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Old September 10th, 2010, 04:13 AM   #1
Chadoh25
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Cincinnati, Ohio.

Over-the-Rhine, sometimes shortened to OTR, is a neighborhood in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is believed to be the largest, most intact urban historic district in the United States. Over-the-Rhine was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983 with 943 contributing buildings. It contains the largest collection of Italianate architecture in the United States, and is an example of an intact 19th century urban neighborhood. Its architectural significance has been compared to the French Quarter in New Orleans, the historic districts of Savannah, Georgia and Charleston, South Carolina, and Greenwich Village in New York City. Besides being a historic district, the neighborhood has an arts community that is unparalleled within Cincinnati.

Built in the nineteenth century during a period of extensive German immigration, by the end of the twentieth century Over-the-Rhine had become notorious in Cincinnati as a poor, crime-ridden black ghetto. In 2001 Reason Magazine dubbed it "ground zero in inner-city decline." Since the late 1970s, advocates for historic preservation and low-income housing have struggled over how to preserve the neighborhood without causing mass displacement of the poor. In the 1980s social activists gained federal subsidies to create thousands of low-income housing units in the neighborhood. In the late 1990s a section of Main Street was redeveloped into a premier nightlife destination, but continuing social problems fed race riots in 2001 and escalating violent crime, which drove visitors away. In 2006, the National Trust for Historic Preservation listed Over-the-Rhine as one of America's Most Endangered Places due to "rampant crime, reluctance of investors to commit to renewal and renovation, and an increasing pattern of demolition as authorities seek to address public safety concerns."

The high concentration of low-income housing in Over-the-Rhine exacerbated disinvestment, poverty, and high crime. Nearly two of every three homes are vacant or used by squatters. The bankruptcy of the largest low-income housing landlord enabled the city to encourage a new style of mixed-income development. In 2008 a local news agency reported a "revival in Over-the-Rhine" due to reinvestment, as well as crime reduction in all categories. Today young urban professionals are moving into high-end condos along Vine Street. Hundreds of millions of dollars have been invested in renovating historic buildings, as well as constructing new buildings over empty lots. The rapid pace of development has reignited a decades-old debate over the gentrification of Over-the-Rhine. Low-income and homeless advocates complain that the development is meant to push them out of the neighborhood. The redeveloped areas enjoy low crime, but the undeveloped areas of poverty still battle higher crime—largely in the form of illegal drug trade, violence, and prostitution.

Over-the-Rhine has been called Cincinnati's most dangerous neighborhood, and, according to one controversial study, the most dangerous neighborhood in the United States. The neighborhood has a polarizing effect on locals, who are either highly enthusiastic about the redevelopment or believe the area and its residents are beyond repair. Since 2004 hundreds of millions of dollars have been invested in revitalization projects, and since 2006, the number of crimes has decreased each year. Over-the-Rhine is bordered by the neighborhoods of Downtown, CUF, Mount Auburn, Pendleton, and the West End.

Etymology

The neighborhood's distinctive name comes from its builders and early residents, German immigrants of the mid-19th century. Many walked to work across bridges over the Miami and Erie Canal, which separated the area from downtown Cincinnati. The canal was nicknamed "the Rhine" in reference to the Rhine River in Germany, and the newly settled area north of the canal as "Over the Rhine."

History

German neighborhood

An early reference to the canal as "the Rhine" appears in the 1853 book White, Red, Black, in which traveler Ferenc Pulszky wrote, "The Germans live all together across the Miami Canal, which is, therefore, here jocosely called the 'Rhine.'" In 1875 writer Daniel J. Kenny referred to the area exclusively as "Over the Rhine." He noted, "Germans and Americans alike love to call the district 'Over the Rhine.'" The canal no longer exists, but was located at what is now Central Parkway.

The revolutions of 1848 in the German states brought thousands of German refugees to the United States. In Cincinnati they settled on the outskirts of the city, north of Miami and Erie Canal where there were an abundance of cheap rental units. Until the city annexed the land in 1849 the city's northern border was inside this immigrant area. The border road was called Liberty Street because it separated the city from the outlying land, called "Northern Liberties," which was not subject to municipal law. Thus along with immigrants it attracted a concentration of bootleggers, saloons, gambling houses, dance halls, brothels, and others who were not tolerated in the city of Cincinnati.

In 1850 approximately 60 percent of Over-the-Rhine's population consisted of immigrants from German states, including Prussia, Bavaria, and Saxony. The neighborhood soon took on a "German" character influenced by its majority of residents. The new immigrants brought a variety of customs, habits, attitudes, and dialects of the German language. Their range of religions, occupations, and classes characterized the Over-the-Rhine German community for the rest of the century. The community was served by several German newspapers, including the Volksfreund, Volksblatt, and the Freie Presse.

German entrepreneurs gradually built up a profitable brewing industry, which became identified with Over-the-Rhine and the city. The brewing industry was concentrated along McMicken Avenue and the Miami and Erie canal with the Jackson Brewery, J. G. John & Sons Brewery, Christian Moerlein Brewing Company, and John Kauffman Brewing Company in this area, and John Hauck and Windisch-Mulhauser Brewing Companies across the canal in the West End. By 1880 Cincinnati was recognized as the "Beer Capital of the World," with Over-the-Rhine its center of brewing.


Wielert's, one of Over-the-Rhine's most popular beer gardens, in 1875.During the nineteenth century, most Cincinnatians regarded Over-the-Rhine as the city's premier entertainment district. The author of Illustrated Cincinnati (1875) noted, "London has its Greenwich, Paris its Bois [de Boulogne], Vienna its Prater, Brussels its Arcade and Cincinnati its 'Over the Rhine.'" Over-the-Rhine was recommended for the visitor "bent on pleasure and a holiday." The description continued:

"[T]here is nothing like it in Europe—no transition so sudden, so pleasant, and so easily effected. ... There is nothing comparable to the completeness of the change brought about by stepping across the canal. The visitor leaves behind him at almost a single step the rigidity of the American, the everlasting hurry and worry of the insatiate race for wealth, the inappeasable thirst of Dives, and enters at once into the borders of people more readily happy, more readily contented, more easily pleased, far more closely wedded to music and the dance, to the song, and life in the bright, open air."

Before Cincinnati's incline system was built in the 1870s, which allowed development of residential areas on the hills, the city's population density was 32,000 people per square mile. By contrast, in 2000 Cincinnati's population density was 3,879.8 people per square mile. Horsecars were the chief transportation, but could not be used on the steep hills. Cincinnati's new incline system opened the surrounding hills for settlement, but only for those who could afford the property and demand for new housing was high.

Throughout the nineteenth century, residents of the city suffered epidemics of cholera, small pox, and typhoid fever. These were often spread by travelers on the many steamboats on the river, and through the water supply because of poor sanitation. The epidemics killed thousands in Cincinnati alone, and created panic in the population. Before medicine understood how such diseases were spread, many people believed that vapor from the canal caused malaria. (The association of disease with the canal was used in later arguments for converting it for use as a subway and parkway.) In addition to overcrowding and disease, those who lived in the river basin suffered from flooding, open sewers, and polluting industrial smoke. Those who could afford to relocate to the new suburbs in the surrounding hills did so.


Christian Moerlein Brewery around the turn of the 20th century.The neighborhood, and upper Vine Street in particular, consisted of numerous saloons, restaurants, shooting galleries, arcades, gambling dens, dance halls, burlesque halls, and theaters. Starting in the 1840s, the number of saloons in the area grew steadily. The number of saloons on the main streets in 1890 ranged from 34 on Court Street up to 136 on Vine Street. Nearly 20 years after its favorable review, the 1893 edition of Illustrated Cincinnati noted, "All or nearly all the leading characteristics [of Over-the-Rhine] which won for it the appellation have passed away. ... The only thing this section of the city is now noted for besides noisy concert and drinking halls and cheap theaters is the great breweries, for which Cincinnati has become so renowned."

At the turn of the 20th century, the neighborhood population reached a peak of 45,000 residents, with the proportion of German-Americans estimated at 75%. By 1915 the more prosperous people left the dense city for the suburbs. They were not replaced in as great numbers because new immigrants were attracted to fast-growing industrial cities in the Great Lakes region. Over-the-Rhine became one of several old and declining neighborhoods that formed a ring of slums around the central business district. Many people thought Over-the-Rhine would eventually disappear, swallowed up by the city's growing business district.

Economic Decline

The canal, facing east toward the Elm Street bridge, before it was drained in 1920.Many German-Americans felt a sense of pride for their homeland; they celebrated early victories by Germany during World War I. Cincinnati's German language newspapers, the Volksblatt and the Freie Presse were especially vocal. As the likelihood of the United States entering the war increased, the pro-German rhetoric of Cincinnati's German-American population angered some Americans, especially "nativists" who distrusted whether the ethnic Germans were loyal to the United States. After the US entered the war, anti-German sentiment increased across the country.

In 1917, the year the United States declared war on Germany, half of the city's residents could speak German, and many could speak only German. The community had organized German schools and frequently held religious services in German at many churches. In 1918, the government required German men who had not become naturalized citizens to register as alien enemies. The New York Times reported, "When one spoke of going 'over the Rhine,' as the canal was called, he meant that he was disappearing into a realm where all English was left behind." The city passed an ordinance to change all German street names in the city. In Over-the-Rhine, Bremen Street was changed to Republic and Hanover became Yukon Street. As happened in some other areas of the country with numerous ethnic Germans, the state closed German-language schools, dismissed teachers of German, and banned German-language classes from all public schools. The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County withdrew all German books from its shelves. Many German Americans anglicized their names out of fear of persecution. Some businesses with German names changed them to survive the anti-war sentiment. Cincinnati's German heritage continued to be suppressed until after World War II, a war in which Germany again was opposed by the United States and Great Britain.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Over-the-Rhine


http://www.findlaymarket.org/index.htm

Sept 8, 2010 9:45 a.m.































Race Street

























Elm Street











More to come later....
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Last edited by Chadoh25; September 11th, 2010 at 11:17 PM.
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Old September 10th, 2010, 04:24 AM   #2
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It looks very nice! Loved the 2nd pic.
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Old September 10th, 2010, 04:33 AM   #3
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Thanks!

West McMicken Avenue. Phillippus Kirche.







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Old September 10th, 2010, 05:06 AM   #4
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those are charming old buildings specially those with plants on the windows.
just wondering why there's not so many people on the streets taking into account
that Cincinnati is a big city.
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Old September 10th, 2010, 05:31 AM   #5
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Quote:
Originally Posted by DWest View Post
those are charming old buildings specially those with plants on the windows.
just wondering why there's not so many people on the streets taking into account
that Cincinnati is a big city.
The market didn't open till about 10:00 a.m. and I arrived around 9:30 a.m. But by 10:15 you start to see more people.
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Old September 10th, 2010, 11:23 AM   #6
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Amazing, very nice photos from Cincinnati city, Chad
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Old September 11th, 2010, 06:34 AM   #7
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This is the first time I see photos of the city and it looks great.
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Old September 11th, 2010, 08:02 PM   #8
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Thanks all!!!

Mehr von Über den Rhein/ More from Over the Rhine

Prince of Peace Lutheran Church/ Der Friedensfürst Lutherisch Kirche, 1528 Race Street/Straße





Race Street



Saint Francis Seraph Church, Vine and Liberty Streets





St. John German Potestant Church, Elm Street/ 'Deutsche Protestantische St. Johannes-kirche, Elm Straße



Memorial Hall, Elm Street





Elm Street



Music Hall, Elm Street











more to come!

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Old September 11th, 2010, 08:21 PM   #9
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Great historic buildings!
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Old September 11th, 2010, 11:01 PM   #10
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Mr Bricks View Post
Great historic buildings!
Thanks! Cincy is blessed in that respect!

Downtown as seen from Covington Kentucky.








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Old September 12th, 2010, 03:30 AM   #11
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Covington, Kentucky

Covington is a city in Kenton County, Kentucky, United States. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 43,370; it is the fifth-most-populous city in Kentucky. It is one of two county seats of Kenton County. Covington is located at the confluence of the Ohio and Licking Rivers. Covington is part of the Cincinnati – Northern Kentucky metropolitan area and is separated from Cincinnati by the Ohio River and from Newport by the Licking River. Covington is located within the Upland South region of the United States of America.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Covington,_Kentucky

West 6th Street



Mutter Gottes Kirche, Erbauet von den Deutschen Katholiken in Covington, 1842.

























Next stop, OTR and Downtown Ciny

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Old September 12th, 2010, 04:05 AM   #12
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Downtown Covington, Kentucky

Madison Avenue







































West Pike Street




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Old September 12th, 2010, 04:21 AM   #13
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Had to get my coffee fix at the Starbucks in the old German National Bank building at Fourth and Vine













Next, OTR

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Old September 12th, 2010, 08:22 AM   #14
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love those old buildings!
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Old September 12th, 2010, 05:14 PM   #15
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Must be one of the most well preserved downtowns in the USA.
In some places it looks more Dutch then American.
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Old September 12th, 2010, 11:09 PM   #16
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Over-the-Rhine is indeed a wonderful gem.
Part of that Race Street (with trees on the sidewide) has almost
the same ambience with a part of Vancouver's Gastown.
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Old September 13th, 2010, 02:19 AM   #17
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Thanks all, I'm happy to hear you enjoy my little tour of my state's third largest city!

Over-The-Rhine.

Above Vine Street















Vine Street

















































Back to Downtown......

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Old September 13th, 2010, 03:47 AM   #18
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Wow, these are some great images..The pixels and all..I know you had to use a professional camera. Did you use a professional camera.

Also, the streets and the overall theme, looks like new orleans downtown, like the lights, the buildings and businesses so close together. I am sure during the holidays, it is jumping!

I like it!
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Old September 13th, 2010, 03:34 PM   #19
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wow...great work
i love when people call it "cincy"
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Old September 14th, 2010, 02:12 AM   #20
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@ Solarbatterycharger, nope, I just used my regular camera that I got from Wal-Mart for $65.


Downtown





















































More to come.....
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