daily menu » rate the banner | guess the city | one on oneforums map | privacy policy | DMCA | news magazine

Go Back   SkyscraperCity > Asian Forums > India > South > South India Projects > Tamil Nadu > Madurai



Reply

 
Thread Tools
Old December 10th, 2011, 08:20 AM   #1
Madurai gilli
Registered User
 
Madurai gilli's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Madurai
Posts: 5,389
Likes (Received): 560

Heritage and History of Madurai

Madurai, the ancient city of 2500 years old, in almost all major epics & literatures has many names aside :

Quote:
Athens of the East
Thoonga nagaram
Naan maada koodal
Koodal nagaram
Aalavaai
Thiruvalavai
The City of Divine nectar




It becomes most inevitable to have a seperate thread dedicated to discuss the history of a City, more blended with the word "History".

"Madhura", in pure tamil literature means Sweetness.. Is it not necessary for us to make our people understand the history of the names, our Madurai got in those days..?

We can dedicate this thread to share the testimonials written by Foriegners who visited Madurai & also our non-tamilan tourists. Let's make this thread as a library for Old/historic pictures of Madurai & its landmarks..

Hope there are much-more to discuss on this topic..
__________________
தாமதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நீதி மறுக்கப்பட்ட நீதியே !

Judgement delayed is judgement denied !

Last edited by Madurai gilli; January 8th, 2012 at 04:56 AM.
Madurai gilli no está en línea   Reply With Quote

Sponsored Links
 
Old December 10th, 2011, 08:25 AM   #2
Madurai gilli
Registered User
 
Madurai gilli's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Madurai
Posts: 5,389
Likes (Received): 560

Meaning for various names of Madurai

According to legend, the original city of Madurai, called Then Madurai (Madurai of South), was destroyed by a tsunami in ancient Kumari Kandam, after which the city moved inland to its present location.

So-called Ilamooriya continenent, said to be dominated by Tamilians :



Uploaded with ImageShack.us

MADURAI :

* Tamil word Madhura, literally indicates Sweetness.
* The derivation of the word Marutham, which refers both to a species of trees that grew on the banks of the River Vaigai and a type of landscape of the Sangam age.

The City of Divine Nectar :

On the day the city was to be named, Shiva blessed the land and its people while divine nectar showered on the city from his matted locks. The city hence came to be known as Madhurapuri meaning The City of Divine Nectar.

Koodal managaram:

Refers to the majestic look of 4 gopurams of Meenakshi amman temple. Hence called Koodal managaram (or) Naan maana koodal.

Alavai :

Refers to Lord Meenakshi Sundareswarar, from Alavai pathigam.

Thiruvalavai :

Came from Thiruvalavai maanmiyam (Thiruvilayadal puranam).

Athens of the east :

City with great historical importance as Athens, in Greece.

Thoonga nagaram :

Only City in India, where Food-outlets are remained OPEN throughout the night..and Traders rushing in the markets even at mid-night.
__________________
தாமதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நீதி மறுக்கப்பட்ட நீதியே !

Judgement delayed is judgement denied !

Last edited by Madurai gilli; December 10th, 2011 at 01:00 PM.
Madurai gilli no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 08:27 AM   #3
Madurai gilli
Registered User
 
Madurai gilli's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Madurai
Posts: 5,389
Likes (Received): 560

History of Madurai

Madurai is one of the ancient cities of South India with a glorious history. It is famous for its world acclaimed Meenakshi Sundareswarar Temple. The city of Madurai has been constructed in the form of a lotus and is built around the temple. It is situated on the banks of the river Vaigai. Owing to its rich cultural heritage and architectural splendor, the city is often referred to as the 'Athens of the East'. The origin of Madurai dates back to the Sangam period, the golden period of Tamil Literature.

According to mythology Madurai was earlier a forest called Kadambavanam. Once a merchant passing through the forest saw Indran, the King of Gods worshipping a Swayambhulingam under a Kadam tree. This was immediately reported to King Kulsekarer Pandayan. The king cleared the forest and built a splendid temple, known as the Sri Meenakshi Sundareswarer Temple, around the holy Lingam and later built a beautiful lotus-shaped city surrounding the temple.

Lord Siva appeared on the naming ceremony of the city and blessed it. The divine nectar (madhu) from the tangled locks of Siva fell on the blessed city and so, the city came to be known as "Madhurapuri". It is also said that centuries ago Lord Siva himself performed sixty-four wonders, called "Thiruvilaiyadals", in Madurai. Thus, the holy city finds reference in the great Indian epics - Ramayana, Kautilyas and Arthasastra. Madurai also served as the capital of Pandayan Kings.

In 302 BC, Megasthanes visited Madurai and was followed by Marcopolo and Ibn Batuta, all of whom mentioned about their visit in their travelogues. There were many others travelers, from countries like Rome and Greece, who visited the city and established trade with the Pandya Kings. Madurai was captured by the Cholas in the 10th century AD and was ruled till the end of the 13th century. In 1223 AD, Pandyas came to power again and patronized the Tamil language. The city became prosperous during the reign of the Pandya Kings.

Many master-pieces or "Silapathikaram" were created during that time. The great Tamil epic was also written during this time. It is based on the story of Kannagi, who burnt Madurai in lieu of injustice caused to her husband Kovalan. In April 1311, Malik Kafur, the general of Alauddin Khilji, the then ruler of Delhi, raided and robbed Madurai for precious stones, jewels, and other rare treasures. This was followed by subsequent raids by other Muslim Sultans. Finally, in 1323, the Pandya kingdom came under the Delhi Empire ruled by the Tughlaks.

The year 1371 saw the downfall of the Tughlaks and Madurai came under the reign of the Vijayanagar dynasty of Hampi. Kings of this dynasty left the captured land to governors called Nayaks, for the efficient management of their empire. After the death of Krishna Deva Raya (King of Vijayanagar Empire) in 1530 AD, the Nayaks became independent and started ruling the territories autonomously. Among Nayaks, Thirumalai Nayak (1623-1659) was the most popular one.

He is remembered by the people of Madurai even today, for his immense contribution to the city. He created many magnificent structures in and around Madurai. The Raja Gopuram of the Meenakshi Amman Temple, the Pudu Mandapam and the Thirumalai Nayakar's Palace are living examples of his passion for art. Later, Madurai slipped into the hands of the British's East India Company. In 1781, British appointed George Procter to look after the city. He was the first collector of Madurai.

After independence, Madurai became one of the major commercial districts of Tamil Nadu. It is surrounded by several hills, mainly Annamalai, Pasumalai and Nagamalai, named after their resemblance to an Elephant, a Cow and a Snake respectively. The city is a major exporter of Jasmine flowers. Due to its historical background, the temple city of Madurai attracts thousands of pilgrims and visitors every year from India and abroad.

Various dynasties :

Pandya Kings: Ancient Madurai was ruled by the Pandya kings. The Pandyas were a prosperous dynasty which conquered and established their reign even as far as Sri Lanka. They were also patrons of Tamil art and literature. The Sangam Age or Golden Age of Tamil literature saw the creation of many masterpieces. Great epics of Tamil literature like ‘Silapathikkaram’ revolves around the city of Madurai. Legendary Tamil poet Nakkeerar and his oeuvre ‘Nedunelvaadai’ is also associated with Madurai.

Chola Kings: In 920 AD, the Chola Kings captured Madurai. During the Chola rule, Madurai lost some of its legendary glory. However, the Pandyas regained their kingdom in 1223 AD and the city became prosperous once again.

Plunders and Raids: In the April of 1311, Malik Kafur, the general of Aladdin Khiliji raided on Madurai and looted many of its precious gems, treasures and artifacts. The Meenakshi Amman Temple was plundered and many of its jewels and stones were lost in the raids by Malik Kafur. Several Muslim rulers looted Madurai following Malik Kafur. In 1323, the Pandya kingdom, including Madurai, became a province of the Delhi rulers, the Tughlaks.

Nayakar Kings: In 1371, the illustrious Vijayanagar dynasty of Hampi captured Madurai. Vijayanagar kings have the habit of leaving the rule of distant cities to their generals or governors called Nayaks. Madurai came under the rule of Nayaks of Vijayanagar empire. After the death of Krishna Deva Raya of Vijayanagar empire in 1530 AD, Madurai came directly under the rule of the Nayakar kings. Thirumalai Nayakar, the most prominent among the Nayakar kings ruled Madurai from 1623 AD to 1659 AD. He was a great patron of art and literature. He restored Madurai to its past glory and refurbished many of its legendary and historic monuments. He was instrumental in the reconstruction of the Raja Gopuram of the Meenakshi Amman Temple, the Pudu Mandapam and the Thirumalai Nayakar Palace.

British Rulers: Like the rest of India, Madurai gradually came under the British rule. In 1781, the British appointed George Procter as the first collector of Madurai.
__________________
தாமதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நீதி மறுக்கப்பட்ட நீதியே !

Judgement delayed is judgement denied !

Last edited by Madurai gilli; December 10th, 2011 at 01:07 PM.
Madurai gilli no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 08:30 AM   #4
Madurai gilli
Registered User
 
Madurai gilli's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Madurai
Posts: 5,389
Likes (Received): 560

Spellbound : Matthew Penticost, UK

Matthew Penticost is spellbound by the breathtaking bueaty and friendliness of the city that he describes as “the most beautiful place in the world.”

Quote:
Well first of all it’s completely different from the UK. I’m not just talking about the heat the entire culture is different. Thankfully on my first day at the Madurai Messenger they gave me a cultural workshop to limit the shock of Indian life compared to Western life. The first thing that struck me is how open everyone is in India. Everyone is happy to help you and wants to say hello. I think the thing I was worried about most about my first time in India was the food and hospitality. I can’t say much about the food apart from the fact that it is delicious and there definitely is nothing wrong with using your hands and getting stuck in!

My first night I met my housemate and we got a tuc tuc to Madurai center and met the rest of the volunteers with Projects Abroad. Not all were with Journalism but they were all nice. In fact we have arranged with a few of them to go on a night train, night boat ride to the beach this weekend. The weather is amazing during the day and currently we have had rain at night but it’s refreshing. Last night I put on my swimming shorts and stood outside during a storm and it was amazing. The night before we went to a rooftop bar to have a drink and I saw the temples of Madurai for the first time.

They took my breath away I have never seen anything like them back in the UK. I also found it quite inspiring that a church, a mosque and a temple are so close together and there is no problems. I’m glad I’m doing the journalism course because there will be no short supply of things to write about.

My first full day at the journalism office was great as well. We went to a university to see my housemate give a lecture on digital media and journalism to Indian students. I got some good photos and we met the headmaster who let us take pictures of the campus. I have been told I can only write a small section about my first impressions in India. I think that’s the hardest thing having to sum up probably the most beautiful place in the world in only a few words...
__________________
தாமதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நீதி மறுக்கப்பட்ட நீதியே !

Judgement delayed is judgement denied !
Madurai gilli no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 08:32 AM   #5
Madurai gilli
Registered User
 
Madurai gilli's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Madurai
Posts: 5,389
Likes (Received): 560

A City of Differences - Lea Schunk, Germany

Lea Schunk writes about her experiences in this colourful City, as she calls it and admits that she just can’t wait to explore more about this exciting and lively City

Quote:
My first thought when I arrived at the Madurai airport was “Oh God, help me!” There were so many people and the air was full of different and weird smells. Some women wore saris and flowers on their heads while some wore formal outfits. In addition to this, at the airport, I saw a man who ordered his wife to sit down, while on the Television above them, a nearly naked woman danced. It was crazy!

I couldn’t understand the Indian culture- Had I arrived in a different world, where women had no power or had I arrived in a world of bizarre differences? I was lost between the new impressions and gradually, I realized that this would be my new home for the next three months.

My adventure started when I took the flight from Bengaluru to Madurai. Would this fragile looking plane bring me to my new home? I was scared and thought these would be my last few minutes on earth. However, I’m still alive!

When I arrived at the airport, a driver was already waiting for me. At first, he took me to my host family’s house. Although I was so tired, I could not sleep because there was so much to see! We drove through little villages where the people were staring at us, where cows, dogs and chicken, ran across the street. I saw children wearing school uniforms, men wearing lungies and women wearing a hijab. I have never seen so much sadness and happiness in the same place. On one hand, I saw happy children laughing all the time, girls with beautiful braided black hair and on the other hand, poor men and women sitting on the ground begging for money. I could not understand these differences and for this moment it was too hard for me to accept that this is reality; my reality for the next three months.

Then we started to approach the city, the traffic was chaotic and barbaric. I could not understand the principle behind it, everyone was just honking! I was scared and fascinated at the same time. After an hour, we arrived at my host family.

My host mum welcomed me with open arms and an open mind and she showed me my room for the next three months. When I ate Indian food for the first time, I thought it would be difficult for me to get accustomed but later started liking the spicy dishes.

Madurai is a city full of differences; especially the divide between the rich and the poor. I think this is why it is so difficult to get used to it. Nevertheless, Madurai seems to be an extraordinary city with many impressive aspects. That is the reason for me being so excited about the next three months of my stay here in Madurai. I am really looking forward to getting a taste of this colourful City!
Source : maduraimessenger
__________________
தாமதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நீதி மறுக்கப்பட்ட நீதியே !

Judgement delayed is judgement denied !
Madurai gilli no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 08:34 AM   #6
Madurai gilli
Registered User
 
Madurai gilli's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Madurai
Posts: 5,389
Likes (Received): 560

Madurai Magic -Lisette Wouters, Netherlands

Lisette Wouters slips into Madurai and discovers that despite the heat and the chaotic traffic, it is easy to fall in love with Madurai. So well adapted is the Dutch volunteer that she eats with her hands and negotiates road crossings—like a Maduraiite!

Quote:
Thirty-three hours after leaving my home country, my eyes are tired and my stomach is full of squishy airplane food. But when I see the endless sea of lights of beneath me coming closer, I forget about all that. I step out of my plane, into a hot steam room called India.

India is exactly as I hoped it would be. In the evening, the air is pleasantly warm (now that the drizzle stopped), it smells a little bit like burnt summer and even in the dark, it’s a colourful scene. The cheerful saris and turbans already surrounded me at the airport, but now there’s a whole world full of them. Thin old men ride big old cargo bikes barefoot, cows graze by the roadside and honking rickshaws weave expertly between the ongoing stream of cyclists, busses and motorcyclists.

A big smile on the face of my guest mom Latha welcomes me when I arrive at my guesthouse. With her 15-year old daughter and her 70-year old father, she lives in a simple but pleasant house. “I’m so happy”, she repeatedly says about my arrival. Together with two other volunteers from Germany and England, I share a bedroom with an attached bathroom. Three times a day my guest mom cooks something delicious, that I get to munch using my hands. I love eating with my hands, but in Holland it would be very impolite.

In the London airport, I cherished my last goose bumps, because I expected not to experience them for a long time. And I was right, India is HOT! The monsoon season is starting. So, in the late afternoon, it often cools off a little after a good downpour.

I’m looking forward to two amazing months, teaching at a private school and writing beautiful stories at the journalism office. In the mean time, I gulp multiple bottles of water a day; I carefully get better at crossing the road in the chaotic traffic and I enjoy the lovely food, the friendliness of the people and the great atmosphere and scenes on the street. Before I left home, I wondered if I would love this country, or despise it when I leave. I think I already found my answer: I love it!
Source : maduraimessenger
__________________
தாமதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நீதி மறுக்கப்பட்ட நீதியே !

Judgement delayed is judgement denied !
Madurai gilli no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 10:28 AM   #7
Arul Murugan
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2006
Location: Salem-Chennai
Posts: 16,694
Likes (Received): 2986



Gilli,

more than testimonials please post more valuable history of Madurai atleast in first page.
__________________
Click on---->



அருள் முருகன்
தமிழ்நாடு/இந்தியா
Arul Murugan no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 01:10 PM   #8
Madurai gilli
Registered User
 
Madurai gilli's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Madurai
Posts: 5,389
Likes (Received): 560

Five minutes to like Madurai - Ariane Lecuyer, France

Accepted & Included Arul...

Ariane Lecuyer recalls her initial fears and apprehensions about coming to Madurai. Yet she says that the sheer warmth and friendliness of the people dissipated her fears, the moment she stepped into the city. Experiencing Madurai is truly sensual. Every sense is activated in the city, she says.

Quote:
When i stepped out of the aircraft, i was totally lost: i did not find the person who was supposed to pick me up and my english was so bad that i did not dare to ask! But asking was not necessary. Seeing my lost gaze, several people came immediately to help and reassured me until i left the airport.

Throughout my flight to madurai, i was increasingly stressed by the travel, although i was certain that it would be a wonderful experience. Yet my fears were laid to rest even as i took my first steps in this city. It was so reassuring because i did not feel alone. Yet i know that it is not uncommon in madurai, known for its extreme friendliness of the people who are always ready to help and make you comfortable.

The first few days in madurai were also my first encounter with the indian driving, which was terrifying! Every time in a car, i was scared for my life. Crossing the road was a nightmare—an ordeal that would almost take ten minutes! Nevertheless, i do not think that indian people are just crazy on the road, because there does seem to be a kind of driving system. I suppose that i just have to get used to it and most importantly, to the system of ‘keep left’ during driving.

When i was almost calm on the road, i was finally able to look at landscape and people all around me. The colours, shops, lights… it was so intense. My gaze could not stop on a particular thing because it was already attracted by another, sometimes it was guided by my nose and sometimes by my ears. Every sense is activated in india. But what surprised me even more was the serenity of the people, despite noise, overcrowding and several other problems they deal with on a daily basis.
__________________
தாமதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நீதி மறுக்கப்பட்ட நீதியே !

Judgement delayed is judgement denied !
Madurai gilli no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 01:12 PM   #9
Madurai gilli
Registered User
 
Madurai gilli's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Madurai
Posts: 5,389
Likes (Received): 560

Madurai – Beautifully Tragic or Tragically Beautiful ? -Adam Al Ghafri, Muscat

Adam Al Ghafri came, saw and fell in love with Madurai. The reasons range from the overwhelming friendliness and warmth of the people to the religious freedom and tolerance that is so obvious. The young artist is overawed by the grandeur of the Meenakshi Temple and believes that art transcends barriers and boundaries, and believes in discovering a place like a traveler and not a tourist.

Quote:
I’ve always said that there is a distinct difference between visiting a place as a tourist, and visiting a place as a traveler. As a tourist, one only sees a mask of the place and what it wants them to see, but as a traveller, one can truly grasp the nature of the place, and find out what’s at the heart of it. I can see how visiting Madurai as a tourist may not be that appealing, but visiting Madurai as a traveler is an experience one cannot dare to miss.

What really struck me first was not the smell, the car horns or the hordes of people (all of which give it the well earned name of “The City that Never Sleeps”), but the sheer curiosity, friendliness and openness of the people themselves. Most people here seem open to talk and are curious about you and where you are from, something that is sometimes hard to come by in a city like London. I’ve spoken to rickshaw drivers about Indian politics, shop owners about their history in Madurai, and small children who are energetic and curious about my beginnings. This kind of experience truly does warm my heart; the city itself seems to make you feel a part of it.

The next thing that surprised me was the religious freedom. Seeing a church, then right across the street a mosque, then round the corner from that a temple, I would automatically assume that there would be high levels of tension, this was not the case. Of course, with diversity such as this, there is bound to be some issues. However, they remain very minor here compared to places such as Manchester, Ireland, Bahrain and some parts of America. I find the religious freedom in Madurai so beautiful and heartwarming, that I fell in love with the city.

I have also always believed that art is the one thing that can break all boundaries and barriers, and truly touch people’s hearts. It fills my heart with joy to hear music being played at every turn, right from little jingles when cars are reversing to huge speakers on street corners blaring Tamil music. As an artist, I cannot describe how inspiring this is to me. I plan to soak up as much inspiration as I can.

On the subject of artistic beauty, possibly one of the most mind blowing pieces of architecture I have ever seen is the Meenakshi Amman Temple. When I first viewed it from the roof of the hotel I was staying in, I was in genuine shock for a minute. As I found myself at the entrance to the temple, I could not drag my eyes away; looking up at the tens of thousands of figures gorgeously crafted into this fantastic piece of manmade marvel, with such detail and such finesse.

However, there is a far more tragic side that struck me when I arrived here, and that was the immense poverty that is visible. I have seen poverty such as this before, but watching street sweepers clean a floor that remains constantly dirty, makes my heart sink. What gives me hope though is that despite the struggle they endure, they still fight for every day, and most smile when they can, something that I would not believe unless I saw it for my own eyes.

For me, the city and the people in it give me hope for the world. To see this kind of peace and tranquility in the society and to see the people who live with such strife, yet still fight and smile through to another day, is truly inspirational. I knew from the second I drove into Madurai, that this will be one of the most interesting experiences I will ever have, and one that will surely be unforgettable.
__________________
தாமதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நீதி மறுக்கப்பட்ட நீதியே !

Judgement delayed is judgement denied !
Madurai gilli no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 01:46 PM   #10
Madurai gilli
Registered User
 
Madurai gilli's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Madurai
Posts: 5,389
Likes (Received): 560

Where is the Vasantha Mandapam ?

The Madanagopalaswamy Temple has a rich architecture and history, and an interesting incident attached to it.

Quote:
The Madanagopalaswamy Temple that stands right in the heart of the city has a foreign connection. A part of the temple lives in Philadelphia. Sounds incongruous? Not if you have been to the Philadelphia Museum of Art Gallery. Exquisitely carved pillars that once formed the Vasantha Mandap of Sri Madanagopalaswamy Temple now stand at the museum in Philadelphia.

Not many were aware of the pillars that were transported a century ago, until a foreign tourist gave away the details.

According to records (sent by the tourist to the temple), most of the pillars, carved during the 16th century, were once part of a hall dedicated to the Goddess Lakshmi in the Koodal Alagar Perumal and Sri Madanagopalaswamy Temples.

In the 19th century, the halls in both temples were renovated and some of the discarded pillars were sold at an auction held at the Madanagopalaswamy Temple in 1912.

Adeline Pepper Gibson of Philadelphia, who was travelling in India at the time, purchased the pillars and meticulously transported these weighty memorabilia to her country.

When Mrs. Gibson died in 1919 her family members – Susan Pepper Gibson, Mary Gibson Henry and Henry C. Gibson – donated the pillars to the museum. Between 1935 and 1940 the pillars were installed at the museum to resemble the temple's entry hall (artha mandap).

According to the museum's pamphlet, the hall consists of 12 monolithic composite pillars with large sculpted figures, 16 square-based pillars carved with 10 lion brackets, 10 drop brackets, two non-figural cluster pillars and eight slabs carved with scenes from the Ramayana.

The pamphlet also states that this is the only example of Indian stone architecture to be found in an American museum. It is also the only place outside of South Asia where visitors can experience, from original pre-modern elements, the monumental synthesis of sculpture, structure, symbolism and story that make Hindu temple architecture one of the world's greatest artistic legacies.

The temple here, more than five centuries old, has evolved with time. Recently pasted red granite slabs in the interior give it a colourful modern and neat look, but certainly at the cost of its ancient majesty. At present, the temple stands as an amalgamation of old and new.

The form of the main deity Sri Madanagopalaswamy is a combination of Lord Krishna and Vishnu. He stands holding a flute in two hands and a conch and a chakra in the other two.

It is believed that Lord Krishna gave darshan to Andal of Srivilliputhur in this form at the temple. According to legend, when Lord Shiva performed penance at the nearby Inmaiyil Nanmaitharuvar Temple, the flames reached the heavens. On the request of the Devas, Vishnu took the form of Venugopalan and played his flute to pacify Lord Shiva, says history enthusiast T. Vadamalaiappan,

The temple with its five mandaps – sanctum sactorum, artha mandap, maha mandap, garuda mandap and front mandap – houses the shrines of Mahalakshmi alias Madhana Mathuravalli Thayar and Andal. Harihara Sarbaraja, Sanjeevi Anjaneya, Panchamuga Anjaneya and Sri Lakshmi Narasimhar are also enshrined here. Besides, the temple has a five-storey Rajagopuram and Veshara (round-shaped) Vimana.

Nature has eroded some inscriptions in the temple and archaeologists find it difficult to fix its exact date.

“Going by its structure, it can be dated to Nayak period especially with the presence of composite pillars with yazhi, corbels and naga banda designs - significant features of Nayak architecture,” says C. Santhalingam, retired Archaeological Officer. But the presence of a slightly mutilated inscription that mentions the year 1598 indicates that the temple might have been present even in the early centuries. Similarly, the dwarapalaka sculptures found at the doorsteps of sanctum sanctorum designate that the temple might belong to the later Pandya period, the 13th century.

Though it is hard to spot inscriptions in the temple, the temple's history book refers to inscriptions containing details about cattle donations made to the temple for lighting a perpetual lamp and maintaining a garden. Now the temple has a small green space that is supposed to be the garden.

A unique feature that deserves mention is the Ramayana panel on the side walls of the Madanagopalaswamy shrine. The elusive deer, 10-headed Ravana, the liberation of Ahalya, Lord Rama and his bow are depicted, though not in a sequence.

If the Sanjeevi Anjaneya in the temple brought the Sanjeevi hill with a purpose, perhaps Adeline Pepper Gibson also had a purpose when she transported the pillars to the US, disseminating South India's architectural beauty to the world. And who can be a better representative of that beauty than Lord Krishna?
http://www.thehindu.com/life-and-sty...cle2591483.ece
__________________
தாமதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நீதி மறுக்கப்பட்ட நீதியே !

Judgement delayed is judgement denied !
Madurai gilli no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 01:49 PM   #11
Madurai gilli
Registered User
 
Madurai gilli's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Madurai
Posts: 5,389
Likes (Received): 560

Tales of the Lanes in Madurai

Hidden among the city's congested neighbourhoods are stretches with peculiar names

It happens sometimes that an ordinary thing suddenly seems intriguing. It might have been right in front of you for years together, and then you encounter it in a different context and feel there is something unique about it.

Karivepilaikara Theru has gone by this name for almost a century and most Maduraiites probably walk through it every third day, but the name suddenly sounded peculiar one fine morning when a post card from Karivepilaikara Theru arrived at our doorstep.

Surely it's unusual to name a place after curry leaves. To get there, you take a left from the Vakil New Street to Chellathamman Temple, then a right into a small lane and again right into North Masi Street towards the Krishna Temple. Behind that is the lane. And by that time, you can't help feeling you're on a real hunt.

Madurai is a maze of centuries-old lanes and by-lanes. But even long-time residents of these lanes are not able to decipher the origin of the street names. They offer only stories, myths, speculations and suggestions. R. Renganathan of Karivepilaikara Street says, “I have heard my grandfather say that once during the king's rule, when Madurai was filled with Kadamba trees, this part of the town was full of karivepilai trees.” Though his explanation was logical and convincing, that there is not a single karivepilai tree in the lane today. Almost every lane and street has a similar tale behind it.

Although Madurai has always been a very small town, it was often referred to as ‘Maanagaram' (city), since it was and still is a vibrant trading centre. Showing us a 1925 map of the city, retired Tamil teacher and researcher D. Devaraj says, “Though the core city of Madurai was very small, history says that it was self-contained and thriving.”

For example, Meenkara Sandhu (“fisherman's lane”) stands testimony to the fish trade that once flourished in the city. Sellers from Tuticorin, Rameswaram and other coastal towns probably brought their fish to this market.

Probing the origin of the street names is not an easy task. “I felt the necessity to do it as there were misconceptions and misinformation about the history of the streets,” says Mr. Devaraj. “Also, lack of proper documented history on street names made my job even tougher. I had to gather information from the references found in the memoirs of American missionaries who were in the city and from the Islamia Kalai Kalanjiam.”

Mr. Devaraj has collected information for about 120 streets and has authored a book, A Study on Street Names of Madurai City. He feels there is plenty to explore.

There appears to be a pattern in the way streets were named. They can be broadly classified into streets named after historical figures and events, occupations, and myths and legends.

“Though there were social divisions, there was order and peaceful co-existence,” says V. Balasubramanian, an architect who has done a project on the core city of Madurai. “The classification exists even today as one could see North Masi Street occupied by those involved in dairy business and South Masi Street thickly populated with those involved in jewellery and textile businesses,” he adds.

Mr. Devaraj points out that there was also a diverse population here, as we can see from, for example, Khansamaettu Theru, which should have been Khan Saheb Maettu Theru, and Rendall Street, named after an American missionary.

Interestingly, no street is named after the Pandia rulers. It may simply appear that people named streets as they wished and after sellers of flowers (Pookara Theru), rice (Arisikara Theru, Pacharisikara theru), spinach (Keerakara Theru), bangles (Valayalkara Theru), betel leaves (Vetrilaikadai Sandhu), limestone (Sunnambukara Theru) and so on. But historians and researchers feel that such names highlight the social history of the city and the old princely state of Madurai.

For those who would like to dig deep into the etymology of the street names in the city, there is plenty to discover.


Quote:
HISTORICAL FIGURES AND EVENTS:

Pandian Agazh Theru

Marret Streets

Thalavai Agraharam

Khan Saheb Maettu Theru

Khajimar Theru
Quote:
LEGENDS AND MYTHS:

Ezhukadal Theru

Puttuthoppe

Valayalkara Theru

Annakuzhi Mandapam Lane

Velliambalam Street
Quote:
TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS:

Kollampattarai Theru

Chithirakara Theru

Meenkara Lane

Ezhuthanikkara Theru

Sunnambukkara Street

Sayakara Theru

Noolkara Theru

Uppukara Theru
http://www.thehindu.com/arts/history...cle2611822.ece
__________________
தாமதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நீதி மறுக்கப்பட்ட நீதியே !

Judgement delayed is judgement denied !
Madurai gilli no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 01:56 PM   #12
Madurai gilli
Registered User
 
Madurai gilli's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Madurai
Posts: 5,389
Likes (Received): 560

History of Samanar Caves in Madurai

Quote:
மனிதனை மையப்படுத்தி, மறுபிறவி கொள்கைகளை வலியுறுத்தி, பீகாரில் ஆரம்பத்து, கர்நாடகா வழியாக சமணர்கள் தமிழகம் வந்தனர். சங்க காலம் முதலே தமிழகத்தில் சமண, பவுத்தம் தொடர்பு இருந்தது. திகம்பர்களான இவர்கள் ஆடை அணியாத காரணத்தால், தங்குவதற்கு அதிக மலைகளை உடைய மதுரையை தேர்ந்தெடுத்தனர். யானைமலை, திருப்பரங்குன்றம், கீழக்குயில்குடி உட்பட 13 மலைகளில் தங்கினர். குகை அமைத்து கொடுத்தவர்கள், உதவி செய்தவர்களின் விபரங்களை பிராமி எழுத்துகளில் கல்வெட்டுகளாக பொறித்தனர்.

கி.பி.9ம் நூற்றாண்டில் சிற்பங்கள் செதுக்கினர். தமிழகத்தில் முதன் முதலாக சொல்லப்பட்ட சித்தர்கள் இவர்கள்தான் என்றார்.கல்வெட்டு ஆராய்ச்சியாளர் வேதாச்சலம் கூறியதாவது :மதுரையை சுற்றியுள்ள மலைகளில், மூன்றாம் நூற்றாண்டில் இருந்தே வடநாட்டில் இருந்து சமணர்கள் வந்துவிட்டதற்கு சான்றுகள் இருக்கின்றன. மாங்குளம் கல்வெட்டில், சமணர்களுக்கு பாண்டியன் நெடுஞ்செழியன் உறைவிடம் அமைத்து கொடுத்தது குறித்து குறிப்பிடப்பட்டுள்ளது. திருப்பினையன் மலை என்றழைக்கப்பட்ட அரிட்டாபட்டியில், நெல்வேலி சிலிவன் ஆதினன் ஒளியன், இமையன் என்பவர்கள் குகையை உருவாக்கி கொடுத்துள்ளனர். இதன் அருகே உள்ள தீர்த்தங்கரர் சிற்பத்தை செதுக்கியவர் அச்சநந்தி முனிவர். மலையில் பொறிக்கப்பட்டுள்ள வட்டெழுத்தை செக்கியவரும் இவர்தான்.
* Samanars started from Bihar and reached Madurai via Karnataka, to spread their beliefs.
* As they stay away from wearing dresses, they prefer to live in Caves, for which they chose Madurai, an ancient city with 13 rock-mountains.
* Madurai people were lovable towards samanars and helped them in carving the caves in various places like Yaanamalai, Keezhakuyilkudi, Arittapatti etc. They carved our people's help in these caves which we can find now.

Quote:
Samanar malai is situated just 12 km west of Madurai.

Right at the centre of the hill is a big natural cavern in which Jain monks lived 2,000 years ago. A Brahmi inscription is engraved on the `forehead' of the cave and another on the lithic bed which dates back to the 1st Century A.D.

The Jain rock sculptures of Mahavira, Gomateswara, Yaksha and Yakshi and bas reliefs bear inscriptions in Vatteluthu, dating back to the 9th Century A.D. Archaeologists have recorded the existence of a Jain school and a natural fountain called "pechchi pallam" here.


Source : trekearth.com
__________________
தாமதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நீதி மறுக்கப்பட்ட நீதியே !

Judgement delayed is judgement denied !

Last edited by Madurai gilli; December 10th, 2011 at 02:10 PM.
Madurai gilli no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 03:04 PM   #13
Madurai gilli
Registered User
 
Madurai gilli's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Madurai
Posts: 5,389
Likes (Received): 560

Map of Madurai when it was a Municipality - long long back



Source : AAM
__________________
தாமதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நீதி மறுக்கப்பட்ட நீதியே !

Judgement delayed is judgement denied !
Madurai gilli no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 03:15 PM   #14
Madurai gilli
Registered User
 
Madurai gilli's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Madurai
Posts: 5,389
Likes (Received): 560

Rare visual treats of ancient Madurai















Source : The British Library Board via AAM.
__________________
தாமதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நீதி மறுக்கப்பட்ட நீதியே !

Judgement delayed is judgement denied !
Madurai gilli no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 03:21 PM   #15
Madurai gilli
Registered User
 
Madurai gilli's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Madurai
Posts: 5,389
Likes (Received): 560

Rare visual treats of ancient Madurai













Source : The British Library Board via AAM.
__________________
தாமதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நீதி மறுக்கப்பட்ட நீதியே !

Judgement delayed is judgement denied !
Madurai gilli no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 03:23 PM   #16
madurakarenda
Hyperactive User
 
madurakarenda's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2011
Location: Madurai and TN
Posts: 6,762
Likes (Received): 530

mind blowing gilli btw, i know nil about the pics, it will be still more informative if you try to add some description to the pics.
madurakarenda no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 03:36 PM   #17
Madurai gilli
Registered User
 
Madurai gilli's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Madurai
Posts: 5,389
Likes (Received): 560

Rare visual treats of ancient Madurai















Source : The British Library Board via AAM.
__________________
தாமதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நீதி மறுக்கப்பட்ட நீதியே !

Judgement delayed is judgement denied !
Madurai gilli no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 03:54 PM   #18
Madurai gilli
Registered User
 
Madurai gilli's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Madurai
Posts: 5,389
Likes (Received): 560

Madurai Railway Junction - Rare photos



















Source : AAM
__________________
தாமதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நீதி மறுக்கப்பட்ட நீதியே !

Judgement delayed is judgement denied !

Last edited by Madurai gilli; December 10th, 2011 at 04:00 PM.
Madurai gilli no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 04:01 PM   #19
madurakarenda
Hyperactive User
 
madurakarenda's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2011
Location: Madurai and TN
Posts: 6,762
Likes (Received): 530

Gilli, American college must have looked like this in 1900 I hope. I think your post's title has a typo.
madurakarenda no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 10th, 2011, 04:07 PM   #20
Madurai gilli
Registered User
 
Madurai gilli's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Madurai
Posts: 5,389
Likes (Received): 560

Rare visual treats of ancient Madurai





















Source not clear - via AAM.
__________________
தாமதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நீதி மறுக்கப்பட்ட நீதியே !

Judgement delayed is judgement denied !
Madurai gilli no está en línea   Reply With Quote


Reply

Tags
madurai history

Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off



All times are GMT +2. The time now is 04:25 AM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.8 Beta 1
Copyright ©2000 - 2014, vBulletin Solutions, Inc.
Feedback Buttons provided by Advanced Post Thanks / Like v3.2.5 (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2014 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

vBulletin Optimisation provided by vB Optimise (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2014 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

SkyscraperCity ☆ In Urbanity We trust ☆ about us | privacy policy | DMCA policy

Hosted by Blacksun, dedicated to this site too!
Forum server management by DaiTengu