre. An anthropological analysis of his mummy reveals the king to have died in his early twenties, at between 20 and 23 years old. This evidence accords well for a king who died relatively soon into his reign and left an unfinished tomb.
Qatar Son 333
July 17th, 2009, 12:44 PM
Going to saqqara today =D
Qatar Son 333
July 18th, 2009, 11:23 AM
At Saqqara, the oldest complete hewn-stone building complex known in history was built: Djoser's step pyramid, built during the third dynasty. 16 other Egyptian kings have built pyramids at Saqqara, which are now in various states of preservation or dilapidation. High officials have added private funeral monuments to this necropolis during the entire pharaonic period. It remained an important complex for non-royal burials and cult ceremonies for more than 3,000 years, well into Ptolemaic and Roman times.
North of the area known as Saqqara lies Abusir; south lies Dahshur. The area running from Giza to Dahshur has been used as necropolis by the inhabitants of Memphis at different times, and it has been designated als a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979.
Pyramid of Djoser
The Pyramid of Djoser (Zoser), or step pyramid (kbhw-ntrw in Egyptian) is an archeological remain in the Saqqara necropolis, Egypt, northwest of the city of Memphis. It was built for the burial of Pharaoh Djoser by his vizier Imhotep, during the 27th century BC. It is the central feature of a vast mortuary complex in an enormous courtyard surrounded by ceremonial structures and decoration.
This first Egyptian pyramid consisted of six mastabas (of decreasing size) built atop one another in what were clearly revisions and developments of the original plan. The pyramid originally stood 62 meters tall, and having a base of 109 x 125 m and was clad in polished white limestone. The step pyramid (or proto-pyramid) is considered to be the earliest large-scale stone construction, although the nearby enclosure known as Gisr el-mudir would seem to predate the complex.
The only entrance to the complex was through the mortuary temple in the south eastern corner. From an antechamber one passes between stone block walls built in the shape of large open doors into the hypostyle hall with two rows of tapered stone columns carved to resemble papyrus bundles. A modern roof has been placed at the same height as the original roof. This hall leads into the great court.
I have been there yesterday myself :D yaay , the following pictures are taken by me ;)
The temple (also the only entrance...)
This is how the temple looks like when you enter the complex
The Pyramid !!!! AHHH see how magnificent it is ! Masha2allah its awesome and notice the conservation and preservation efforts !! they are fixing the bases of the pyramid and its face so we dont loose this masterpeice of human civilisation.
These are other pyramids visible from the site. (i will insha2allah post about these soon)
i have other pictures, i will post them when the internet connection is not so bad
Qatar Son 333
July 18th, 2009, 11:25 AM
EEK !!! Thats too big =O hmm. i wonder how to fix that...
July 18th, 2009, 11:32 AM
WOW WOW, thats very very very interesting info. Thanks Qatari Son
Keep up the pace...
July 18th, 2009, 11:37 AM
Hey try to make the last photos smaller...you screwed the whole thread...
there's an option to use bulletin boards size images in imageshak I guess, just use i.
July 22nd, 2009, 05:38 AM
Qatar Son 333
July 22nd, 2009, 02:21 PM
Your welcome XP and Custom minds
I am working on the oversized image problem right now :D
August 26th, 2009, 01:05 PM
Indeed, a great thread about Pyramids; the Pyramids of Egupt (Cairo) are indeed one of the seven wonders of the world, truly awesome structures :cheers:
September 4th, 2009, 12:28 AM
Nice shots man, I love the area around Saqqara & Memphis all the luch palm plantations bordering the desert :cheers:
August 30th, 2010, 02:55 AM
September 23rd, 2010, 09:30 AM
I just love this thread....am so fascinated with the ancient pyramids, hope to visit someday.....:)
October 10th, 2010, 12:55 AM
nice ! i like also the lights by night
November 26th, 2010, 01:45 PM
Keep updating this thread, as a amateur egyptologist I have special interest in updated photos from Egypt amazing heritage
November 26th, 2010, 05:36 PM
Guys, here is my question posed to you, i will say if its true or not but only after a request.
Without making reasearch, i'm calling you to think without cheating. No google or searching monitor please...
What has brought our ancient civilisation to build a huge skycraper with rocks? Why did they do it with rocks? What is the meaning of the rock for the Pharaonic culture?
November 27th, 2010, 06:55 PM
No Idea, but from my school memory.
In the past when important people died they wanted to mark there grave. and so it started with stone and then they found if they had a stone for every grave they wont tell the difference. then they added two stones and so on. until they built these pyramids and you can even tell, you don't usually find pyramids with the same size.
I have no clue that's right but I'll be glad to know the reason :D
PS That story was told to me by my history teach in Egypt :)
November 28th, 2010, 03:43 AM
It was -4000 ago when the Pharaonic culture interdised the construction of buildings with rocks because it was ''sacred and had a important meaning for the religion. Why would it be ''sacred'' ? The rock was the only proven source at the time showing the eternity and the conservation. In fact, you may live a long and eternal life only after being purified by the mommification. Yes you have the part of the answer on why they wanted to build the pyramid. Mostly because they wanted to build something at the highest point to prove how strong he was (Pharaon). I'm still studying these things for a more precised view. But yeah, i'm thinking of studying the Egyptologia or the international affaire (Politic)
January 3rd, 2011, 03:45 AM
Happy New Year 2011 to SSC Friends of Egypt !
Please enjoy the song "Beauty" sung from China's well - known singer Peng Liyuan one evening in 2006 in front of Great Pyramids
- The time of Sino-Egypt establishing diplomatic relations 50th anniversary ... It also reminds my pleasant memories in Cairo and Great Pyramids ..........
January 5th, 2011, 12:43 PM
^^ Really interesting, thanks for sharing it
January 5th, 2011, 07:07 PM
Venezuelan tourists watch a partial solar eclipse in front of the Giza Pyramids in Egypt on Tuesday, Jan. 4, 2011.
July 11th, 2011, 09:07 AM
July 11th, 2011, 04:34 PM
i love this thread..very informative.more pictures and articles please.thank you...:)
July 11th, 2011, 04:37 PM
^^the pyramid complex is in my "must visit before i die list"...just beautiful.:okay:
July 11th, 2011, 04:39 PM
Thanks for passing by everyone :)
You can find more of the Great Pyramids of Giza in this thread :)
July 11th, 2011, 05:00 PM
^^thanks for the link...:okay: