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Old November 13th, 2009, 07:21 PM   #1
Redalinho
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۞ Achaemenid Arts & Architecture ۞ (553 bce - 330 bce)

A unified style emerges in the Achaemenid period (c.550–330 B.C.). Influenced by the Greeks, the Egyptians, and those from other provinces of the Persian Empire, the Achaemenids evolved a monumental style in which relief sculpture is used as an adjunct to massive architectural complexes. Foundations of the palace of Cyrus at Pasargadae, of Artaxerxes I at Susa, and above all extensive remains of the magnificent palace complex of Darius I and Xerxes I at Persepolis reveal plans that characteristically show great columned audience halls. In front of the halls were colonnaded porticoes, flanked by square towers and set on high terraces. The palaces were approached by double flights of steps converging at the top. Although there are marked analogies to Egyptian, Greek, and Assyrian architecture, the style as a whole and the feeling for space and scale are distinctive. The Persepolitan columns are slenderer and more closely fluted than those of Greece. Bases are high, often bell-shaped; capitals are composed of the foreparts of two bulls set back to back or of other animals above volutes with rosette ornament.

In the sculpture, of an ordered clarity and simplicity, heraldic stylization is subtly combined with effects of realism. Typical are the low stone reliefs of a procession of tribute bearers that adorn the great double staircase approaching the audience hall of Xerxes I (Persepolis) and the famous Frieze of Archers (Louvre, from the palace of Darius I at Susa), executed in molded and enameled brick, a technique of Babylonian-Assyrian origin. The great care lavished on every stone detail is also found in the fine gold and silver rhytons (drinking horns), bowls, jewelry, and other objects produced by this culture.

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Old November 13th, 2009, 07:25 PM   #2
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Apadana ( audience hall ) of Persepolis (Iran)

The Apadana in Persepolis is decorated by reliefs, showing delegates of the 23 subject nations of the Persian Empire giving tribute to Darius I in twice yearly festivals .According to some scholars, the hall could hold 10,000 people . Only 36 of the 20 m. tapered columns of the Apadana survive today, and most have lost their double bull protomes . The ceiling beams would have been made of cedar, ebony or teak and were gold platted and inlaid with precious jewels . The reigning monarch would have reviewed dignitaries and tribute bearers in the Apadana . The Apadana is show as 'The Hall of Xerxes ' in the map above .




view of the Apadana from hillside











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Old November 13th, 2009, 07:31 PM   #3
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Persepolis - Tomb of Artaxerxes II (Iran)






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Old November 13th, 2009, 07:35 PM   #4
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Achaemenid golden bowl with lion imagery.



The Behistun Inscription tells the story of Darius the Great's conquests, with the names of twenty-three satrapys subject to him.

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Old November 13th, 2009, 07:37 PM   #5
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Golden Rhyton excavated at Ecbatana; kept at National Museum of Iran.



Silver rhyta such as this were ubiquitous and used as a drinking vessels in Persia, underscoring the eclectic taste of the Achaemenids; the fanciful beast that forms its base is both mammal and bird.



Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa.



Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace.

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Old November 13th, 2009, 11:50 PM   #6
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Wonderful! I am enjoying this!
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Old January 1st, 2010, 01:00 AM   #7
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this is amazing ! MOAR !
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