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Old March 7th, 2010, 01:32 PM   #1
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Small and medium towns in Poland

Kazimierz Dolny (Казі́меж-До́льни)



Kazimierz Dolny is a small town in eastern Poland, on the right (eastern) bank of the Vistula river in Puławy County, Lublin Province.

It is a considerable tourist attraction as one of the most beautifully situated little towns in Poland. It enjoyed its greatest prosperity in the 16th and the first half of the 17th century, due to the trade in grain conducted along the Vistula. It became an economic backwater after that trade declined, and this freeze in economic development enabled the town to preserve its Renaissance urban plan and appearance. Since the 19th century it has become a popular holiday destination, attracting artists and summer residents.

















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Old March 7th, 2010, 11:56 PM   #2
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Sandomierz (Сандомир)



Sandomierz is a city in south-eastern Poland with 25,714 inhabitants.

Sandomierz is known for its Old Town, a major tourist attraction.

Sandomierz is one of the oldest and historically most significant cities in Poland. Archeological finds around the city indicate that humans inhabited the area since neolithic times. The city came into existence in the early Middle Ages, taking advantage of an excellent location at the junction of Vistula and San rivers, and on the path of important trade routes. The first known historical mention of the city comes from the early 12th century, when the chronicler Gallus Anonymus ranked it together with Kraków and Wrocław as one of the main cities of Poland. In the testament of Bolesław Krzywousty, in which he divided Poland among his sons, Sandomierz was designated as a capital of one of the resulting principalities.

In the course of the 13th century the city suffered grievous damage during raids by Tatars in 1241, 1259 and 1287. The old wooden buildings of the town were completely destroyed. As a result, in 1286 the city was effectively refounded by Leszek Czarny, under Magdeburg Law. The founding document is still preserved in the city archives.

After Polish lands were reunified in the 14th century, the former principality became the Sandomierz Voivodeship, incorporating large areas of southeastern Poland. At this time Sandomierz had about 3000 inhabitants and was one of the larger Polish cities. In the middle of the 14th century the city was burned again during a raid by the Lithuanians. It was rebuilt during the rule of king Casimir III of Poland. The layout of the city has survived practically unchanged since that time until the present day.

The following three hundred years, running until the middle of the 17th century, were quite prosperous for the city. The most important historical buildings were built during this period. This golden age came to an end in 1655 when Swedish forces captured the city in the course of the Deluge. After briefly holding out in the city, the withdrawing Swedes blew up the castle and caused heavy damage to other buildings. In the next 100 years the economy of Poland suffered a decline, which also affected the city. A great fire in 1757 and the First Partition of Poland in 1772, which placed Sandomierz in Austria, further reduced its status. As a result Sandomierz lost its role as an administrative capital.

No major industrial development took place in Sandomierz, thus preserving it as a charming, small city full of historical monuments among unspoiled landscape.

















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Old March 8th, 2010, 01:37 PM   #3
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Zamość (Замостя)



Zamość is a town in southeastern Poland with 66,633 inhabitants (2004). About 20 kilometres from the town is the Roztocze National Park.

The historical city centre was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List (in 1992).

Zamość was founded in the year 1580 by the Chancellor and Hetman (head of the army of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) Jan Zamoyski, on the trade route linking western and northern Europe with the Black Sea.

Modelled on Italian trading cities, and built during the Baroque period by the architect Bernardo Morando, a native of Padua, Zamość remains a perfect example of a Renaissance town of the late 16th century, which retains its original layout and fortifications (Zamość Fortress), and a large number of buildings blending Italian and central European architectural traditions. The Old City quarter of Zamość has been placed on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.





















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Old March 8th, 2010, 09:26 PM   #4
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Zamoscie is lookig great! Thanks for the pics.
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Old March 9th, 2010, 05:30 PM   #5
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Tarnów (Та́рнув)



Tarnów is a city in southeastern Poland with 115,341 inhabitants as of June 2009.

The first recorded mention of Tarnów was in 1125. In 1264 Daniel of Galicia and Bolesław V the Chaste met in the town to establish the borders of their domains. It was granted city rights on March 7, 1330 by Władysław I the Elbow-high. At the time it was owned by Spycimir Leliwita (Leliwa coat of arms). In the 13th century, numerous German settlers immigrated from Kraków and Nowy Sącz. During the 16th century Scottish immigrants began to come in large numbers (Dun, Huyson, and Nikielson). In 1528 the exiled King of Hungary Jįnos Szapolyai lived in the town. It was annexed by Habsburg Austria in 1772 during the First Partition of Poland. The Diocese of Tarnów was formed in 1785.

February 18, 1846 - beginning of the Galician peasant revolt. The massacre, led by Jakub Szela (born in Smarżowa), is also known as the Galician Massacre, and began on February 18, 1846. This led to the "Galician Slaughter", in which many nobles and their families were murdered by peasants. Szela units surrounded and attacked manor houses and settlements located in three counties - Sanok, Jasło, and Tarnów. The revolt got out of hand and the Austrians had to put it down.

During World War I, the city was one of the focal points of Austro-Hungarian/German Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive of 1915, a military operation that changed the situation in the Eastern Front and resulted in major retreat of opposing Russian forces. After the war, the city became part of a reconstituted Polish state on October 30, 1918.

Tarnów is one of the warmest cities in Poland.

















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Old March 9th, 2010, 05:50 PM   #6
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Сan you post some photos of Tarnow Railway station I heard that it is similar to Ivano-Frankivsk Railway station))

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Old March 10th, 2010, 12:13 AM   #7
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Quote:
Originally Posted by v.@rt View Post

Сan you post some photos of Tarnow Railway station I heard that it is similar to Ivano-Frankivsk Railway station))
Here you go

before the war:





during the renovation:



after the renovation:



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Old March 10th, 2010, 12:53 AM   #8
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Thanks)
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Old March 10th, 2010, 01:42 AM   #9
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Красота какая, не тронутая совком и современной архитектурой!
Отлично!
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Old March 10th, 2010, 10:25 AM   #10
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Jarosław (Ярослав)



Jarosław is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 40,167 inhabitants, as of June 2009.

The city was established by the Ruthenian prince Yaroslav the Wise in the 11th century. It was granted Magdeburg rights by Polish prince Władysław Opolczyk in 1375.

The city quickly developed as important trade centre and a port on the San river, reaching the period of its greatest prosperity in 16th and 17th century, with trade routes linking Silesia with Ruthenia and Gdańsk with Hungary coming through it and merchants from such distant countries as Spain, England, Finland, Armenia and Persia arriving at the annual three week long fair on the feast of the Assumption. In 1574 a Jesuit college was established in Jarosław.

In the 1590s Tatars from the Ottoman Empire pillaged the surrounding countryside. They were unable to overcome the city's fortifications, but their raids started to diminish the city's economic strength and importance. Outbreaks of bubonic plague in the 1620s and the Swedish The Deluge in 1655-60 further undermined its prominence. In the Great Northern War of 1700-21 the region was repeatedly pillaged by Russian, Saxon and Swedish armies, causing the city to decline further.

Jarosław was under Austrian rule from the First Partition of Poland in 1772 until Poland regained independence in 1918. After the 2nd World War the city remained part of Poland. Poland's communist government expelled most of Jarosław's Ukrainian population, at first to Soviet territories and later to territories transferred from Germany to Poland in 1944-45.



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Old March 11th, 2010, 03:56 PM   #11
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Chełmno (Хелмно)



Chełmno (older English: Culm; German: Kulm) is a town in northern Poland near the Vistula river with 20,000 inhabitants and the historical capital of Chełmno Land (Culmerland).

The name is derived from the Old Slavic word for hill (chełm, in modern Polish language wzgórze). This is a cognate of the English word hill and similar words in other related languages.

Culm was the German name, officially used between 1772 and 1807 and again between 1815 and 1920. During the Nazi occupation in World War II, the town was called Kulm. The town also has been known as Culm in English, but Chełmno is now more commonly used.

The first written mention of Chełmno is known from a document allegedly issued in 1065 by Duke Boleslaus II of Poland for the Benedictine monastery in Mogilno. In 1226 Duke Konrad I of Masovia invited the Teutonic Knights to Chełmno Land (Kulmerland).

In 1233 Chełmno was granted city rights known as "Kulm law" (renewed in 1251), the model system for over 200 Polish towns. The town grew prosperous as a member of the mercantile Hanseatic League. Chełmno and Chełmno Land were part of the Teutonic Knights' state until 1466, when after the Thirteen Years' War Chełmno was incorporated into Poland and made the capital of Chełmno Voivodeship.

In 1772, following the First Partition of Poland, Chełmno was taken over by the Kingdom of Prussia. Between 1807 and 1815 Chełmno was part of the Duchy of Warsaw, returning to Prussia at the end of the Napoleonic Wars.

The city had a mixed German/Polish population during most of his history. Around 1900 the city was about one-third German and two-thirds Polish. Chełmno returned to Poland in 1920 following World War I. During the interwar period the town experienced renewed economic growth.

When World War II broke out in 1939, Nazi German authorities murdered 5,000 Polish civilians upon taking control of the territory. The atrocities took place in Klamry, Małe Czyste, Podwiesk, Plutowo, Dąbrowa Chełmińska, and Wielkie Łunawy, while many other Poles were executed in forests. The rest of the Polish population was expelled to the General Government in line with the German policy of Lebensraum. Polish Secret State resistance groups such as Polska Żyje ("Poland Lives"), Rota, Grunwald, and Szare Szeregi were also active in the area.

On 25 January 1945 German forces set fire to several buildings in the city, including a hospital, a railway terminal, and a brewery, while retreating

Chełmno has a well-preserved medieval center, with five Gothic churches and a beautiful Renaissance town hall in the middle of the market square.

* Gothic churches:
o Church of St Mary, former main parochial church of town, built 1280-1320 (with St. Valentine relic)
o Church of SS Jacob and Nicholas, former Franciscan church, from 14th c., rebuild in 19 c.
o Church of SS Peter and Paul, former Dominican church, from 13-14th c. rebuild in 18 and 19th c.
o Church of SS John the Baptist and Johns the Evangelist, former Benedictine and Cictercian nuns' church, with monastery, built 1290-1330
o Church of Holy Ghost, from 1280-90
*
Town Hall in Chełmno
Town hall, whose oldest part comes from the end of the 13th century, rebuilt in manneristic style (under Italian influence) in 1567-1572
* City walls which surround whole city, preserved almost as a whole, with watch towers and Grudziądzka Gate

Chełmno gives its name to the protected area called Chełmno Landscape Park, which stretches along the right bank of the Vistula.























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Old March 12th, 2010, 02:41 PM   #12
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Nowy Sącz (Новий Сонч)



Nowy Sącz was founded on 8 November 1292 by the king Wenceslaus II, on the site of a village named Kamienica. An ancient trade route called the Amber Road passed through the town, connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Baltic. The town benefited during that time from its proximity on the trade route to Hungary due to privileges granted by Polish King Władysław I the Elbow-high, and later his son, Polish king Kazimierz the Great, for supporting him during a rebellion in 1311.

In the 15th century it produced steel and woolen products, and nearly rivaled Kraków in visual arts. In 1611 a great fire destroyed much of the town, and the 17th century the town declined in importance after the "The Deluge".

Nowy Sącz was in the central part of West Galicia from the First Partition of Poland, 1772, to Polish independence,1918. Nowy Sącz rose to a new prominence in the 19th century when the Austrian authorities built a railway connecting it with Vienna, the capital. At the beginning of World War I, Nowy Sącz was occupied by the Russian Army. The Russians were driven back by the Central powers in December 1914. Briefly after the end of the war, it was associated with the independence movement of the Lemko (a Ukrainian related group, native to the Beskid Niski), the Lemko-Rusyn Republic. The inter-war Poland saw industrial expansion and the railroad factory expanded.

During the invasion of Poland starting World War II, Nowy Sącz was occupied by Nazi Germany on 6 September 1939. Because of its proximity to Slovakia, it lay on a major route for resistance fighters of the Polish Home Army. The Gestapo was active in capturing those trying to cross the border, including the murder of several Polish pilots. In June 1940, the resistance rescued Jan Karski from a hospital there, and a year later 32 people were shot in reprisal for the escape; several others were sent to concentration camps.

In 1947 much of the Lemko population, living in villages southeast of the town, was deported in Action Vistula (mostly to land recently annexed from Germany) in reaction to the anti-communist activity in the region.

The town has many historic features, the mountainous country around Nowy Sącz is also popular with tourists, hikers and skiers.

























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Old March 13th, 2010, 08:41 AM   #13
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Tykocin (Тикоцін)



Tykocin is a small, old town in north-eastern Poland, with 1,800 inhabitants (1998), located on the Narew river.

It is one of the oldest cities in Podlaskie Voivodeship.

The name of Tykocin was first mentioned in the 11th century. Tykocin received city rights from Władysław II Jagiełło in 1425, lost them in 1950, only to regain them in 1993 after the collapse of communism.

Points of interest

* Castle of Zygmunt II August built before 1469, extended in 16th century and partially reconstructed in 2005
* The Baroque Tykocin Synagogue Bejt ha-Kneset ha-Godol, built in 1642, one of the best preserved in Poland from that period, is a major tourist attraction.
* A baroque Church of the Holy Trinity and former monastery of Congregation of Mission founded in 1742 by Jan Klemens Branicki
* Baroque monastery dating from 1771-90
* Former military hospital from 1755
* Jewish cemetery - one of the oldest in Poland
* a lot of white storks and their nests















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Old March 13th, 2010, 07:10 PM   #14
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DocentXthanks for keep posting, nice job, it's all time interesting to come here
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Mій LJ Фотографії та розповіді з мандрівок по Україні та закордону. Ціни, корисні поради, купа емоцій. Постійно оновлюється
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Old March 13th, 2010, 10:41 PM   #15
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I would like to visit every town posted here
Great selection, DocentX.
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Old March 14th, 2010, 12:58 AM   #16
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Reszel (Ре́шель)



Reszel is a town in Poland in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The population is about 5,700.

The beginnings of the settlement date back as early as 5th century B.C.

In 1241 The Teutonics raised a wooden watchtower, which was later burned down during Prussian uprisings. The town developed along a Warmian bishops' castle, The building of which began in 1350.

Reszel was granted the location priviledge in 1337, and since 1466 had been a part of Polish, Catholic province of Warmia.The town had very modern sewage and draining system as early as 1389, the system that was in operation until the end of the 19th century. During the Polish reign, Reszel was the local center of craftsmanship, famous for its magnificent blacksmiths, goldsmiths, and weavers. Since the second half of the 17th century a renown Jesuit college Provided education to both catholics and protestants. The college was funded, among others, by the King Jan Kazimierz. The town was blooming thanks to the sanctuary of Our lady in Święta Lipka (Heiligelinde), which is located in the close vicinity of Reszel (5 km east of th town).

In 1772 the Polish reign over the province came to a crash And Reszel found itself in Prussian hands. For Reszel the change meant the beginning of the end. In 1806 Reszel went down in flames of the biggest fire in the history of the town.

In 1811, on a hill outside the town, the last funeral pyre in Europe took the life of Barbara Zdunk, a local women accused of witchcraft and bringing the fire on Reszel.















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Old March 15th, 2010, 01:56 AM   #17
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Bożków



Bożków is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Nowa Ruda, within Kłodzko County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.

The village has a population of 1,600.







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Old March 15th, 2010, 10:29 PM   #18
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yeah, the spirit of old times. Keep posting! Do you have some pics from Poslki Cieszyn?
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Mій LJ Фотографії та розповіді з мандрівок по Україні та закордону. Ціни, корисні поради, купа емоцій. Постійно оновлюється
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Old March 16th, 2010, 07:46 AM   #19
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Quote:
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yeah, the spirit of old times. Keep posting! Do you have some pics from Poslki Cieszyn?
Yes of course

I was planning before to post some pic of Cieszyn - very nice town
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Old March 16th, 2010, 07:47 AM   #20
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