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Old July 23rd, 2005, 08:28 PM   #1
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Short history
Haarlem is a city in the west of the Netherlands, capital of the North Holland province. The city is located by the river Spaarne, about 20 km west of Amsterdam and near the coastal dunes. It is the center of a flower-growing district and the export point for bulbs, especially tulips.

middle ages.
The oldest mentioning of Haarlem dates from the 10th century. The name comes from "Haarlo-heim" or "Harulahem", which means 'place, on sand covered with trees, higher than the others'. The location of the village was a good one: by the river Spaarne, and by a major road going south to north. By the 12th century it was a fortified town, and Haarlem became the hometown for the Counts of Holland.

Counts of Holland
In 1219 the knights of Haarlem were honored by Count Willem I, because they had conquered the Egyptian port of Damietta (or Damiate in Dutch) in the 5th crusade. Haarlem received the right to bear the Count's sword and cross in its coat of arms. On November 23, 1245 Count Willem II granted Haarlem city rights. This implied a number of privileges, among which the right for the sheriff and magistrates to administer justice, instead of the Count. This allowed for a quicker and more efficient justice system, more suited for the needs of the growing city

In the 14th century Haarlem was a major city. It was the 2nd largest city in the historical Holland after Dordrecht and before Delft, Leiden, Amsterdam, Gouda and Rotterdam. In 1429 the city gained the right to collect tolls, including on ships passing by the city at the river Spaarne. At the end of the Middle Ages Haarlem was a flourishing city with a large textile industry, shipyards and beer breweries.

Spanish rule
On December 11, 1572 the Spanish army put Haarlem under siege. After seven months the city surrendered on July 13, 1573. Many soldiers of the army that defended the city were slaughtered; many of them were drowned in the Spaarne river.

15th/16th centuries; Dutch Golden Age.
The Spanish were thrown out of the nothern netherlands and in the United Proivinses began the Dutch Golden Age under the stadhouders of the House of Orange. Haarlem's linen and silk became world famous and the city flourished.
Haarlem's cultural life prospered, with famous painters like Frans Hals and Jacob van Ruisdael, architect Lieven de Key and Jan Steen who made many paitings in Haarlem. On the Grote Markt, the central market square, there's a statue of Laurens Janszoon Coster who is allegedly the inventor of the printing press. In 1628 a chemist in Haarlem goes broke, and decides to join the VOC to sail to the East. His name, Jeronimus Cornelisz, will always be connected with the Batavia ship.

1795-1815 French rule; The Batavian Republic.

1815 the foundation of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands

1836 Opening of the railway line Amsterdam-Haarlem


The Muller-organ (built 1738, 30 metres high)

One of the most celebrated organs and one of the largest in the world.
Mozart, Mendelssohn and Handel were just few of many who came to Haarlem to play this magnificent instrument.

Amsterdamse Poort

Teylers Museum, The oldest museum in the Netherlands.1779

De vleeschhal/ Meat Trading Hall.

The Province capitol building/Provinciehuis; used by King Louis-Napoleon as palace.

Frans Halsmuseum

Haarlem train station, 1839 e.v.

Jacob Isaacksz. van Ruysdael; View on Haarlem with Bleaching Ground, 1665.

Last edited by Nemo; November 22nd, 2005 at 02:53 PM.
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Old July 23rd, 2005, 11:18 PM   #2
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this city looks very unique (in my opinion), like the place which was built by very brave architects long time ago, almost every building is different but from what?
this house with high chimneys is great, someone had made very risky decision to put it close to other buildings but the effect is superb (looks like a factory or great steamer)
this city is like an old mekka of eccentrism
wonderful or mayby I just don't know dutch architecture
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Old July 28th, 2005, 06:55 AM   #3
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Old July 28th, 2005, 07:06 AM   #4
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Sweet and spooky at the same time lol gorgeous architecture, but too much of dark bricks-walls and roofs for my taste

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Old November 8th, 2005, 07:58 PM   #5
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Very nice picture! What a beautiful city!
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Old November 17th, 2005, 08:37 AM   #6
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Old November 19th, 2005, 12:48 AM   #7
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beautiful city. and thanks for the historical background. how many inhabitants does the city of Haarlem have?
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Old November 19th, 2005, 01:32 PM   #8
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Haarlem is very nice indeed. My roots are in that city. The city has about 130.000 inhabitants.
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Old November 19th, 2005, 09:07 PM   #9
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Yes very nice city! I thought Haarlem had 150.000 inhabitants?
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Old November 21st, 2005, 07:22 PM   #10
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Some very nice historic architecture in this town
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Old November 21st, 2005, 10:35 PM   #11
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