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Old February 21st, 2005, 10:02 AM   #1
Liang1a
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Technology and Scientific development of China

First posted to the China Resurgent Forum on Feb. 21, 2005 at the following link:

http://www.network54.com/Forum/threa...&lp=1108971941

===================================================

A new hydrogen storage for fuel cell: hydrogen clathrate hydrate.

A new method for storing hydrogen for fuel cell had been proposed in the last year by a father-daughter team of David and Wendy Mao who are probably ethnic Chinese who are visiting scientist and graduate student respectively at the Geophysical Sciences of the University of Chicago. In early 2004 they have synthesized something called hydrogen clathrate hydrate which can be used to store hydrogen molecules in much the same way as metal hydrides. But whereas the metal hydrides are very heavy the watery hydrate is much lighter. It was estimated that a 300 kg metal hydride storage system will store about 6 kg of hydrogen or about 2% by weight. The hydrogen clathrate hydrate is much lighter and hence much more efficient in being able to store some 6% by weight of hydrogen. That is, a 120 kg hydrogen clathrate hydrate storage system could store the same 6 kg of hydrogen thus reducing the weight of the storage system by some 60%.

For those who are not chemists or chemical engineers let me first explain a few terms:

Hydrate: A hydrate is defined as a solid compound which contains water molecules as an integral part of the crystal lattice. Loosely speaking anything solid that contains water molecules is a hydrate. For example, clay is considered a hydrate because it contains water molecules chemically combined in its crystal.

Clathrate: A clathrate is a compound that consists of two parts. The first part is a crystal lattice or a system of cells that are made from a certain kind of molecules. The second part is a number of particles that fill the cells. Because of this combination of cells and things contained in the cells, a clathrate is also called a host-guest complex.

In the case of the hydrogen clathrate hydrate, the lattice system of cells are made of water crystals. The things contained in the cells are hydrogen molecules. Since water is made of hydrogen and oxygen which are much lighter than such metals as sodium and aluminum, clathrate hydrate is a much lighter and hence much more efficient storage medium than sodium aluminum hydride.

Although clathrate hydrate is much lighter than hydrides, it also has advantages over other hydrogen storage systems such as gaseous hydrogen tanks which require extremely high pressure or liquid hydrogen which require extremely low temperature. Hydrogen clathrate hydrate as synthesized by the Mao team can be stable at -320 degrees Fahrenheit and ambient pressure.

In late 2004 a team of scientists have found a way to improve the performing characteristics of hydrogen clathrate hydrate which contains only molecular hydrogen in the cells of the clathrate. They found that by filling some of the bigger cells with a chemical called tetrahydrofuran, whose chemical formula is C4H8O, the whole system is more stable and less likely to collapse than when the cells are all filled only with hydrogen molecules. This new form of clathrate hydrate can be stable at the pressure of 720 psi (pound per square inch) and the temperature of 6.85 degrees Celsius.

Tetrahydrofuran is called a promoter.

Clathrate with promoter: 720 psi +6.85 degrees Celsius;
Clathrate without promoter: 14.7 psi -196 degrees Celsius.

My information on this storage method is still scratchy. Anybody with more information are encouraged to share it with us. I also have some questions about this storage method. How is the hydrogen clathrate hydrate formed? It was given that the Mao team had created some hydrogen clathrate hydrate in a diamond anvil with pressures as high as 20,000 to 30,000 atmospheres. At some 15 psi per atmosphere, this is as much as 45,000 psi. Also what happened after the hydrogen molecules have been extracted? Can gaseous hydrogen molecules be pumped in to re-occupy the vacated cells? Or is it necessary to make a new batch of hydrogen clathrate hydrate? I think it would be much simpler if new hydrogen can be pumped in to fill the hydrogen tank.

In the long term I hope the clathrate hydrate could be evolved into some kind of jello-like substance that could be stable at the ambient pressure and temperature. Since there is no special requirement for high pressure and low temperature, the tank can be a low tech tank that could cost no more than a gasoline tank or less. A fill up would then consist of pumping hydrogen gas into the tank which would then quickly diffuse into the jello-like substance and occupy all the empty cells of the clathrate. To extract the hydrogen some heat could be applied to loosen the hydrogen out of the cells. Or maybe even some electric current could be applied to extract just the right amount of hydrogen.

In considering all types of possible storage methods for hydrogen, my preference is still for the pressurized gas tank. A safe tank with pressure up to 10,000 psi has already been developed which would permit the storage of some 6 kg of hydrogen gas that is good for some 300 miles or more of operation of a 100 kw fuel cell car. The weight percent of the hydrogen stored as a percentage of the tank is quite favorable at some 6% or more. Please see my post on the 10,000 psi hydrogen gas tank at the following link:

http://www.network54.com/Forum/threa...&lp=1086002819

Another hydrogen storage method is using nanotubes. Unfortunately, I haven’t heard any significant improvements that would make nanotubes a competitive storage method for hydrogen. Maybe more R&D in the future will find a way to store large amount of hydrogen by means of nanotubes. Meanwhile I think hydrogen gas tanks at 10,000 psi or more are already good enough for ordinary fuel cell cars in terms of cost and operational characteristics.

For those who wish to read more about hydrogen clathrate hydrate, please go to the following links:

About the Mao team’s hydrogen clathrate hydrate

http://chronicle.uchicago.edu/040122/hydrogen.shtml

Abut the promoter tetrahydrofuran

http://www.fuelcellsworks.com/Supppage1709.html

About clathrate hydrate

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clathrate_hydrate

Clathrate compound

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clathrate

To read more about my posts on fuel cell cars, please go to the following links:

http://www.network54.com/Forum/threa...&lp=1083227237

Or browse the China Resurgent Forum at the following link:

http://www.network54.com/Forum/238054

=============================================
This article may be re-posted provided attribution of source is given.
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Old February 24th, 2005, 08:35 AM   #2
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New advancement in fuel cell membrane technology: hydrocarbon membrane.

First posted to the China Resurgent Forum on Feb. 21, 2005 at the following link:

http://www.network54.com/Forum/threa...&lp=1109060002

===============================================
New advancement in fuel cell membrane technology: hydrocarbon membrane.

It was announced in recent months that a company called PolyFuel has developed a number of new membranes for fuel cell. This new type of membrane is based on hydrocarbon instead of perfluorinated carbon which is typified by Du Pont’s Nafion. The difference is that in hydrocarbon membrane the membrane is composed of chains of carbon with hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon atom. In the perfluorinated carbon, the same carbon chains have the hydrogen atoms replaced by fluorine atoms.

It was estimated by PolyFuel that a fuel cell with 100 kw of output requires an amount of per fluorinated membrane that would cost some $5,000.00. Scientific American in an article in the March issue of 2005 estimated that the cost of hydrocarbon membrane would be about half of that of perfluorinated membrane. This means as it stands today the cost of membrane for a 100 kw fuel cell would be only $2,500.00. It is likely that with further research new techniques of production will be found to reduce the cost of hydrocarbon membrane even further. It was also estimated by the Scientific American article the cost of the membrane is some 35% of the total cost of the fuel cell. If this ratio holds true after the reduction in the cost of the membrane, then the cost of a 100 kw fuel cell would only cost some $7,500.00 This is only a few thousand dollars more than the cost of a comparable gasoline engine. (The power output of a 100 kw fuel cell is equal to 134 horsepower of a gasoline engine.)

PolyFuel also gave other advantages of hydrocarbon membrane over the old perfluorinated membrane. The hydrocarbon membrane is 2 times as strong, 16 times as stiff, 4 times less permeable to hydrogen, and 15% more power output. With these advantages a fuel cell made with hydrocarbon membrane will be able to operate in much more punishing conditions and last much longer than a fuel cell made with the old perfluorinated membrane. And the 15% more power output will also translate into lower cost of the fuel cell unit in addition to the reduction in cost due to the lower manufacturing cost because 15% less membrane need be used for the same power output. This means the $2,500.00 estimated above can be reduced another 15% to $2,125.00 for 100 kw of output. The less permeability of hydrogen means less hydrogen fuel will be lost due to migration through the membrane. This will mean more mileage for each kilogram of hydrogen “burned” which in turn means lower operating cost of a fuel cell vehicle as well as higher mileage per tankful of hydrogen. In other words, a fuel cell car made with perfluorinated membrane that would have gone 300 miles on a tankful of hydrogen can now go almost 350 miles on the same tankful of hydrogen. It seems the ability to drive more than 300 miles on a tankful of hydrogen is a strict condition for fuel cell cars. With such power improvement this condition can now be met with ease.

In addition to the above advantages over the perfluorinated membrane, the hydrocarbon membrane has additional advantages over the perfluorinated membrane in that it is able to operate at 35% relative humidity and 95 degrees Celsius temperature. The lower humidity means less need to maintain high humidity conditions which would have required more components such as blowers and other equipment to maintain high humidity.

The fact that hydrocarbon membrane can tolerate temperature up to 95 degrees Celsius means that there is cost savings through the elimination of parts and components to keep the fuel cell cool. It also enable stable operation in more extreme conditions such as sustained high power output when climbing a long and steep grade or in hot desert summers.

In addition to the ability to tolerate high temperature the hydrocarbon membrane is also able to function in cold temperature so that fuel cell cars can be driven reliably in the cold high latitude winters.

All of the above characteristics translate into a fuel cell that is more dependable and rugged and can function in more severe environmental conditions from desert heat to arctic cold more economically. It also means a fuel cell that can be much lighter and less bulky which would allow more room and more power to carry passengers instead of the fuel cell.

While it is obvious that the current cost of hydrocarbon membrane still makes a fuel cell car too expensive to compete against gasoline engine cars, yet it is also very clear that the difference is not that much any more. Furthermore it is clear that many advancements are being made to make fuel cell cars a practical reality in the not too distant future. In the end, the greatest obstacles to fuel cell cars and hydrogen industry are not the technologies of the fuel cell but the inertia of the mentality of the people which is afraid of change and the self-interest of the oil industry which wants to safeguard their source of income.

As for China’s economic future, it is obvious that it could not achieve a high standard of living for the Chinese people if its cars are fueled by gasoline. Only by going to the fuel cell and the hydrogen industry can China’s economic future be assured. Literally, whether the 21st century can be the Chinese Century depends on whether fuel cell technologies can be advanced enough to give the Chinese people an economical means of transportation.

To read more about hydrocarbon membranes, please go to the following links:

http://www.polyfuel.com/pressroom/press_pr_100504.html

http://www.polyfuel.com

http://www.polyfuel.com/technology/hydrogen.html

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Old June 3rd, 2005, 04:27 PM   #3
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ZTE opens US HQ

China's largest listed telecommunications manufacturer and leading wireless solutions provider, has announced Wednesday the opening of its new U.S. corporate headquarters in Dallas, Texas.
The new office will support ZTE¡¯s long-established research and development (R&D) centers in New Jersey, Dallas and San Diego and signifies the corporation¡¯s commitment to its progress within the U.S. market.

Since 1998, ZTE¡¯s U.S. R&D centers have focused on three principal communications systems: VoIP, optical broadband access and wireless solutions, and have established ZTE as one of the leading manufacturers of WiMAX technology.

¡°From our center in San Diego we have continued to develop products and services for this market and our leading position in WiMAX technology is a result of this approach,¡± said James Jiang, president of ZiMAX Technologies, a wholly owned subsidiary of ZTE Corp. ¡°This new office will give us the centrally located organization that we need to progress in the U.S. market.¡±

Already in 2005, ZTE had signed partnership agreements with Qualcomm, Spirent and, in the WiMAX field, with Intel Corp. These agreements will see Intel and ZTE cooperate to develop and promote standards and specifications for 802.16-based networks.

¡°Intel and ZTE are both global players in their respective domains. This relationship is significant for global harmonization of WiMAX-based products,¡± added Jiang.

ZTE¡¯s concentration on the U.S. market continues next month with its major presence at Supercomm 2005, in Chicago.

The company had also been given an exclusive contract to build a nationwide fixed-line voice network for China Telecom Corp., The Standard reported.
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Old June 3rd, 2005, 04:28 PM   #4
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Related link: http://english.people.com.cn/200506/...03_188321.html
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Old June 5th, 2005, 09:27 AM   #5
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China's computerised plants challenges developed world's technological edge.

By Peter Marsh in London
Published: June 1 2005 21:56 | Last updated: June 1 2005 21:56

Companies are boosting efforts to equip their production lines in China with novel automation systems, adding to the country's competitive advantages in manufacturing, a report published on Thursday will warn.


The study says both foreign owned and local companies are putting more emphasis on computerising their plants to make them capable of making parts and finished goods in a greater range of variants than previously.

That way of working has up to now been associated mainly with factories in the developed world. These plants have been able to compensate partly for their higher costs using a greater amount of “customisation” of products than is generally possible in China.

In the past decade, manufacturers have greatly expanded their operations in China, often to take advantage of lower costs, but with most plants geared mainly to turning out mass-produced items.

“Companies in China are making strenuous efforts to automate, and this means the window of of opportunity that manufacturers in the developed countries now have [to use flexible production to their advantage] will not last for ever,” said Denis McCauley, director of global technology research at the Economist Intelligence Unit, a research group. Mr McCauley is the author of the report, which was produced in association with Sun Microsystems, a US computer company.

One company increasing its attempts to expand in this way in China is SMC, a Japanese company that is the world's biggest maker of devices to control the supply of compressed air used in industries from food processing to construction.

SMC makes its products in 540,000 varieties using computerised methods to ensure control devices are turned out to customers' orders. The production routes allow for small changes in the final stages of manufacturing so the products work in a way that fits in with the requirements of the user.

“There is a greater demand in the world generally for greater product customisation,” said Yoshiyuki Takada, SMC chairman.

He acknowledged that SMC's production which now takes place mainly in Japan will be switched more to other countries including China to take account of lower costs and also to be closer to cus-tomers.

Another manufacturer that works in this wayis UK-based AES Engineering, one of the world'sbiggest makers of mechanical seals used to stop liquids leaking out of pumping machinery and pipes. Using a computerised production system, AES can make its seals in 800m var-iants to suit requirements. It has 95 per cent of its production in the UK but is also looking to expand from two small plants in China and Brazil.

According to the EIU report, based on interviews with 143 production com-panies around the world, three-quarters of production businesses are looking to expand their automation systems to ensure products can be made more easily to fit in with customer needs.

While China is seeing a big rise in automation projects generally, manufac-turers expect to boost their spending on information technology systems in Asia, covering all aspects of their operations, by 13 per cent a year to 2008. That rate of growth is more than twice the amount envisaged in North America and Europe.

Related link: http://news.ft.com/cms/s/8f84a302-d2...00e2511c8.html
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Old June 5th, 2005, 01:54 PM   #6
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我觉得这样不好,潜在消灭了就业机会,中国已经那么多人没工作,仅有的一些还让机器人抢去了?
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Old June 21st, 2005, 07:02 PM   #7
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Protecting Intellectual Property in China

Stakes up in piracy fight
June 21, 2005


An official destroys pirate VCDs and DVDs as part of a Chongqing operation that saw 500,000 discs destroyed Monday. XINHUA

China is offering rewards of up to 300,000 yuan (HK$281,820) for tips on illegal video and audio factories to stamp out theft of intellectual property.

An IP piracy hotline came online as Beijing announced a further round in its campaign to combat piracy of movies, music and other copyrighted materials, China Daily reported.

It is not the first time authorities have paid such rewards - but the amounts have been increasing.

The latest rewards begin at 150,000 yuan for each illegal production line reported.

Eight government ministries are involved in the latest crackdown.

The government says it shut down 200 illegal CD and DVD production lines from 1994 to last year and paid more than 40 million yuan in rewards to informers during that time.

"The Chinese government's commitment to protecting intellectual property rights is very serious,'' the report quoted Liu Binjie, deputy head of the National Office for Cracking Down on Pornography and Piracy, as saying.

REUTERS
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Old June 21st, 2005, 08:15 PM   #8
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that's important,i think China will start the DECISIVE BATTLE with japanese,american and european companies on high tech sector in 10 years.

seem from the photo,i can't imagine how many workers there are in Chongqing from chinese countryside now.
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Old June 21st, 2005, 09:08 PM   #9
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Not that I support piracy but I believe people should realize the REAL reason why people pirate.

When given a chance or choice to do the right thing, majority of people would. This is why online music stores such as Apple's iTunes Music Store is so successful. However, spending 99 cents per song is still very expensive for most people, although it sure beats buying physical CDs especially when you can choose which tracks to buy.

A typical DVD movie costs US $20. That's about two hours of entertainment for $20, or $10 per hour, many people don't even make that much money in the U.S., now consider China, where things are generally cheaper but people also make less money. $20 is about 160 yuan, you can do A LOT with 160 yuan in China, a lot more than $20 in the U.S. at least.

What businesses should do is consider each market differently and stop overcharging people.
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Old June 22nd, 2005, 02:58 AM   #10
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Pangu
What businesses should do is consider each market differently and stop overcharging people.
Definately agree! Although, copying/ piracy is still illegal no matter what. I'm glad to see that the Chinese government is making more of an initiative to crackdown on such things.
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Old October 12th, 2005, 06:58 AM   #11
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神州新发布NOTE BOOK:神州10彩色版Q100

整体外形:脱胎换骨的感觉

如果你经常关注笔记本电脑动态,肯定知道神舟在上个月同2005年超级女声年度冠军李宇春签约的消息;肯定知道神舟近日发布了有史以来最炫的彩色笔记本——优雅Q系列。这次的优雅Q系列笔记本共有三个尺寸,分别是10寸宽屏的Q100系列、12寸Q200系列以及13寸宽屏的Q300系列,色彩方面也均采用了别具一格的苹果绿、阳光橙以及玛瑙红等几种青春靓丽的颜色,无论做工还是售价都给人们一种脱胎换骨的感觉。



我们从神舟经销商处了解到,目前市场上热卖的是10寸的神舟优雅Q100系列。配置方面,优雅Q100C该机采用超低电压版C-M处理器373(1.0GHz)、英特尔855GME芯片组、256MB内存、40GB硬盘、9mm超薄COMBO光驱、4000mAh锂电、重1.49Kg,售价9888元;而该系列高端型号为优雅Q100P,它采用超低电压版P-M处理器733(1.1GHz)、512MB内存、60GB硬盘、内置802.11b/g无线网卡,售价12888元。


一直以来,神舟笔记本电脑给人的感觉都是“低价杀手”,而优雅Q100赛扬版的机型上市价格也将近万元,可以说是神舟有史以来定价最高的机型了。那么,这款万元的优雅笔记本到底值不值得买呢?带着这些疑问,我们收到了厂商送测的Q100C。在正式评测文章出来之前,我们还是先来看看优雅Q100C的清晰图吧。
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恰-問-隻-彫----故-小-往-春
似-君-是-欄----國-樓-事-花
一-能-硃-玉----不-昨-知-鞦
江-有-顔-砌----堪-夜-多-月
春-幾-改-應----囬-又-少-何
水-多-。-猶----首-東-。-時
嚮-愁----在----月-風----暸
東-?----,----明-。----。
流-------------中--------
。-------------。--------
1840
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Old October 12th, 2005, 06:59 AM   #12
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机身特色:开始注重细节

相信不少看到过优雅Q100C真机的朋友会和小编一样,在打开优雅Q100C时种“似曾相识”的感觉。确实,纯白色的键盘、屏幕边框等设计同索尼早先那款10.6寸小宽屏机器——TR5C有些相似,在一些细节之处又多了不少“时尚”的因素在里面。





比较有意思的一个地方,这次在笔记本的右掌托处并没有贴往常那种银底黑字的贴纸,而破天荒得变成了上面那种透明的Logo。说实话,这样的设计确实比以前的设计“优雅”得多了。
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恰-問-隻-彫----故-小-往-春
似-君-是-欄----國-樓-事-花
一-能-硃-玉----不-昨-知-鞦
江-有-顔-砌----堪-夜-多-月
春-幾-改-應----囬-又-少-何
水-多-。-猶----首-東-。-時
嚮-愁----在----月-風----暸
東-?----,----明-。----。
流-------------中--------
。-------------。--------
1840
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Old October 12th, 2005, 07:01 AM   #13
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四周接口:比较丰富但设计紧凑

在扩展接口方面,优雅Q100C倒是“麻雀虽小,五脏据全”,PCMCIA插槽、VGA输出、IEEE1394火线接口乃至SD读卡器插槽一应俱全。只是,由于这仅仅是一台10寸的小本本,因此接口设计得有些紧密。




大家肯定看到了,笔记本的所有接口都被集中在左右两端,而且只设计了两个USB接口,它们的距离也比较紧密。如果接上USB鼠标后,也许会对其它个头偏大的USB设备的使用造成空间上的不便。
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恰-問-隻-彫----故-小-往-春
似-君-是-欄----國-樓-事-花
一-能-硃-玉----不-昨-知-鞦
江-有-顔-砌----堪-夜-多-月
春-幾-改-應----囬-又-少-何
水-多-。-猶----首-東-。-時
嚮-愁----在----月-風----暸
東-?----,----明-。----。
流-------------中--------
。-------------。--------
1840
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Old October 12th, 2005, 07:15 AM   #14
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楼主是搞营销的?
:D
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Old October 12th, 2005, 07:17 AM   #15
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-_-!!

关税~~~~~~~~~~~
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恰-問-隻-彫----故-小-往-春
似-君-是-欄----國-樓-事-花
一-能-硃-玉----不-昨-知-鞦
江-有-顔-砌----堪-夜-多-月
春-幾-改-應----囬-又-少-何
水-多-。-猶----首-東-。-時
嚮-愁----在----月-風----暸
東-?----,----明-。----。
流-------------中--------
。-------------。--------
1840
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Old October 25th, 2005, 08:29 AM   #16
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AMD与科技部签备忘录 转让X86芯片核心技术

http://tech.sina.com.cn/focus/amd_commit/index.shtml
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Old October 25th, 2005, 09:49 AM   #17
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沙髮
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Old March 23rd, 2006, 05:58 AM   #18
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中国“人造太阳”安全成功地完成首次工程调试

中新网3月22日电 据中国科学院消息,由中国自行设计、研制的世界上第一个全超导托卡马克 EAST(原名HT-7U)核聚变实验装置(媒体称其为“人造太阳”),于2月1日到3月17日成功进行了首次工程调试。

  据了解,本次工程调试的主要目的是检验主机的性能以及相关分系统的能力,探索未来可行的运行模式,测量主机和主要分系统的关键技术参数,验证各种安全保护系统的可靠性, 为年内成功运行提供必要的数据和积累经验。在调试中,最受关注的低温调试和磁体通电测试获得圆满成功。

  在真空和低温条件就位后,从3月13日到3月17日,离子体所的相关人员对纵场磁体和12个极向场磁体分别进行了260 次通电测试。最长通电时间达到5000秒,最大电流达到8200安培,相对应的装置中心场强已达到2特斯拉。总控系统、真空系统、低温系统、数据采集系统、水冷系统、电源系统、装置技术诊断系统、失超保护、真空磁位形测量系统、超导传输线、高温超导电流引线、铜电流引线以及等离子体控制系统运行正常,保证了通电测试的安全和成功。
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Old March 23rd, 2006, 08:05 AM   #19
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据说该项技术投入实用还需要五十年时间。
在这之前人们还是要依赖传统能源来生存和发展。中国这样的高速发展的发展中国家对能源的需求更甚,国人们不得不继续沿用传统的高能耗、高污染的不可持续发展模式来发展经济,这给国家的环境保护事业造成了极大的阻碍。
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Old April 7th, 2006, 03:10 AM   #20
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我国人造太阳调试成功七八月份将运行
2006年04月06日22:56 CCTV-新闻会客厅

  4月6日,央视新闻频道《新闻会客厅》播出节目《揭秘“人造太阳”》,以下为节目实录:
  主持人:您好观众朋友,欢迎走进《新闻会客厅》。3月23号,汽油的价格又涨了,让我们感觉到除了以后买汽油多花钱之外,能源危机似乎离我们越来越近,也是在同一天一个消息也被人们注意到,就是说中国要升起人造太阳了,而提供一种无限量的、安全、清洁的能源,听到这样的消息人们难免心生疑问,太阳可以人造吗?
  亿万年来,地球上的万物靠着太阳源源不断的能量维持自身的发展。2006年3月23 日,有一条关于太阳的新闻引起了人们的关注:中国的“人造太阳”实验装置调试成功,年内即将运行。这使得人们对“人造太阳”这个话题产生了浓厚兴趣。
  (关于“人造太阳”一词,记者在街上的随机采访 )
  记者:一听到“人造太阳”这个词,你能想到的是什么?
  市民1:又大又亮,又漂亮。
  市民2:发电、发热?
  市民3:像灯泡一样的吧。
  市民4:玩具,给小孩玩的玩具。
  市民5:应该是跟艺术有关的吧。
  市民6:为人类提供能源的吧?这不是能源危机了嘛。
  在记者随机采访的20多个人当中,没有人能够准确地说出人造太阳到底是怎么回事,在大多数人眼中,人造太阳就是人类复制的一个新太阳。“人造太阳”真的是能够挂在天上的新太阳吗?它究竟是个什么样子?中国刚刚调试成功的“人造太阳”实验装置又是什么呢?这个答案也许只有亲自造太阳的人知道。
  主持人:今天我们就请到了在这个问题上最有发言权的,这个项目的负责人万元熙教授,万教授您好。刚才的答案五花八门,有人说肯定是很大很亮,有人说像灯泡一样,有人说可能是给小孩制造的玩具,但是真正人造太阳的样子是什么样,
  万元熙:引起人们误解的就是现在在等离子物理所经过八年的艰苦奋斗努力,终于建造了一个全超导的托克马克试验装置。
  主持人:这个装置如果成功的话,就是将来的人造太阳的样子吗?
  万元熙:基本上就是这样,但是它更大。
  主持人:这个给人感觉就是一个超大的锅炉的样子,根本和我们现在看到的天上的太阳不相干,能不能简单地这么理解,之所以称作人造太阳,就是它产生能量的原理和太阳产生能量的原理是一样的,所以这样叫?
  万元熙:对,太阳是发出强大的光,辐射到宇宙空间当中去,太阳上面这么巨大的能量来自于什么?来自于核聚变反应。
  主持人:通过像太阳一样的核聚变反应发电,就是未来的人造太阳?
  万元熙:对。
  在太阳的中心,温度高达1500万摄氏度,气压达到3000多亿个大气压,在这样的高温高压条件下,氢原子核聚变成氦原子核,并放出大量能量。几十亿年来,太阳犹如一个巨大的核聚变反应装置,无休止地向外辐射着能量。
  核聚变能是两个较轻的原子核结合成一个较重的原子核时释放的能量,产生聚变的主要燃料之一是氢的同位素氘。氘广泛的分布在水中,每一升水中约含有30毫克氘,通过聚变反应产生的能量相当于300升汽油的热能。采集氘并使之与相关物质聚变产生能量,就是人造太阳的原理。
  根据科学家的分析,如果我们未来能建成一座1000兆瓦的核聚变电站,每年只需要从海水中提取304公斤的氘就可以产生1000兆瓦的电量,照此计算,地球上仅在海水中就含有的45万亿吨氘,足够人类使用上百亿年,比太阳的寿命还要长。
  1952年,当第一颗氢弹爆炸之后,人类制造核聚变反应成为现实,但那只是不可控制的瞬间爆炸。从那个时候开始,科学家们一直在寻找途径,把氢弹爆炸在某个试验装置上面加以控制地让它发生,然后源源不断地取出它的核聚变能。50多年的时间过去了,这个梦想一直没能实现。
  主持人:氢弹是瞬间的,这个能持续不断地让它产生能量。
  万元熙:对,因此我们把我们的研究称为可以控制的受控热核聚变反应,这种反应在两条途径当中正在迅速地发展,一条途径就是造出各式各样的磁容器来,其中有一类磁容器叫做托克马克,正是在这一类的托克马克聚变装置上面,在世界上经过60年的努力,已经取得了巨大的成功,在这种装置上已经可以把氘氚的聚变燃料加热到四亿到五亿度的高温区,然后在这么高的温度下就发生了大量的聚变反应。在世界上最大的托克马克装置欧洲联合环上面已经获得了最大的聚变功率输出,到了16到17兆瓦,但是都只能短暂地运行,也就是这个磁笼只能存在几秒、十几秒钟,因此你加热到实现聚变反应也只有几秒钟的短暂时间。
  主持人:而我们追求的是连续不断地?
  万元熙:对,所以说一方面获得了巨大进展,另外一方面能否走向稳态运行,这是未来的聚变反应堆所需要的。
  主持人:您刚才讲的这些内容当中,特别常提到的一个词就是稳态,是不是这次的装置最大的进展就在于此?
  万元熙:对,这个装置最大的特点就是为了把托克马克已经取得的巨大进展过渡到稳态运行,为未来实现真正的人造小太阳做出重要的贡献。
  主持人:它能不能实现这个效果,就现在还不知道呢,是吗,要到七八月份让它运转一次才知道它能不能实现相对持续时间的输出能量。
  万元熙:我们未来七八月份是全部把装置装好以后,仅仅是开始了物理实验,这个物理实验已经引起了全世界同行的很大关注,给予了极高的兴趣,原因就是到目前为止,这将是第一个全超导的,可以稳态运行的一个托克马克装置。
  主持人:现在其实进行到这个阶段,就是把这个装置要进行实验,还不见得这是能发电的太阳,可是却做了非常多的宣传,人们以为人造太阳要升空了,这一个进展意义究竟有多大?
  万元熙:这是一个相当大的误解,就是在全世界目前所有的聚变装置,包括最大的也不能称之为是人造太阳,已经建成的人造太阳,但是所有这些装置上面的研究的各式各样的结果,都会为未来建造真实的受控热核聚变反应堆,聚变能电站做出重要的贡献,奠定工程和物理的基础,没有这些工程和物理的基础,不可想象未来可以建造一个真实的聚变反应电站。
  距离当年的氢弹爆炸50多年的时间过去了,尽管世界上许多国家建起了核电站,人类还是没有看到一座核聚变发电站的出现。但是核聚变电站的诱人前景依然是人们心中一个割舍不去的梦。50年来,全世界都在为建立一个能够控制核聚变的装置而努力。在30多个国家建造的大大小小上百个实验装置上,每一次放电时间的延长,人们都为之兴奋;每一次温度的提高,人们都为之欢呼;因为这看似小小的进步,都意味着我们离聚变能的应用更近了一步。
  主持人:其实我们也知道,比方说核电站,这不是都已经存在了吗,那样的核电和未来的人造太阳发的核电的区别是什么呢?
  万元熙:现在的裂变电站有两个问题,一个问题,地球上所蕴藏的铀矿,作为铀的燃料也只能用60年左右,这是1998年世界能源组织公布的数据。
  主持人:也有用完的一天,而且并不长。
  万元熙:对。另外一个相当大的问题,在使用铀矿的过程当中产生一些高放射性的废物,这些废物的寿命非常之长,就是几千上万年它仍然是有放射性的,对人类的环境会造成另外一种污染。但是聚变能源恰恰不同,因为它的燃料来自于海水当中,藏量非常丰富,如果一升海水等同于三百公升汽油,您可以想象,人类的一次性的能源将是无穷尽的。
  主持人:一升海水怎么等于三百公升的汽油?
  万元熙:三百升汽油,原因就是在一升海水当中含有氢的同位素氘,如果你把它提取出来,放到未来的人造太阳当中发生聚变反应,放出来的能量等同于燃烧三百公升的汽油的能量。
  主持人:感觉像是一个无本生意一样的。
  万元熙:对,这时候人类,第一,不会为可持续发展而操心。第二,不会为能源的短缺发生政治的、军事的各式各样的冲突,最重要的是不会因为使用化石燃料以及其它的燃料,把一个本来应当干干净净的地球变得非常脏,污染得非常厉害。特别是中国,因为中国是世界上发展最快的国家,能源的需求将成为非常大的一个严重的问题,像您刚才在开头所说的,油价又涨了,从两块多现在涨到了四块多,不仅仅是油价涨,以后没有了怎么办?不仅仅是没有的问题,像北京的空气污染,中国地球的污染,使用煤,使用汽油,这个污染多么严重,所以说为我们子孙万代未来的幸福生活着想,为人类的可持续发展着想,聚变研究再困难,我也呼吁各级领导所有的年轻人,有志于真实地为中国的兴旺发达,为人类的可持续发展做出贡献的科技工作者,或者年轻人,加入到我们这个行当当中来。
  主持人:研究一个产生聚变反应的装置就花了几十年的时间,研究这个产品聚变反应的装置就花了人类几十年的时间,人类刚刚想到利用聚变产生能源的时候,有没有预料到这个工程这么困难?
  万元熙:当氢弹一旦爆炸成功的时候,当时在全世界,当时的苏联和美国都以绝密的形式进行着聚变能的受控热核聚变能的研究,因为原子弹一爆炸以后,十几年的工夫就研制出来了裂变电站,人们就可以用原子弹的裂变能量,氢弹一爆炸,巨大的无限的清洁能源我们即将获得,所以说这些国家都认为氢弹爆炸了,是不是我们也可以用五年、十年或者十五年的时间造出一个聚变能电站。
  主持人:那时候估计还是很乐观的。
  万元熙:对,非常乐观,所以处在绝密的状况,绝密不是军事上的原因,是因为商业的利益太巨大了,对人类的可持续发展太重要了,但是事实上,当所有这些国家从事这些绝密的研究数年、十多年以后就发现太困难了,所以最后受控热核聚变的研究,目前在全世界是最广泛的国际合作的研究项目,是完全不保密的。主持人:究竟碰到了什么呢?
  万元熙:原因就是聚变的条件必须实现极高的温度,加热燃料到亿万度的高温,这个燃料在亿万度高温下面约束到一个局部的小空间当中,这个本身太复杂了,如果你加热到上亿度的高温,什么样物质的器皿能够盛装上亿度的高温燃料,耐火砖是绝对不行的,不锈钢也绝对不行,所以你必须要用特殊的方式来约束极高温度的聚变燃料。
  主持人:不是一种具体的什么物体、什么物质了,而是一种方法本身成为一种固定它的方式,这个装置。
  万元熙:如果说我们没有物质的器皿能盛装上亿度高温的高温等离子体聚变燃料,我们可否用磁场构造一个磁的容器,来盛装约束极高温度的聚变燃料,这就是托克马克这一种类型的磁约束聚变装置,它就是用这个装置外面大量大的线圈和磁体产生一个环形的磁容器,在这个磁容器里面约束、加热聚变的燃料,让它发生聚变反应。
  主持人:从开始进行这个研究到今天取得这个阶段性的成果,用了人类多少年的时间?
  万元熙:自从过去的60年来,将近有一百个大大小小的托克马克,证实所有的托克马克,你贡献这一点,我贡献那一点,你有这个特点,我有那个特点,使得我们敢于去建造越来越大的托克马克聚变装置。
  主持人:研究这个装置就用去了60年的时间,可以这么说吗?
  万元熙:以及它上面的试验研究。
  主持人:60年到今天。
  万元熙:对,将近60年。
  对于很多人来说,中国“人造太阳”的研制是个爆炸性新闻,但是对于万元熙而言,这项工作很早就已经开始了。我国科学家在上个世纪50年代中期就开始了可控核聚变的研究,1984年中国核工业总公司西南物理研究院曾经建成中国最大的研究核聚变的托克马克装置。今年3月,万元熙所在的中科院等离子物理研究所的“人造太阳”实验装置调试成功,意味着能够稳态运行的实验装置已经具备实验能力。
  采访中科院等粒子物理研究所所长李建刚:我们这一代的科学家已经做了50年还没有完成这件事情,并不是说我们这些人太笨,因为这件事情太难了,难到靠任何一个国家的财力、物力和科学技术都不可能达到。我最大的愿望就是希望在我有生之年能够看到一个灯泡是用聚变能点亮的,但是客观的讲,也许这种愿望实现不了,因为它太难了。
  虽然万元熙他们研制的“人造太阳”实验装置还没有进行真正的核聚变实验,但是他们的调试成功已经得到了国际聚变界的关注和称赞。在万元熙看来,和30年前他们刚刚开始这项研究相比,国际聚变界态度的转变让他颇有感触。
  主持人:在什么样的场合下,您最能感受到这种变化,这种被人尊敬,被人认可的变化?
  万元熙:特别是当我们的全超导托克马克工程调试成功,过去当我们跟别的国家讨论着国际交流和合作的时候,某些国家的官员们总是这么说,我们跟你没合作,没有什么可获得的,现在不一样,世界上最著名的许多研究所都主动、积极地要求跟中国科学院等离子体物理研究所,跟中国磁约束聚变界进行广泛的合作,所以说十多年以来,随着国力的强盛和国家的开放,一批有才干的聚变人才在中国已经迅速成长起来了,这对中国未来聚变研究是太至关重要了。因为中国的聚变研究不是一代人能够实现的,人造太阳的梦不是一代人能够把它完成的,而这个梦要几代人连续不断地努力才能够变为现实。
  主持人:刚才这位所长应该比您还年轻多了,他都说他的有生之年可能看不到一个灯泡发电是靠核聚变这个电能产生的。
  万元熙:但是您想一想,当我们宣传受控热核聚变重要的时候,许多官员们或者领导们都会紧接着问我,我们什么时候能拿到聚变能,我们什么时候能够发电,我要告诉他们说,可能还要三十到五十年的时间,哦,看来是太长了。我要说的是,跟整个人类历史发展的长河相比较,三十年、五十年算什么,五十年的工夫中国已经发生了翻天覆地的变化,如果三十到五十年我们能够一劳永逸地解决人类可持续发展最重要的清洁能源,无限的清洁能源,三十到五十年极其困难,不成为任何问题。
  主持人:开始的时候人类对研究聚变能表示很乐观,五六年、十年可能就能成功,那您刚刚投入这个事业的时候,您怎么想的,您预想也是十几年就能获得成功?
  万元熙:我从来没认为这项研究能够在十几年当中就能成功,我认为这项研究是极其艰巨的,原因是我们的目标是要到五千万度到数亿度的高温,在我投入这个装置的时候,在托克马克这类装置上面,刚刚得到一个爆炸性的新闻,俄罗斯制造的T3托克马克装置上面获得了上百万度的高温,就使整个世界聚变界非常欢欣鼓舞,可是百万度离上亿度,离千万度,那还差得很远。聚变研究是一个从基础研究到工程技术的发展,到相当大规模的建立电站,这是一个非常复杂的系统工程,它既要基础的物理研究结果的支持,更需要许多高科技技术的支持,可是我坚信,这个研究哪怕是再用三十年、五十年也是对人类的可持续发展太值得了。
  主持人:在三十多年前,您投身这个事业的时候,您就知道,即便到自己退休也不见得能看到成果。
  万元熙:那肯定无疑的。
  主持人:可是人们在做事的时候总是希望自己能够亲眼见到成果,它才更有动力,如果知道我都可能看不见这个成果的时候,这个动力是来自于什么?
  万元熙:我想整个聚变界都是如此,所以一方面我们整个国际聚变界要齐心协力,共同加以研究。另外一方面我们要培养新的年轻人才,我们要争取各个国家给予这项研究越来越大的支持,因为这也是不容易的事情。
  主持人:现在年轻人面临的很多问题是很现实的,他投入到一个领域当中,他总希望能够今天看见成果,或者明天能够写论文,如果这个事业不能够提供给他们很多东西,他们还愿意来吗?
  万元熙:以一种浮躁的心态去急功近利,去哗众取宠,那不叫科学研究,如果你有志于从事真实的对人类有意义的科学研究,你就应当耐得住寂寞,不要为名和利所诱惑,受控热核聚变就是这样一个研究,它对人类的未来如此重要,如果仅是为了急功近利,如果仅仅是为了个人的得失,那我觉得这项研究也许不适合于你。
  主持人:您说这是一项要耐得住寂寞的事业,这几十年当中您所体会到的寂寞是什么呢?
  万元熙:中国科学院等离子体物理研究所如果有机会,真想邀请你去访问一下,我们安徽合肥跟北京和上海相比,跟广州相比,相对来讲欠发达一些,尽管现在的省市领导全力以赴在推进经济的发展,所以非常多的人才在开头的20年前都到国外去了,相当多的人才能够到北京,绝对不留在合肥,能够到上海,也绝对不留在合肥,所以在整个我们所成长的过程当中,各人有各人的想法和意向,有的到北京去了,有的到上海去了,有的到其它地方,有的出国了,也不回来。
  主持人:您是因为做这个领域的研究,知道里边的道理,所以觉得三十年、五十年很正常,你值得付出这个代价,但是当您跟外界这样解释的时候,人们都能理解吗?
  万元熙:每年5月份我们都有所谓所的开放日,非常多的父母带着自己年轻的孩子来访问,这短短两天的时间之内有几万人来访问,他们教育着他们的孩子,了解着、认识着受控热核聚变,了解着、认识着什么是科学,什么是非常有用的科学,现在哪怕是百分之几的年轻的孩子们受到这种熏陶,认识到这种科学研究是非常重要的,加入到我们的行列当中就非常高兴,何况是中国政府对聚变研究现在给予了越来越大的支持,越来越强的支持,这是一个最美好的前提条件。
  主持人:对这样一个三五十年可能看不见成果的一个研究项目,有没有人不理解呢?
  万元熙:我觉得现在对受控热核聚变研究对人类未来的重要性,没有人不理解,只是说在某个阶段应当用多大的财力、物力来支持这项研究,有不同的争论,这是我个人的看法,但是这没有关系,尽管大家有不同的看法,但是对受控热核聚变研究要给予越来越强,越来越大的支持是非常重要的。
  主持人:可以理解,这是一个特别耗费人力、物力、时间的一项事业,就是很费钱,费钱费到什么程度?
  万元熙:比如说未来一个聚变,国际聚变界在托克马克已经取得巨大成功的基础上,曾经从1984年开始联合进行下一个试验聚变堆的设计和研究,具有几个不同的版本,第一个版本是这个试验反应堆要用一百亿才能把它建造起来,整个国际聚变界,各国政府都觉得钱太多了,所以改成第二个版本,要用五十亿去建造,现在已经得到了各个国家政府的批准,中国已经决定加入到这个当中来。所以说用五十亿仅仅建造一个试验反应堆,这个试验反应堆将可以产生500到700兆瓦的聚变功力,但它还不是一个真实的经济、实用的人造太阳。
  主持人:现在做研究,每天从您手里花掉的钱有多少?
  万元熙:在上个月我们进行试验调试的时候,大概一天的电费,直接或者间接消耗的电费就是五万人民币左右,还没有算其它的备用部,易损件的补充、更替和人力。今后如果正常运行起来,起码这样一个装置每天的运行和试验的费用应当在十万左右。
  主持人:每过一天24小时,十万块钱不见了。这个项目这么烧钱,对您有压力吗?
  万元熙:我觉得当然有压力,尽管科学研究允许失败,但是这么大一个工程项目,我觉得你必须要成功,如果成功了,你所使用的这些经费就完全值得,如果你不成功,那么至少获得了很多教训,非常幸运的是,我们的工程调试非常成功,我相信这一项工程项目建设一个稳态运行的试验平台的装置本身,95%的成功把握已经具备,这也是一旦听到我们工程调试成功的消息之后,几乎是世界上主要研究所著名科学家们都纷纷来电,对我们表示祝贺。而且今年10月份将到我们所来参加我们第二次国际顾问委员会,这就是说我们花了很多的钱得到了非常好的回报。
  主持人:今天您跟我讲这么多,我觉得您特别希望我们能够理解核聚变反应是怎么回事,理解这项事业的困难和前景都在哪儿,凡是能够向外界去讲这些的时候,您都很看重这样讲的机会,为什么?
  万元熙:原因是聚变研究是这么一项重要的工作,又是这么难宣传的工作,而且做起来是非常艰难的工作。另外一方面,聚变研究在过去60年全世界的共同努力下,又取得了这么大的进展,可是人们一说进展的时候就觉得我们明天可以得到了人造太阳,当我们说这件事情碰到了巨大挑战的时候,这件事情纯粹是梦想,不能实现,所以说宣传这个聚变研究,让各方面的人都能够理解这项工作,给予稳定的、长期的更坚定不移的支持,这是非常重要的,是对人类的可持续发展,对中国持续、高速发展将是太重要了,幸好,我们国家的领导人是越来越意识到这个重要性。
  主持人:我听我们的编导跟我说,说您跟她讲,做完这次节目您就准备回去退休了,如果真退休了,做了几十年的事业就能够把它放下吗?
  万元熙:在我还有能力的时候,我还能够工作的时候,我将以各种不同的方式,不用直接参与的方式,各种不同的方式来支持聚变研究事业,因为我觉得这个梦想没有实现,是我们人类共同的梦想,我们一定要为实现这个梦想做出自己力所能及的贡献,而且我相信这个梦想一定会成功,一定会实现。
  主持人:一定能成功?
  万元熙:一定的,因为人类需要。
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