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Old August 6th, 2010, 05:10 PM   #101
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A tale of a royal tombstone

http://www.thehindu.com/arts/history...icle555664.ece



The domed tombstone stands stately against a melancholic evening sky. It is called the Queen's cemetery or Rani Kallarai. Only that the buried were no queens. They were three young women, outlanders, who lived, loved and died as wives of Governors in an alien land.

The cemetery, tucked away with a nondescript façade, behind the railway line here, adjoining the CSI graveyard speaks of a history- a history of imprints left behind by the Dutch East India CompanyThe tomb of the Queen is a definitive structure with the coat-of-arms (heraldry) of the buried etched on the three sides of the dome.

Underneath, resides a mother, with her arms around her still-born son, on whose delivery she lost her life. Buried alongside, are three other sons of hers, who had died ahead of their mother. Anthonio van Steelant- Nilo, wife of Joannes Van Steelant, the Governor of Dutch possessions on the Coromandel coast, died in 1709 at the age of 32.

In the insides of the Tomb, there is an engraved epitaph for the dead lady on the ceiling. The crevices nurturing plants at the four corners of the dome adds a certain poignance to the one that already defines the tombstone.

The mausoleum also hosts an obelisk (stone pillar tapering imposingly towards the sky) for Adriana Appels, wife of Jacob Mossel, Governor of Nagapattinam. Adriana's is majesterial in its own right facing Anthonio's tomb.

According to a short paper by a Dutch researcher which is available with the St.Peter's Church, “all the bells of Nagapattinam tolled throughout the day and the canons of the Dutch ship…fired a shot every fifteen minutes,” and that “the sky above Nagapattinam must have been heavy with the scent of gunpowder,” to mark Adriana's funeral.

...
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Old August 6th, 2010, 05:12 PM   #102
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State to celebrate contribution of Raja Raja-I to renaissance of art

http://www.thehindu.com/arts/history...icle551961.ece

Chief Minister M.Karunanidhi is of the view that there could be no better occasion to remember the King than the 1000th year of the Brihadeeswarar Temple

The State government is drawing up plans to celebrate in a grand manner the contribution of Chola King Raja Raja I to the renaissance of art and culture besides governance.

Chief Minister M.Karunanidhi is of the view that the celebration should not be delayed any more and there could be no better occasion to remember the King than the 1000th year of the Brihadeeswarar Temple.

The government wanted to organise the celebrations much earlier, but preparations for the World Classical Tamil Conference gave little room for any other elaborate event between January and June this year.

Using Raja Raja Chola as the theme, the Chief Minister wants to use the opportunity to inculcate in the younger generation the great achievements of Tamil leaders.

Though the celebration is still at a planning stage, indications are that the event will be held in Thanjvur and will have an elaborate paraphernalia of events that highlight the great works under the leadership of Raja Raja.

Of particular relevance will be the effort to place history in a context and make people realise the importance and the odds against which the great structures were built.

Noted archaeologist R. Nagasamy said “clarity of mind and drive for excellence in all the fields” were the hallmark of Raja Raja.

“He was a hero who applied his mind to every aspect of governance. He conducted land survey and introduced intelligent tax system and increased the area of cultivation, realising that it was vital to the State economy,” Dr Nagasamy, former director of Department of Archaeology said.

While Raja Raja Chola encouraged higher studies in every field by organising scholarly settlements in the form of Brahmin colonies, side by side he set up commercial establishments.

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Old August 7th, 2010, 04:54 PM   #103
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Poompuhar - Ancient Port

Exploration planned under the sea off Poompuhar on Tamil Nadu's coast could provide evidence of the thriving trade centre mentioned in the works of Ptolemy and Pliny

According to the Tamil epic Manimekalai, Poompuhar on Tamil Nadu's east coast was 'swallowed' by the sea following the curse of a goddess. The myth says that a Chola king, mourning his son's death, forgot to celebrate the annual spring festival, Indra Vizha and incurred the deity's wrath. Historians today believe that the disaster that hit the port town was a tsunami. Centuries later, the 2004 tsunami that ravaged modern-day Poompuhar has posed a big challenge to archaeologists. The ancient town lies buried in the sea and divers of the Goa-based National Institute of Oceanography will have to scrape through layers of sediment, sea barnacles, flora and fauna to piece together the story of the busy port town that had trade links with the east and the west.

"There is enough proof that the rich merchants of Manigrama, a suburban village of ancient Poompuhar, travelled by boats accompanied by 'sena muka' (soldiers to defend vessels against pirates) to Takua Pa (now in south Thailand) to trade in mani (gems). A Tamil inscription on a stone to this effect is still preserved in modern-day Takua Pa," says former state archaeology director, R Nagaswamy.

Notable Greeks such as Ptolemy and Pliny describe this Chola town as an important port. It flourished between the 3rd century BC and the 5th century AD and did business with both the Roman Empire and China, until it was washed away by tidal waves. Onshore and offshore excavations since the 1960s have given archaeologists an exciting glimpse of this once rich town. Excavations have revealed ring wells, brick structures, semi-precious stones and shards of amphorae. State archaeology minister Thangam Thennarasu says the government is keen on an elaborate exploration that can help unearth and preserve the remnants of an ancient Tamil culture. The government is in talks with the NIO for an expedition that would also include other ancient ports off the TN coast, now submerged under the sea.

Besides Poompuhar, the excavation team will also explore Alagankulam, near Rameswaram, Periyapattinam, where large quantities of porcelain were found, Korkai near Thoothukudi, mentioned in Sangam literature as a pearl-rich port and Nagapattinam, another port that flourished during the medieval period.


Source: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/i...ow/6270629.cms
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Old August 18th, 2010, 12:27 PM   #104
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Significance of Mayiladuthurai find

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Links between Harappa and Neolithic Tamil Nadu



RARE FIND: The Neolithic polished stone celt (hand-held axe) with the Indus valley script found at Sembian-Kandiyur village, near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. — Photo: Vino John

CHENNAI: The discovery of a Neolithic stone celt, a hand-held axe, with the Indus script on it at Sembian-Kandiyur in Tamil Nadu is, according to Iravatham Mahadevan, "a major discovery because for the first time a text in the Indus script has been found in the State on a datable artefact, which is a polished neolithic celt." He added: "This confirms that the Neolithic people of Tamil Nadu shared the same language family of the Harappan group, which can only be Dravidian. The discovery provides the first evidence that the Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Dravidian language." Mr. Mahadevan, an eminent expert on the subject, estimated the date of the artefact with the Indus script between 2000 B.C. and 1500 B.C.
It was in February 2006, when V. Shanmuganathan, a school teacher living in Sembian-Kandiyur, near Mayiladuthurai in Nagapattinam district, dug a pit in the backyard of his house to plant banana and coconut saplings, that he encountered two stone celts. The teacher, who is interested in archaeology, rang up his friend G. Muthusamy, Curator of the Danish Fort Museum at Tranquebar, which belongs to the Tamil Nadu Department of Archaeology. Mr. Muthusamy, who also belongs to the same village, took charge of the two celts from his friend and handed them over to T.S. Sridhar, Special Commissioner, State Department of Archaeology.
When Mr. Sridhar examined one of the two stones, he found some engravings on it. So he asked the epigraphists of his Department to study the particular celt. To their absolute delight, they found fours signs on it - and all four of them corresponded with the characters in the Indus script. When the celt with the Indus script was shown to Mr. Mahadevan, he confirmed that they were in the Indus script. The celt with the script measures 6.5 cm by 2.5 cm by 3.6 cm by 4 cm. It weighs 125 grams. The other celt has no engravings on it.
Mr. Mahadevan, one of the world's foremost scholars on the Indus and the Tamil-Brahmi scripts, is the author of the seminal work, The Indus Script: Texts, Concordance and Tables. It was published by the Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi in 1977.
First Indus sign

The first Indus sign on the celt showed a skeletal body with ribs, seated on his haunches, body bent, lower limbs folded and knees drawn up. The second sign shows a jar with a handle. The first sign stood for "muruku" and the second for "an." Together, they read as "Murukan." They formed a very frequent combination on the Indus seals and sealings, especially from Harappa. The first "muruku" sign corresponded with the sign number 48, the second with the number 342, the third, which looks like a trident, corresponded with the sign number 367, and the fourth with 301.
These numbers are found in the sign list published by Mr. Mahadevan.
He said: "`Muruku' and 'an' are shown hundreds of times in the Indus script found at Harappa. This is the importance of the find at Sembiyan-Kandiyur. Not only do the Neolithic people of Tamil Nadu and the Harappans share the same script but the same language." In Tamil Nadu, the muruku symbol was first identified from a pottery graffiti at Sanur, near Tindivanam. B.B. Lal, former Director-General of ASI, correctly identified this symbol with sign 47 of the Indus script. In recent years, the muruku symbol turned up among the pottery graffiti found at Mangudi, near Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, and at Muciri, Kerala. But this was the first time that a complete, classical Indus script had been found on a polished Neolithic stone celt, Mr. Mahadevan pointed out. He emphasised that the importance of the discovery was independent of the tentative decipherment of the two signs proposed by him.
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Old August 18th, 2010, 12:29 PM   #105
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"Discovery of a century" in Tamil Nadu

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Old August 18th, 2010, 12:43 PM   #106
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Tamizh must have been even older than what it is believed now

Tidal Waves & Under-Sea Land Slides that destroyed regions of ancient Tamil Nadu & the first two Tamil Sangams

We all have witnessed during our life time the large destructive Tidal Waves which are known today as the Tsunami (a Japanese Language word meaning "Harbour Waves") hitting the shores of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka, in addition to many other South and South-East Asian Countries on the 26th December 2004.

(1) Causes of "Tidal Waves"(Tsunami)

The "Tidal Waves" (Tsunami) are a series of destructive sea waves that moves across the ocean, generated by large and violent Earthquakes (i.e. Vibrations or Tremors) occuring beneath the sea.

These Earthquakes are due to sudden dislocation of the segments of the earth's crust, resulting from the under sea volcanic eruptions (i.e.molten rocks eruptions).

(2) Causes of "Under-Sea Land Slides"(Submarine Avalanches)

The "Under-Sea Landslides" (Submarine Avalanche) are falling or sliding of large masses of the mixture of - soil, rock, and other earth materials from outside the surface of the sea, rapidly into the sea under the force of gravity.

The seabeds wherever the offshore slopes dip steeply enough pose the threat of "Under-Sea Landslides", and sometimes may not even require Earthquakes to touch them off.

They are capable of generating deadly Tsunamis as the surface of the ocean first recedes and then surges forward to crash against the shores.

(3) References to "Tidal Waves" & "Under-Sea Land Slides" in early Tamil Literary Works

From the earliest Tamil literary works belonging to the first and second century Tamil Nadu, namely Iraiyanaar Ahapporul, Kaliththohai, Silappathikaaram, and Manimehalai, we come to know that in the ancient times too there had been massive Tidal Waves which have hit the shores of the Paandiya (Pandiya) country and the Chola country of the then Tamil Nadu of South India, causing very big damages and heavy losses.

At times there have been very ferrocious Tidal Waves that have hit Tamil Nadu, and large areas of the seaside lands and the lands much interior have submerged into the ocean, possibly due to big "Under-Sea Land Slides".

(4) The first known "Under-Sea Land Slides" that affected Tamil Nadu and the First Tamil Sangam

The Paandiya Country of the then Tamil Nadu of South India, had it's capital city in the inland known as the "Adakak Kudumi Maadak Koodal" which means: the Koodal (city) with buildings having golden spires.

Mathurai was the other name of this city of Koodal. It was at this Koodal (or Mathurai) city of the Paandiya country, the first Tamil Sangam (a Tamil Academy) with many Tamil Poets fostering the growth and development of the Tamil Language & Literature under the patronage of the Paandiya kings, was instituted and conducted for many years.

The city of Koodal or "Thenmathurai" being the location of the first Thamil Sangam is confirmed by the follows:

“……Adahak Kudumi Maadak Koodalin munnarach Sangakk kanmaa palahaiyil ……thinthirat pulamai kundihaik kurumuni, puvipuhal maruthang kaviniya Muranjip pathi Mudi nahanithiyin kilavan……”

“……..Muthal Uli iruthiyk kan Then Mathurai yahaththu thalaich sangaththu Ahathithiyanaarrum, Muranjiyoor Mudinagaraayarum…..”


which means: ".....in front of the Koodal with golden spires on the palahai (seat) of the Sangam office, the world famed poet with sweet compositions the sage Mudinaganithi of the Muranji centre......"

"........in the Uli the Agathiyaaar and Muranjiyoor Mudinagaraayarum.......[/u]"


[i]Silappathikaram - Page 7-8 (U.V.Saminatha Iyer's Edition). Poem found in an old Ola Leaf Manuscript in the house of Sevvur Sittrampalak Kavirayer included in this edition.


It was during the first Tamil Sangam period the ferrocious Tidal Waves of the Sea of a very great magnitude, have hit and destroyed the coastel and far inland areas of the Paandiya country, most possibly due to a very massive Under-Sea Land Slide which sank a very large land mass with many countries, range of mountains, rivers, and forests far south of the present Kumari region (in the south) which all went under sea.

This fact is testified by “Adiyaarkku Nallaar” in his commentry to the Tamil Epic the Silappathikaram, which provides further informations on same as follows:

"......Ak kaalaththu ‘avar naattuth’ Thenpaali mukaththitkku vada ellaiyahiya Pahtruli ennum aartritkum Kumari ennum aartritkum idaiye elunoortru kaavatha vaarum ivattrin neer malivaanena malintha Earl Thenga naadum, Earl Mathurai naadum, Earl Munpaalai Naadum, Earl Pinpaalai Nadum, Earl Kuntra Naadum, Earl Kuna Kaarai Naadum, Earl Kurumpanai Naadum ennum naatpaththu onpathu naadum, Kumari Kollam muthaliya panmalai naadum, kaadum, nathiyum, pathiyum, thadaneer Kumari Vadaperum Kottin ‘karum kadal kondolithalat’ Kumariyahiya Pauvam entru unarha....."

which means: "....In those days between the Thenpaalimukam (southern “seawater” front) of his (Pandiyan's) country, and the northern boundry being the Pahtruli river and the Kumari river, there had been 700 hundred Kaavatham distance and in between which there were forty nine countries, (named) the Earl(seven) ThengaNadu, Earl(seven) Mathurai Nadu, Earl(seven) Munpaalai Naadu, Earl(seven) Kuntra Nadu, Earl(seven) Kunakaarai Nadu, Earl(seven) Kurumpanai Nadu, the country known as Kumarik Kollam of many mountains, the forests, rivers, cities, upto (but not) the northern big mountain range of Kumarik Kodu - were swallowed by the sea......"

Silappathikaram - Puhar Kandam, Venit Kaathai, Page 228
(U.V.Saminatha Iyer's Edition)


From the above reference it is very clear that there had been a large land mass of about 700 Kavatham distance (1750 miles) covering forty nine countries and a region called Kumari Kollam in between the northen mountain range of this landmass known as Kumarik Kodu and its far southern “seawater” front (Thenpaalimugam), having many mountains, forests, rivers and cities.

From same it appears the region just south of Kumarik Kodu was a region called the Kumarik Kollam. In the south of this region have been the Pahruli river, and the Kumari River was close beyond the Pahruli river in it’s south.

In the above reference it is confirmed that these two rivers were the northern boundries of the lost large land mass. It also appears the next two regions beyond Kumarik Kollam would have been the Earl Thenganaadu & Earl Mathurai Nadu.

It appears the Kumarikkodu mountain range and the Pahtruli river escaped this sea disaster while the Kumari river with the major part of Kumari Kollam and the entire land mass south with forty nine countries went under sea. Among these countries which went under sea was the “Earl Mathurai Nadu” which is undoubtedly the "Then Mathurai" (Southern Mathurai) the capital city of the early Pandiya kings which comprised the first Thamil Sangam of the Pandiya country.

This first known Sea destruction cannot be simply estimated as a Tsunami that we have witnessed during our life time. But it appears to be a vast and massive "Under Sea Land Slide - a Submarine Avalanche covering approximately 1750 miles in the southernly direction beyond the the Kumarik Kodu and Pahtruli river gradually sliding into the sea. This is probably the vast landmass the modern Geological Scientists refer to as “Lost Lemuria” or “Kumari Kandam” which was submerged in the sea.

It also appears the great land mass beyond present Kanyakumari district was probably embracing the present Sri Lanka too within, and with this massive "Under-Sea Land Slide" in the south of India it was seperated from the remaining Indian Mainland.

This could be a definite possibility as “Sivatharumoththaram” says at the foot of the Mahendra mountain was the Illankai thesam and that give us a clue that the Mahendra Mountain range extended beyond the present Kanyakumari region along the west of the present Sri Lanka and the Illangai Thesam was on the east of the Mahendra Mountain range at its foot hills which submerged in to the sea leaving back Sri Lanka.

This destruction would have taken place long before the period of the epic story Ramayana. This is confirmed by the reference in the Valmiki Ramayana that the Mahendra mountain range of the then Kumarik Kodu remained almost fully submerged into the sea at the time of Ramayana epic, and only a peak of this range remained on the outside surface during the time of this epic story, and continues to remain even today known as the Mahendragiri (or Mahendra Malai) in the present Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu.

This is confirmed by the Valmiki Ramayana as follows.

".......agastyena antare tatra saagare viniveshitaH |
citra saanu nagaH shriimaan mahendraH parvatottamaH || 4-41-20
jaata ruupamayaH shriimaan avagaaDho mahaarNavam |
naanaa vidhaiH nagaiH phullaiH lataabhiH ca upashobhitam || 4-41-21


which means: "There, with its one end verily penned in by Sage Agastya inside the ocean, the fortunate Mt. Mahendra is there, with its marvellous pinnacles and the best among the mountains.." [4-41-20] "That august Mt. Mahendra is completely golden penetrating into ocean and it is glorified with numerous kinds of flowered trees and climbers also... [4-41-21]

Valmihi Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - Chapter [Sarga] 41

The sinking of the Mahendra Mountain range into sea, and only one peak remaining is further confirmed by Tamil Saiva Saint Thirumaaligai Thevar in his Thiruvisaippa (of the 9th Thirumurai) as,

".....Aluntha Mahendraththu....."

[which means: the Mahendra Mountain (portion) that never sunk]

The survived peak of the Mahendra mountain range could be seen even today, south of Thaamiraparani river in the present Kanyakumari district, almost midway between the Thirukkurungudi and Bhutapandi having a height of 1,654 Metres (5,425 Ft), and presently called as the Mahendragiri. (Giri is mountain - in Sanskrit, and Malai in Tamil)

Further from the commentery of “Adiyaarkku Nallaar” in Silappathikarem referred above, it is clear the northern most region of this large land mass – the Kumarikkodu range of mountains with Kummarik Kollam and the Pahruli river escaped the wrath of the sea, and from the sequential order of the countries listed above immediately after them, it is clear the Pandiyanadu of that period encompassed the Earl Thenga Nadu and the Earl Mathurai Nadu, from where possibly people would have fled more towards the north to the regions of Kumarik Kollam and the Pahruli river.

Hence we can safely infer that with the gradual submerging of Earl Thenga Nadu and Earl Mathurai Nadu, and with the Pahruli river and Kumarikkkodu escaping the wrath of the sea, the Paandiyan king and the first Tamil Sangam Pulavars and other subjects managed to escape further north to Pahruli river and the Kumarikkodu region, which could have been a definite possibility. The Paandiyan king who was ruling during the end of the first Thamil Sangam was the Kadungkoan which is confirmed by the follows :

“….Thalaich Sangamirunthaar……avarkalaich sangamiree iyinaar Kaichchina Valuthi muthalaha Kadungkoan eeraaha enpaththonpathinmar enba……”

Iraiyanaar Ahapporul - Nakkeeeranaar Urai
Published by Bhavanantham Pillai - Mullai Nilayam Publication


From the same source another reference confirms the first Pandiyan king of second Thamil Sangam was Vendherch (Venther) Cheliyan. Hence it is clear the last Paandiyan king of the first Thamil Sangam the Kadungkoan did not survive the tidal waves with undersea landslides.

(5) The second known "Under-Sea Land Slides" that affected Tamil Nadu and the Second Tamil Sangam

With this loss of the large territories of the Pandiya country, the then king Nediyon moved more towards the north and captured many new regions and made them the new Pandiyan regions, and distributed the captured lands to his subjects who met the loss - but possibly escaped this great tragedy, made him get the title "Nilam Tharu Thiruvit Pandiyan" [which mean: "the Pandiyan who made the kind gesture of lands"]

The Paandiyan king now built his new capital at Kapaadapuram (Kavadam). From the reference in the Valmiki Ramayana it is very clear that the Kapaadapuram the new captial city of the Pandiyas was closer to the sea. This is confirmed by the follows:

"......yuktam Kavaatam Paandyaanaam gataa draksyatha Vaanaraah tatah samudram......"

(which means: "...... having reached Kavaatam of Pandiya ongoing you shall see Vaanarah (Oh! Anuman) then ocean...."]

Valmihi Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - Chapter (Sarga) 41


This is further confirmed by the follows.

".......maasil vaan munneer parantha thonnilam aalum kilamaiyodu punarnththa enko vaaliyar im malarthalai ulake......"

[which means: (let) our king (long) live in this wide world, who is ruling with the right to rule the speckless sky - wide seafront ancient land]

Mullaikkali in Kalithithohai refers to a Pandiyan.

Hence the 'wide seafront ancient land' could possibly refer to Kapaadapuram]

Kaliththohai - Mullaikkali - 3rd poem

From the above it is clear the second Pandiyan capital Kapaadapuram was closer to the sea some what east of the present Mathurai. The Pandiyan king with a view of preventing further sea disasters had a festival celeberated for the Sea God and hence he was known as "Munneer Vilavu Nediyon" (Munner Vilavu = Sea (God) celeberation) and also as "Vadivalamba nintra Pandiyan".

In this new city of Kapaadapuram the Paandiyan king establised the second Thamil Sangam which is confirmed by the follows.

"......Irandaam Uliyathakiya Kapaadapuraththin Idai Sangam......."

[which means: "the middle (second) Sangam of the Kapaadapuram of second Uli" (Uli – period after great disaster)]

Silappathikaram - Uraipayiram, Adiyaarkku Nallaar Urai Kaathai, Page 6-7 (U.V.Saminatha Iyer's Edition)


".......Idaich Sangam vinnakam paravu methahu keerththik Kannakan parapit Kapaadapuram enba....."

[which means: "the middle (second) Sangam at Kapaadapuram the land of Kannakan (the Pandiyan) of great fame spreading to the heaven"]

Silappathikaram - Page 7, Poem found in an old Ola Manuscript in the house of Sevvur Sittampalak Kavirayer, (U.V.Saminatha Iyer's Edition)


It was in this second Thamil Sangam at Kapaadapuram (during the Ramayana Epic period) the poet Agaththiyar wrote the treatise on Tamil Grammer known as “Agaththiyar Illakkanam” and some time later the poet Tholkaappianar too wrote a treatise on Tamil Grammer named the “Tholkaappiam” in the presence of the Pandiyan Nediyon also known as Nilam Tharu Thiruvit Pandiyan. This is confirmed from the follows:

"......mahathuvamudaiya Agaththiya Illakkanam vaduvaru kaatchi naduvat sangath Agaththiyar Tholkaappiyath Thamil Munivar.......an naal Illakkanam Agaththiyam athanodu pinnaat seitha pirangu Tholkaapiam......"

(which means: "the Naduvar Sangam where the Agaththiya Illakanam of esteem was (staged), to weed off the faults (there the) Agaththiyar and Thokaapiya Thamil sage"

Silappathikaram - Poem found in an old Ola Manuscript in the house of Sevvur Sittampalak Kavirayer, Page 7
(U.V.Saminatha Iyer's Edition)


"........irrandaam Uliyathakiya Kappaadapuraththin idaich Sangaththu Tholkaappiam pulappaduththiya Maakeerthiyaakiya Nilam tharu thiruvit Pandiyan avaikkalaththu Agathiyanaarum, Tholkaappianaarum......???"

[which means: "the middle (second) Sangam of the Kapaadapuram of second Uli where the Nilam tharu thiruvit Pandiyan who brought forth the Tamil Grammer Work the Tholkaappiam, in his auditorium where the Agathiyanaar and Tholkaappianaar were present"

Silappathikaram - Uraipayiram, Adiyaarkku Nallaar Urai Kaathai, Page 7-8


Also include Panambaranar's Paayiram from Tholkaappiam.

“….vada vengadam thenkumari aayidai thamil kurum nalulakaththu….”

“…..Nilam thiruvit Pandiyon avaiyaththu…….”
“….malku neer varaippin iyinthiram niraintha
Tholkaappian enath than peyar thotrip
Palpuhal niruththa padimaiyone….”


This further confirms that Tholkappiam was staged during the time of "Nilan tharu thiruvit Pandiyan"

include Pahruli manalinum palave.
The above was sung by Panambaranar who lived during the time of Netimaiyar. ?????????

Many years after the period of the Ramayana Epic the destructive waves of the sea, again destroyed the Pandiyan capital, on this occasion the Kapaadapuram with the second Thamil Sangam.

This too would have been the destructive fierce Tidal Waves resulting again from a big Under-Sea Land Slides, with the destruction of the Paandiya country with the Paandiyan capital Kapaadapuram with the river Pahruli and some adjoing lands along the coastel regions and the Kumari Range of Mountains (Kumarkikodu) went under sea.

This fact is testified in the great Tamil epic the Silappathikaram as follows:

".........Pahtruli arttrudan pan Malai adukkaththuk Kumarik Kodum kodung kadal kolla
vada thisaik Gangaiyum Imayamum kondu then thisai aanda Thennavan vaali......."


(which means: "....long live the Pandiyan [who, when] the Pahtruli river and the many ranges of mountains of the Kumarik Kodu was swallowed up by the fierce sea, captured the the Ganges [river] and the Himalayas of the north and ruled the south ")

Silappathikaram - Madurai Kandam, Kaadu Kaan Kaathai, Line 19-22, Page 289

(U.V.Saminatha Iyer's Edition)

This is further confirmed by another Sangam period Tamil Literary work Kaliththohai which states as follows.

".....Mali thirai oornthu than mann kadal vowvalin melivintri metsentru mewaar naadu idampadap puliyodu vil neekkip puhal priththa kilar kendai valiyinaal vanakkiya vaadaar seer thenavan....."

(which means: when the sea with many waves rolled and swallowed his lands without depression went further captured the countries of those not subdued to him, removing the tiger and bow flags establised the fame of the kendai (fish) made to worship by his valour the Thennavan of unfading fame)

Kaliththohai - Mullaikkali - 4th poem



Panambaranar ref re Sea tide

(6) The building of the Third capital city and establishment of the third Tamil Sangam by Pandiyan king

It was probably after that the Paandiyans realised the gravity of the natural disasters and built the new capital much interior in the central region of lower South India far away from the sea also known as Mathurai, apparently the present Mathurai where they held the third Thamil Sangam.

As this was the new city of the Paandiyas where the third Thamil Sangam was established bearing the same name as the city where the first Thamil Sangam functioned earlier in the lands in the south which have now submerged into the sea, the Mathurai of the third Thamil Sangam was referred to as the Vada Mathurai (Northern Mathurai) during that period.

This is confirmed by the following:

".....Arung Kadaich Sangam irunthor........puviyit Sangam puhal Vada Mathurai......"

(which means: who were in the unique last (third) Sangam......in this earth the Sangam famed northern Mathurai)

Silappathikaram - Poem found in an old Ola Manuscript in the house of Sevvur Sittampalak Kavirayer, Page 8
(U.V.Saminatha Iyer's Edition)


During the period the Pandiyas establised the third Tamil Sangam at the new Mathurai in the central region of southern India, the Cholas had their capital at Kaviripoompattinam also known as Poompuhar.

(7) The Tidal Waves that affected the Chola capital Kaviripoompattinam of Tamil Nadu

The God Indra was known in Tamil Nadu as the god of ocean during the Ramayana days and the legend holds that God Indra visited on auspiciou days the Kumari region where the Mount Mahendra is situated which is confirmed by the following statement in the Ramayana.

"......tam upaiti sahasraaksah sadaa parvasu parvasu |

dviipah tasya apare paare shata yojana visritah ||...... " 4-41-23


(which means: "The Thousand-eyed Indra always reaches that Mt. Mahendra on every auspicious day... and the other shore is an island with a breadth of hundred yojana-s")

Valmihi Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - Chapter [Sarga] 41


The Cholas probably realising the gravity of the sea tides from the experiences of the Paandiya Naadu yearly had a great festival for fourteen days worshiping the ocean god Indra as Indra Vilaa at the ocean front where the Kaveri river joined the sea and where they had built their capital city the Kaviripoompatinam.

The people of Kavirimpoompattinam believed that if the Indra Villa festival is defaulted that they had to meet the wrath of Bootham hence the festival should be conducted.

".......viduththa bootham vilaakkon marappin madiththa sevvaai val eyiri ilanga Idikuran mulakkaththu thedumbai seithidum thoduththa paasaththu tholpathinarakarai pudaiththunnum porunthathaayidum......."

Manimehalai - Villavarai Kaathai , Lines 20-26 Page 13 &14 (U.V.Saminatha Iyer Edition)

From the Silappathikarem we note after the tragedy and death of the heroine Kannahi (Paththini) the Chola kings defaulted in conducting the annual seafront festival to God Indira. This resulted in the Kaviripoompattinam also known as Poompuhar having to face the fierce Tidal Waves of the sea which destroyed this seaport city.

"......Kavirip Pattinam kadal kolu entru thavaththu urai kettu....."

Manimekalai - Kachchimaanahar pukka Kaathai - 28 Line 135-136

".......manangkaval keduththathu Manahar kadal kolla Aravanaadikalum Thayarum aangu vittu irrava ipPathi puhunthathu......."

Manimekalai - Kachchimaanahar pukka Kaathai - 28 Line 80-83

"......Vaanavan vilakkoan maanagar olinthathu Mamimekalatheivam mattrathu poraal anninagar thannai alai kadal kolha ena vittanal saabam patta ithuvat kadavun Managar Kadal kolla peyarntha vadivet thadakkai vaanavan pola virithirai vanthu viyannager vilunga oru thani poyinan ulaka mannavan......"

Manimehalai - Aapuththiranodu Manipallvam adaintha kaathai - 25 page 289 Line 197-204

"Thivaka Santhi Seyya naalun Kaavan Ma nagar Kadal vayiru pukoom Manimekali than vaaimoli yaalathu thaniyaa Indra saabam undaakalin aangu pathiyalithalum eengu pathi keduthalum ventharai yatoi meyena kondik kaasin managar kadal vayiru puhaamal vaasavan vilaa kon maravel"

Manimehalai - Aapuththiranodu Manipallvam adaintha kaathai - 25 page 289 Line 63-69

"Vinnavar Thalaivanai vananki munintru mannaha thentran vaanpathi thannul
meloar vilaiya vilakkol eduththa naal earl naalilum nankinithuraikkena amarar thalaivan aangathu nernthathu"


Manimehalai - Vilaavarai kaathai - 12 page 289 Line 5-9


source


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Old August 18th, 2010, 01:37 PM   #107
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Tamil Brahmi script in Egypt

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CHENNAI: A broken storage jar with inscriptions in Tamil Brahmi script has been excavated at Quseir-al-Qadim, an ancient port with a Roman settlement on the Red Sea coast of Egypt. This Tamil Brahmi script has been dated to first century B.C. One expert described this as an “exciting discovery.”
The same inscription is incised twice on the opposite sides of the jar. The inscription reads paanai oRi, that is, pot (suspended) in a rope net.
An archaeological team belonging to the University of Southampton in the U.K., comprising Prof. D. Peacock and Dr. L. Blue, who recently re-opened excavations at Quseir-al-Qadim in Egypt, discovered a fragmentary pottery vessel with inscriptions.
Dr. Roberta Tomber, a pottery specialist at the British Museum, London, identified the fragmentary vessel as a storage jar made in India.
Iravatham Mahadevan, a specialist in Tamil epigraphy, has confirmed that the inscription on the jar is in Tamil written in the Tamil Brahmi script of about first century B.C.
In deciphering the inscription, he has had the benefit of expert advice from Prof. Y. Subbarayalu of the French Institute of Pondicherry, Prof. K. Rajan of Central University, Puducherry and Prof. V. Selvakumar, Tamil University, Thanjavur.
According to Mr. Mahadevan, the inscription is quite legible and reads: paanai oRi, that is, ‘pot (suspended in) a rope net.’ The Tamil word uRi, which means rope network to suspend pots has the cognate oRi in Parji, a central Dravidian language, Mr. Mahadevan said. Still nearer, Kannada has oTTi, probably from an earlier oRRi with the same meaning.
The word occurring in the pottery inscription found at Quseir-al-Qadim can also be read as o(R)Ri as Tamil Brahmi inscriptions generally avoid doubling of consonants.
Earlier excavations at this site about 30 years ago yielded two pottery inscriptions in Tamil Brahmi belonging to the first century A.D.
Another Tamil Brahmi pottery inscription of the same period was found in 1995 at Berenike, also a Roman settlement, on the Red Sea coast of Egypt, Mr. Mahadevan said.
These discoveries provided material evidence to corroborate the literary accounts by classical Western authors and the Tamil Sangam poets about the flourishing trade between the Tamil country and Rome (via the Red Sea ports) in the early centuries A.D.
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Old August 18th, 2010, 01:53 PM   #108
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Bull-baiting of yore - Evidence of jallikattu in the Indus Valley emerges

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PROOF POSITIVE: A seal made of stone, found at Mohenjodaro, depicting “jallikattu” (bull-baiting) that was prevalent in the Indus Civilisation. The seal, about 4,000 years old, is on display at the National Museum, New Delhi.

CHENNAI: “Jallikattu,” which is bull-baiting or bull fighting, is an ancient Dravidian tradition that was practised about 4,000 years ago during the Indus Valley civilisation.
A well-preserved seal found at Mohenjodaro in the 1930s attests to this, according to Iravatham Mahadevan, a specialist in Indus and Brahmi scripts.
This seal realistically brings alive a vigorous scene of bull-fighting. It portrays a ferocious bull in action, several men or a single man (according to two different interpretations), thrown in the air by it as they try to control it.
Clearly, the bull is the victor. This seal, made of stone, is on display in the National Museum, New Delhi. It can be dated to 2,000 B.C., Mr. Mahadevan said. Several scholars had commented upon this seal as portraying bull-baiting during the Indus civilisation, he added.
Jallikattu is in the news after the Supreme Court on January 11 declined to give permission to Tamil Nadu Government and some villages for the conduct of this sport. It is traditionally organised in the State during Pongal which falls on January 15 this year.
The seal found at Mohenjodaro, now in Pakistan, shows a single bull with curved horns in the “action” of goring a single man or several men. Its horns are shown in the middle to depict the speed and fluency of its action: the angry bull has suddenly turned its neck sideways to toss the daring men and then its neck has come to its original position.
The seal has used the frieze technique to portray the charged atmosphere. There were two interpretations to what was engraved on the seal, Mr. Mahadevan said. One school is of the opinion that the seal shows several men, who tried to control the bull, thrown up in the air by the animal. A couple of men are shown flying in the air with their legs and hands spread out, a third man is seen jumping to grab the bull, another is somersaulting and yet another has pathetically come to rest on his haunch.
Mr. Mahadevan, however, is of the opinion that the seal shows only one man, who is flung into the air by the bull, his flying, his plunging, his somersaulting and finally sitting on his haunch.
A colour photograph of this seal is found at No. M 312 in The Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions, Volume 1, edited by Asko Parpola and others.
There is no script on the seal. Mr. Mahadevan’s The Indus Script: Texts, Concordance and Tables, is a seminal book on the Indus script. It was published in 1977 by the Archaeological Survey of India. He has also published Corpus of the Tamil-Brahmi Inscriptions (1966).
Bull-baiting figures in the Mahabharatha, which describes Krishna controlling a ferocious bull in the forecourt of Kamsa’s palace.
Outside India, bull-baiting is practised in Spain and Portugal.
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Old August 18th, 2010, 02:18 PM   #109
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Indus script does encode a language

New study reported in Science shows it was no mere ‘chain of symbols’

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An Indus seal from Mohenjodaro

Chennai: Computation science, information theory, and machine learning have now come to the vindication of Indus Valley scholars – providing a new type of “quantitative evidence for the existence of linguistic structure in the Indus script, complementing other arguments that have been made explicitly or implicitly in favour of the linguistic hypothesis.” This quantitative evidence comes from the results of a statistical study published online recently in the journal Science ( http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/conten...ract/1170391v1).
Drawing from multiple disciplines, using rigorous equations, and through scientific number crunching, a team of scientists — including the well-known Indus script scholar, Iravatham Mahadevan — have demonstrated that the Indus script encodes a language and is not a mere “chain of symbols,” as an article published in 2004 claimed.
The seals and tablets of the Indus civilisation that flourished between 2500 and 1900 B.C carry examples of what has long been understood to be writing in an unknown language. Despite many attempts, the script, known for 130 years, has not been deciphered. The 2004 article, published in the Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies, challenged the idea that the Indus script encoded language and suggested that it might have been a non-linguistic symbol system like the Vinèa inscriptions of southeastern Europe and the Near Eastern emblem systems.
The new statistical study compared the pattern of symbols found on Indus Valley artifacts to five types of natural linguistic systems (the Sumerian logo-syllabic system, the Old Tamil alpha-syllabic system, the Rig Vedic Sanskrit alpha-syllabic system, English words, and English characters), four types of non-linguistic systems (including human DNA sequences and bacterial protein sequences), and the artificially created computer programming language, Fortran.
The decisive finding was that “the conditional entropy of Indus inscriptions closely matches those of linguistic systems and remains far from non-linguistic systems…The similarity in conditional entropy to Old Tamil, a Dravidian language, is especially interesting in light of the fact that many of the prominent decipherment efforts to date…have converged upon a proto-Dravidian hypothesis for the Indus script.”
The study is the collaborative work of Rajesh P.N. Rao, a University of Washington computer scientist; Nisha Yadav and Mayank N. Vahia of the Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai; Hrishikesh Joglekar, a software engineer from Mumbai; Ronojoy Adhikari, Faculty Fellow at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai; and Mr. Mahadevan at the Indus Research Centre, Chennai.
Dr. Adhikari, who specialises in Novel Applications of Statistical Mechanics, has no doubt that that the Indus script was part of a structured language. Opening his Nokia mobile phone, he types the alphabets H and A one after the other. The messaging service automatically fills the next two slots with V and E. “This,” he says, “is a simple algorithm the mobile phone uses to help you complete a word quickly. It works on the principle of correlation. In English, when you use the alphabet Q, the next one that follows is often U. Every language has a probability or flexibility of what token would come after another. A token could be an alphabet or punctuation or any component of the linguistic system. We have used the idea of entropy to measure the non-randomness in a linguistic system including the Indus script.”
When Dr. Adhikari and his collaborators compared the conditional entropy of the Indus script with the conditional entropies of the various linguistic and non-linguistic systems, the results provided “quantitative evidence for the existence of linguistic structure in the Indus script.” “The Indus script,” he explains, “comes close to the entropy value of Old Tamil and lends credence to the debate that the Indus script is connected with the Dravidian language.”
The use of statistical methods is not new to research on the Indus script. The point of departure in the new study is the use of rigorous correlation techniques, a significant methodological advance.
Work on the Indus script continues. The temporal and spatial analysis of the script has been completed and awaits publication. There is scope to compare the Indus script with systems like the Chinese pictograms and the Egyptian hieroglyphics. Dr. Adhikari believes that all these efforts “are taking us closer to understanding the Indus script.”
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Old August 18th, 2010, 02:47 PM   #110
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Thank you Mad 4 Madras on the write up titled 'Tamil must be older than what it is believed now'. Quite comprehensive and compelling evidence from old texts about existence of older Tamil sangams and destruction of lands due to Tsunami and land slides.

Archaelogists some day will find more evidence of the same.
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Old August 18th, 2010, 11:24 PM   #111
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Off the beaten track

http://www.thehindu.com/arts/history...icle579238.ece

Chennai is filled with reminders of an ancient past. But there are a few places that not many people view as tourist attractions…

Theosophical Society

Founded in 1875 in Adyar, the Theosophical Society is a world-wide organisation with the primary objective of Universal Brotherhood without distinction of race, caste, or class, and works towards the oneness of human beings by removing religious antagonism. Founded by Dr. Annie Besant, the Theosophical Society campus in Adyar is a must visit for its serene beauty and spiritual calm.

Vedanthangal

A sanctuary for migratory birds and ornithologists, Vedanthangal has been luring birds for well over 250 years. It is one of the most alluring breeding grounds in India; an unspoilt landscape with birds from across the world migrating there especially from November to January. Sunset and sunrise are the most scenic times with bird-watchers and curious tourists.

...
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Old August 19th, 2010, 08:26 AM   #112
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Arasu View Post
Thank you Mad 4 Madras on the write up titled 'Tamil must be older than what it is believed now'. Quite comprehensive and compelling evidence from old texts about existence of older Tamil sangams and destruction of lands due to Tsunami and land slides.

Archaelogists some day will find more evidence of the same.
Credit must equally go to my dear friend Rajendran.
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Old August 19th, 2010, 09:41 AM   #113
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The other posting on the find of IV script on a stone axe and its reading by Mahadevan as 'Murugan' is path-breaking. If confirmed it will atleast seal the deal about the language on the seals besides a few other obvious conclusions.
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Old August 19th, 2010, 09:46 AM   #114
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Yes. I would love more scholars to get into this field as each and every decipherment heads to Iravadam and that can be shackled by other language gimmicks wanted-ly.
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Old August 23rd, 2010, 10:03 AM   #115
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One Interesting Story - Over the Net

TAMIL is the FIRST Language of India as well the FOREMOST in the World.!!!

--Says One French Historian, which multi-faceted Truth and this was endorsed by an American multi-scholar Dr. David Kaylor, who took zealous interest in Tamil language and learnt it to a scholarly level such that he could write an Analytical Treatise on Tamil-Veda THIRUVAAYMOZHI and also extol that...

Quote:
"TAMIL-VEDA, THIRUVAAYMOZHI as the Most Exemplary Gospel of HUMAN-VALUES.!"

In support of such a stand on the Greatness of Tamil Language, I had a MIRACULOUS EXPERIENCE—

--INCREDIBLE—but TRUE ! – Yes, My Personal Experience, about 50 years back


In a village near Nagpur India, my friends took me to a Sadhu baba Maharashtrian Brahmin, who was said to be a very rare person endowed with a high standard of Spiritual powers ESP (Extra Sensory Powers)--

--especially a THOUGHT-READER who could be possessed by the Holy Spirit of Sri Sant Tukaram and narrate His words in reply to our Questions on Life.

When I came in front of him, he opened his closed eyes and just smiled at me silently— raising one hand up, in a blessing gesture. Then closed his eyes on meditation.

My friends whispered to me, “Oh You are lucky.! He rarely permits anybody and he has invited you with blessings. It is a good sign to mean that he is prepared to answer to your questions.”

As already guided by my Friends earlier— I prostrated at him and sat in front silently.

With closed eyes, he started talking to me in Hindi. (He knew only two Languages, Marathi and Hindi. I was well-conversant with Hindi too.)

“Your name is ------- (Said Correctly) --- You are a person of SARASWATHI-BASHA . You have come here for ---- purpose. Now You have come to me to get answers on Life Questions---- and so on-- he was uttering one after another amazing statements of Truth past and present, on my personal Life unknown to anybody else as Mankind.

Then I asked “What is meant by SARASWATHI-BASHA.?”

He replied “Your Language TAMIL is SARASWATHI-BASHA, created by Vishnu and taught by Him to Saraswathi devi who subsequently taught it to the Earthly Mankind then at Prayag (Allahabad), several Thousands of years back as the First Language of the World.

Sanskrit is a BRAHMA-BASHA which too was created by lord Vishnu and taught to Brahma who propogated it on Earth through Maha-Rishis (Sages) by Vedic Gospel but such an exclusive language Sanskrit was introduced to Earthly Mankind subsequently, only as a SECOND LANGUAGE after Tamil, the Saraswathi-Basha, the first Conversational Language in the world for the Common public. Since taught by Brahma, the Language Sanskrit is called Brahma-Basha.

Why named Saraswathi-Basha?
Not only because the Guru for teaching Tamil to the Mankind was Saraswathi-devi, but also because every time, Saraswathi-devi used to emerge out of Saraswathi-River at Prayag, Ganga, Yamuna, Saraswathi Tri- Rivers Junction. Stranger people too called Your Language Tamil--- as SARASWATHI-BASHA” Said Sadhu-Baba to me in person.

I could believe it by linking with Frenchman’s History on the Origin of Tamil Language, further coupled with another narration of Hearsay on the Tamil Saint AUVAIYAR’s Super-human Biography.!!!

Yes Tamil is the SARASWATHI-BASHA.!!!

I believe it--- whether Others believe so, Or Not.!
"
I have not provided the source as I don't trust that. Put here as I thought it was interesting.
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Old August 23rd, 2010, 10:33 AM   #116
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Are they really outsiders

Hi Friends, I have one Beginenrs question...Sincearly hope this will not turn into
Anti or Pro Caste Thread...

One day i got angry with my friend(who is a Brahmin) and told him to go to
ur place in North India Because that day he is teasing me too much. He again
laughed and told me Brahmins also belongs to here only and just like different caste that also one local caste.

To prove that he also telling that recent DNA research also proving that and People from Kashmir(Barring some muslim pathans) to Kanyakumari share the same DNA sequece...Is that true?

Then why Periyar and Karunadhi told they had came from for north?
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Old August 23rd, 2010, 10:53 AM   #117
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Mad 4 Madras View Post
[FONT=Verdana][SIZE=2]TAMIL is the FIRST Language of India as well the FOREMOST in the World.!!!
yes... it is really intresting to hear such story.. could you please post the link of that story (source)?
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Old August 23rd, 2010, 11:40 AM   #118
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Quote:
Originally Posted by native View Post
Hi Friends, I have one Beginenrs question...Sincearly hope this will not turn into
Anti or Pro Caste Thread...

One day i got angry with my friend(who is a Brahmin) and told him to go to
ur place in North India Because that day he is teasing me too much. He again
laughed and told me Brahmins also belongs to here only and just like different caste that also one local caste.

To prove that he also telling that recent DNA research also proving that and People from Kashmir(Barring some muslim pathans) to Kanyakumari share the same DNA sequece...Is that true?

Then why Periyar and Karunadhi told they had came from for north?
Everything is a myth. Kadavulin siranda padaipu manidhan, manidhanin siranda padaipu kadavul.

To answer scientifically: Science don't have an answer either on the origin of life. If man came from monkey, where monkey came from and that came from what?

I would stop here and would take this discussion to Chaibar here
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Last edited by Mad 4 Madras; August 23rd, 2010 at 12:16 PM.
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Old August 23rd, 2010, 11:46 AM   #119
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Ananth2604 View Post
yes... it is really intresting to hear such story.. could you please post the link of that story (source)?
Thats from another Forum called The Hub from Mayyam.com. Link
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Old August 24th, 2010, 05:32 AM   #120
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http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/c...ow/6398028.cms

NAGAPATTINAM: An 11th-century idol of a Jain Tirthankara has been found in a riverbed near Vedaranyam in Nagapattinam district.

The stone idol, about two feet tall, was found without its head. Experts who inspected it felt that the head could have been knocked off by vandals. However, the possibility of accidental wreckage could not be ruled out as well, they added.

"The Tirthankara is found on a pedestal in a sitting, meditative (dhyana) posture. The pedestal has been carved like a lion throne. In the rear side, floral symbols have been carved. The sculpture could be that of the 24th Jain Tirthankara belonging to the later Chola period," said G Thillai Govindarajan, a member of the team that found the idol.

The idol was found in the riverbed of the Mulliyar at Panchanathikulam near Vedaranyam in a face-down position. Villagers who were not aware that it was an idol were using it as a washing stone for years. However, B Jambulingam, working as a superintendent in Tamil University, Thanjavur, and Govindarajan, headmaster of a panchayat union middle school, found the idol during one of their recent field studies.

Some other parts of the idol were also found damaged, including one of the arm-rests of the throne, Govindarajan said. Images of yakshas' have been carved on either side of the Tirthankara. Similar idols of Jain preceptors have been found in many places in Thanjavur, Pudukottai and Nagapatinam areas, indicating the prevalence of Jainism in this region. Sithannavasal in Pudukottai is an abode of Jainism.

Read more: Jain Tirthankara idol found in riverbed near Vedaranyam - Chennai - City - The Times of India http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/c...#ixzz0xUFBkX9G
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