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Old September 26th, 2005, 05:15 PM   #1
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Indonesia History

post what's is happening throughout Indonesia

when it is discovered

what event happening such as Economic growth , property BOOM , Tsunami

Jakarta i made it seperate from this thread cos it is Capital City or DKI (special treatment )
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Old September 26th, 2005, 05:18 PM   #2
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Its gonna be a very long story
I dunno where to start
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Old September 26th, 2005, 05:22 PM   #3
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i know this is gonna be messy so here's the rules:

1)someone become the leader of this thread

2)he/she will make like a timeline (from earliest till present) of course we can't expect him to be know all Indo history so everyone can post INDO HISTORY article and he/she will update it on the first post so won't mess up like Indo Forumers so keep editing!

Btw i will post on Indonesia History article
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Old September 27th, 2005, 03:11 AM   #4
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From BBC news

Country profile: Indonesia

Spread across an archipelago of thousands of islands between Asia and Australia, Indonesia has the world's largest Muslim population.

Ethnically it is highly diverse, with more than 300 local languages. The people range from rural hunter-gatherers to a modern urban elite.

Indonesia has seen unprecedented turmoil in recent years, facing first the Asian financial crisis, then the fall of President Suharto after 32 years in office, the first free elections since the 1960s, the loss of East Timor, independence demands from restive provinces, bloody inter-ethnic and religious conflict and a devastating tsunami.

OVERVIEW

Sophisticated kingdoms existed in Indonesia before the Dutch arrived. The Dutch gradually consolidated their hold on the area over two centuries, eventually uniting the archipelago in around 1900.

Upon the end of Japan's wartime occupation, independence was proclaimed in 1945 by Sukarno, the independence movement's leader. The Dutch formally transferred sovereignty in 1949 after a period of armed struggle.

Long-term leader General Suharto came to power in the aftermath of an abortive coup in 1965. He imposed authoritarian rule while allowing technocracts to run the economy with considerable success. His policy of allowing army involvement in all levels of government down to village level fostered corruption. His "transmigration" programmes - which moved large numbers of landless farmers from Java to other parts of the country - fanned ethnic conflict.

Suharto fell from power after widespread rioting in 1998 and has so far escaped efforts to bring him to justice for decades of dictatorship.

Post-Suharto Indonesia has made the transition to democracy. Power has been devolved away from the central government and the first direct presidential elections were held in 2004.

But the country faces growing demands for independence in several provinces, where secessionists have been encouraged by East Timor's 1999 success in breaking away after a traumatic 25 years of occupation.

Militant Islamic groups have flexed their muscles over the past few years. Some have been accused of having links with Osama Bin Laden's al-Qaeda organisation, including the group blamed for the Bali bombings of 2002 which killed 202 people.

Lying near the intersection of shifting tectonic plates, Indonesia is prone to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. A powerful undersea quake in late 2004 sent massive waves crashing into coastal areas of Sumatra, and into coastal communities across south and east Asia. The disaster left more than 220,000 Indonesians dead or missing.

FACTS

Population: 225.3 million (UN, 2005)
Capital: Jakarta
Area: 1.9 million sq km (742,308 sq miles)
Major languages: Indonesian, 300 regional languages
Major religion: Islam
Life expectancy: 65 years (men), 69 years (women) (UN)
Monetary unit: 1 rupiah (Rp)
Main exports: Oil and gas, plywood, textiles, rubber, palm oil
GNI per capita: US $810 (World Bank, 2005)
Internet domain: .id
International dialling code: +62

LEADERS

President: Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

Former army general Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono won Indonesia's first-ever direct presidential elections in September 2004, unseating the incumbent Megawati Sukarnoputri. The election was hailed as the first peaceful transition of power in Indonesia's history.

President Yudhoyono promised to tackle separatist conflicts
Mr Yudhoyono, who at one time served as a security minister in Ms Megawati's government, promised to fight corruption, rejuvenate the economy and tackle separatist conflicts.

On the campaign trail, Mr Yudhoyono sought to present himself as a man of integrity and as an effective leader in times of crisis. He said the 2004 Asian tsunami disaster had precipitated the most difficult period in Indonesia's history.

Mr Yudhoyono has said fighting terrorism is a key challenge. As security minister he spearheaded operations to capture Islamic extremists blamed for the 2002 Bali nightclub bombings.

Mr Yudhoyono, a fluent English speaker, studied for his master's degree in the US. Rising through the ranks under former President Suharto, he led his country's peacekeeping contingent in Bosnia in the 1990s.

Sometimes called 'SBY', after his initials, Mr Yudhoyono is praised by his supporters for balancing strength and compassion. Critics have said he is over-cautious.

Foreign minister: Noer Hasan Wirayudha
Finance minister: Jusuf Anwar
Defence minister: Juwono Sudarsono

MEDIA

Media freedom increased considerably after the end of President Suharto's rule, during which the now-defunct Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media and restricted foreign media.

The country's television market has expanded to include some 10 commercial TV networks, which compete with public Televisi Republik Indonesia (TVRI). Some provinces also operate their own TV stations.

Private radio stations carry their own news bulletins and foreign broadcasters can supply programmes. The radio dial is crowded, with some 60 stations on the air in Jakarta alone.

In 2003 the authorities reported that more than 2,000 illegal TV and radio stations were broadcasting across the country. The government urged them to apply for licences, or face closure.

Internet use is on the up: Bisnis Indonesia newspaper reported in 2004 that there were 10 million users.

Press

The Jakarta Post - English-language
Kompas - mass-circulation daily
Pos Kota - mass-circulation daily
Radio

Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) - public, operates six national networks, regional and local stations, external service Voice of Indonesia

Television

Televisi Republik Indonesia (TVRI) - public, operates two networks
Surya Citra Televisi Indonesia (SCTV) - private
Rajawali Citra TV Indonesia (RCTI) - private
Televisi Pendidikan Indonesia (TPI) - private
Metro TV - private
News agency

Antara - English-language pages
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Old September 27th, 2005, 05:48 AM   #5
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Awesome and complete timeline: http://www.gimonca.com/sejarah/sejarah.shtml
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Old September 28th, 2005, 12:18 AM   #6
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A map I scanned out of a book:

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Old October 22nd, 2005, 07:46 AM   #7
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I'm about to post a timeline from 1965-1971 from the Economist Intelligence Unit. It's pretty interesting.
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Old October 22nd, 2005, 08:10 AM   #8
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(OOT) I always want to do a real time strategy PC game based on Majapahit. Alas I dont have the time to do it.
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Old October 23rd, 2005, 06:34 AM   #9
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Indonesia, a Nation in Transition

Taken from Jakarta Post

Although hundreds of ethnic groups have been know as the indigenous of Indonesia for hundreds and thousands of years, Indonesia did not exist in its present form until the turn of the 20th century.

Of the so-called natives of Indonesia, archaeologists have speculated that the first people to populate Indonesia migrated from mainland China some 1,000 years ago and inhabited a stretch of islands along the equator, later known as Nusantara.

Over the centuries they built and refined their statecraft in the form of kingdoms and principalities. Sharing similar characteristics with other Southeast Asian kingdoms, these Nusantara kingdoms based their conception of state more on people than on space or territory. But intercourse with the western world changed the course of history in Nusantara.

In 1511, the Portuguese conquered Malacca, located on the Malay peninsula, which was then still an inseparable part of Nusantara. The Dutch followed in 1512 and landed on Banten shore in Java. At first, the Dutch came more as traders under the trading umbrella of the Royal East Indies Company (Vereniging Oost Indische Compagnie, VOC). For the next two centuries, the Dutch conducted business with the natives, although in many cases the trade was not on equal terms. Often, trade was accompanied by violent pacification processes.

Then the VOC went bankrupt and the Dutch government took over the business in Nusantara (called the East Indies by the Dutch). Starting from about the mid-seventh century and lasting until the arrival of the Japanese in 1942, was the "real colonization" called "high colonialism" in literature. The period was disrupted briefly when the British took over colonial rule in 1811 to 1814. Among other things that the natives learned from colonization was statecraft based on territorial conception rather than on people.

In the early 20th century, the natives of Nusantara learned that as diverse as their ethnicities were, they could imagine themselves as a unified community. A nationalism had grown in a process that Benedict Anderson, a doyen of Indonesian studies, calls an "imagined community". During the first half of 20th century Nusantara, its people built an imaginary nation called Indonesia -- the name itself was borrowed from the West. By the end of the 1930s, it was clear that the end of Dutch colonialism in Indonesia was only a matter of time.

During World War II, 1942-1945, the Japanese occupied Indonesia. Although short-lived, the occupation enabled Indonesians to arm themselves for the very first time. Shortly after Japan's defeat in WWII, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed Indonesia an independent state, and they became the founding fathers of the new country. The largest archipelago in the world, with over 17,000 islands -- only 3,000 of which are inhabited -- has emerged into a new Indonesia.

When the Dutch returned and tried to reestablish colonial rule, armed Indonesians resisted. The Dutch were forced to recognize an independent Indonesia in 1949.

The new Indonesia adopted a federal system of governance for a short time. But for a longer period, within a five-year span (1950-1955), leaders of the new country were eager to adopt a liberal system of government. Although there is no proof that the system ruined the economy, it was clear that the elite's political stability was shaky. The longest serving prime minister was only two years in office.

The government then held a general election in 1955, the first and only democratic general election Indonesia ever had. But feeling that the country was still unstable two years after the election, president Sukarno, backed by the Army, declared the 1950 Provisional Constitution void and reintroduced the 1945 Constitution. The latter provided an ample opportunity for Sukarno, popularly known as Bung Karno (Comrade Sukarno), to balance three political powers -- the Indonesian Communist Party, the Army and himself.

In the first half of the 1960s, Bung Karno leaned toward the left. On domestic politics, he was trying hard to balance the communists and the Army; on the international stage he was establishing himself as leader of a new world, free from Cold War antagonism. But economic decline and mounting conflicts, especially between communists and noncommunists, the latter of which was backed by the Army, caused him to lose control over the situation.

On Sept. 30, 1965, an abortive coup occurred. There are two conflicting versions of events surrounding the attempted coup. The official Army version insists that the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) was behind the coup attempt, while the communist version asserts that the coup was an internal matter of the Army. In fact, several members of PKI's central bureau were involved, as well as many Army officers and personnel.

The abortive coup cost Indonesia dearly. It took the lives of seven high-ranking Army generals, followed by a pogrom of communists -- a moderate estimate ranges between 300 thousand and 500 thousand alleged members of PKI. Soeharto, who then was a major general and commander of the Army Strategic Reserves Command, took over leadership and deposed Bung Karno from his presidential seat.

In 1966, Soeharto received a letter known as the March 11 Letter of Instruction which reportedly transferred state power from Sukarno to him.

In 1967, Soeharto unseated Sukarno as president in the special session of the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly (MPRS).

Consolidating his power under a new regime called the New Order, Soeharto launched a "regime cleansing" against the Old Order.

Together with Hamengkubuwono IX, the sultan of Yogyakarta, and Adam Malik -- the three were known as the triumvirate -- Soeharto divided the tasks for economic and political reconstruction. Sultan Hamengkubuwono was assigned to lead efforts for economic recovery, Adam Malik was assigned to redirect Indonesia's foreign policy toward the West, and Soeharto himself was "assigned" to rebuild the lamentable domestic politics.

Soeharto was determined to change Indonesia's course, from its emphasis on politics to prioritizing economic development. He set up the trilogy of development: political stability, economic growth and equality.

To gain political legitimacy, perceived as a prerequisite to economic growth, the government conducted a general election in 1971. The election, however, was far from democratic. Soeharto introduced the "floating mass" concept that banned political parties from operating at village level.

From the 1971 election and throughout the New Order period, the Functional Group (Golongan Karya, or Golkar) served as Soeharto's main political machinery. Golkar legally operated not as a political party, although in fact it was a party. Golkar ran in the 1971 elections against 10 other political parties -- including PKI and Masyumi which were two of the four biggest parties in 1955 but which had been out of political scene -- and won 62 percent of the vote.

In 1974, Soeharto forced all political parties to merge into three: Golkar, the United Development Party (PPP) and the Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI). Again, legally speaking Golkar was not a political party. Five more elections were conducted every five years. During those years, Soeharto tightly controlled politics; not even the slightest room was available for opposition.

There were several cases of serious opposition during the New Order regime. The first came rather as a blow in 1974, when students protested against Japanese investments. Added by political rivalry between Gen. Soemitro and Maj. Gen. Ali Moertopo, student protests in Jakarta turned into riots. The movement ended with the removal of Soemitro from his powerful position as deputy commander of the Armed Forces and chief of staff of the Operation Command for the Restoration of Security and Order (Kopkamtib).

The second serious opposition movement came in 1978. Again it came from students, who protested Soeharto's bid for a second term in office, which would be decided upon by the People's Consultative Assembly in its General Session in March 1978.

Several retired Army officers backed the students, while factionalism was apparent within the Armed Forces. Soeharto moved fast to crush the movement. Hundreds of opposition and student leaders were arrested, dozens of newspapers and magazines were closed down. The movement lost its momentum, and after that Soeharto enjoyed an incontestable position.

If Golkar served as Soeharto's main political machinery, the Army functioned as guardian of the state. And since the state was personalized around Soeharto alone, the Army also served to protect him. Under its dual function role doctrine -- the doctrine argues that the duties of a professional Indonesian Armed Forces includes attending to nonmilitary business, especially if it has to do with politics -- the military intervened in almost all sectors of public life. At its peak, the number of military personnel serving in nonmilitary affairs reached over 40,000. Later, history witnessed excesses of the doctrine.

Some businesspeople, many of whom were of Chinese descent, enjoyed state protection and sometimes two-digit economic growth; some grew to become tycoons and magnates. The privileges that these businesspeople enjoyed sparked resentment from other communities. As a result, racial tension grew.

But Chinese businesspeople were not the only ones to enjoy state protection and preference. Some indigenous businesspeople also enjoyed similar privileges. In general, what Kunio Yoshihara calls "ersatz capitalism", or pseudocapitalism, grew. Those "capitalists" were not real capitalists.

Then the financial crisis came. It first hit in mid-1997, and many believe it was a direct result of Thailand's economic crisis. The crisis worsen with the scheduling of the People's Consultative Assembly's General Session in March 1998, with the main agenda being to "elect" a "new" national leadership. It eventually turned into a political crisis too. But Soeharto was determined to run for his seventh consecutive five-year term in office. Supported by his political machine, Soeharto, as expected, became president again.

The economic and political crises made the political climate like a house of cards. Lacking sensitivity, Soeharto filled his new Cabinet with cronies, and appointed one of his daughters minister of social affairs. Less than two months after the formation of the new Cabinet, political tension mounted to an unbearable level. On May 12, four Trisakti University students were shot dead following a peaceful demonstration.

The shootings immediately sparked the emotions of the masses. To the majority of people, the New Order regime had become soulless. Within a week, Indonesia experienced one of its most tumultuous periods in history. For three days, from May 13 through to May 15, six of the country's largest cities were hit by massive riots, probably the largest riots in Indonesia's history. Days later, hundreds of thousand students and members of the public poured into the streets. Chanting and demanding total reform, thousands marched to the legislative building in Jakarta and occupied it for several days.

This forced Soeharto to step down. Instead of returning the presidential mandate to the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) he gave the mandate to vice president B.J. Habibie. The new president is weak, but his weakness is one of his strengths. Everyone close to him feels that they can use him, and thus balancing the power is everyone's interest. The government scheduled another general election on June 7, 1999, only two years after the last election.

Forty-eight political parties, instead of three, competed for 462 seats in the House of Representatives, with the remaining 38 seats going to the military. The election was the first democratic poll since 1965, and the results should have a long-term effect on domestic political stability. The Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI Perjuangan) won a majority in the House (DPR) with 35 percent of seats, followed by Golkar, the United Development Party (PPP), the National Awakening Party (PKB), the Crescent and Stars Party (PBB) and the National Mandate Party (PAN).

Despite its position as a simple majority party, PDI Perjuangan lost the political battle to install chairwoman Megawati Soekarnoputri as president. In a tight race against a strategic coalition of Golkar and the Axis Force, a coalition of various Islamic parties, PDI Perjuangan also lost the strategic posts of speakers of the House and People's Consultative Assembly. After losing out on the presidency, Megawati was elected as vice president.
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Old October 28th, 2005, 04:57 AM   #10
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Java Sea reveals lost treasures

Thursday 27 October 2005, 15:13 Makka Time, 12:13 GMT



The rare ceramics were excavated from a sunken ship

In a nondescript warehouse in Jakarta, treasure-hunter Luc Heymans dips into plastic boxes and pulls out jewels and ornaments that lay hidden at the bottom of the Java Sea for 1000 years.


An ornately sculpted mirror of polished bronze is one masterpiece among the 250,000 artefacts recovered over the last 18 months from a boat that sank off Indonesia's shores in the 10th century.


On a small mould is written the word "Allah" in beautiful Arabic script, on top of a lid sits a delicately chiseled doe.

Tiny perfume flasks accompany jars made of baked clay, while slender-necked vases fill the shelves of the hangar along with brightly coloured glassware from the Fatimides dynasty that once ruled ancient Egypt.

A team of divers, among them three Australians, two Britons, three French, three Belgians and two Germans, excavated the vessel laden with rare ceramics which sank more than 1000 years ago about 130 nautical miles from Jakarta.

China's Five Dynasties

Their finds, including artefacts from China's Five Dynasties, period from 907 to 960 AD and ancient Egypt, are already causing a stir among archaeologists who say the cargo sheds new light on how ancient merchant routes were forged.


Chief diver Daniel Visnikar shows
a rare bronze mirror

"It is a completely exceptional cargo," says Heymans, the Belgian chief of the excavation team.

"There is very little information about the Five Dynasties era and very few things in the museums. This wreck fills a hole," he said.

Close to 14,000 pearls and a profusion of precious stones were found in the wreck, including 4000 rubies, 400 dark red sapphires, and more than 2200 garnets.

"On the second last day of diving, I spotted some broken ceramics. Under 30cms of vase, I uncovered the handle of a golden sabre," says Daniel Visnikar, the leading French diver.

Historical clues

It took more than 24,000 dives to recover all the treasure
from the boat which rests 54 metres below the surface.


Jewels such as this gold ear ring
are among the discoveries

Material recovered from the site has whetted the appetite of overseas experts.

"A 10th century wreck is very rare, there are only a few," says Jean-Paul Desroches, a curator at the Guimet Museum in Paris, after seeing photographs of the early hauls.

He says the wreck and its cargo offers clues to how traders using the Silk Road linking China to Europe and the Middle East, used alternative sea routes as China's merchants moved south because of invasions from the north.

The variety of loot pulled from the depths is hard to imagine: dishes adorned with dragons, parakeets and other birds; porcelain with finely-carved edges; teapots decorated with lotus flowers; and celadon plates with their glaze intact.

"These porcelains come from a very special kiln, an imperial kiln, perhaps from the province of Hebei in the north of China," suggests Peter Schwarz, a German ceramics specialist.

Investors

Heymans insisted the treasure - the subject of controversy when the divers were chased from their barge in the open-sea by the Indonesian navy last November - was stored in a comprehensive and transparent manner.


The treasures might be bought
by a foreign museum

"Every piece is indexed and we know which part of the boat it comes from. Every week we sent (the Indonesian authorities) a DVD with digital photographs of all the pieces," he says.

As well as being chased by the Indonesian navy, an incident that began a long dispute over the booty, Heymans says another group of treasure hunters also tried to move in on the swag.

Cosmix, Heymans' Dubai-based corporation, was the force behind the five-million-euro operation, which was funded by unnamed private investors in Europe.

The divers say the treasures might be bought by a foreign museum or are expected to be shown between 2006 and 2007 in an auction, as the cargo is valued at several million dollars.

Indonesia will receive 50% of proceeds from the sale of the treasures.
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Old October 28th, 2005, 05:00 AM   #11
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wow
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Old October 29th, 2005, 12:57 PM   #12
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wwowowowowo so coolll
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Old October 29th, 2005, 04:54 PM   #13
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oohh...

i'm lazy to read those articles ......


puyeng
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Old October 29th, 2005, 05:05 PM   #14
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Actually they're LOTs of treasures lying around under sea in the archipelago. Since that I like water so much also, my dream is to become a treasure hunter to hunt all those prized possesions and become a millionaire instantly...they're also quite a number of wrecks in peninsula...any taker? to form some sort of a partnership or treasure hunter enterprise hehe.
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Old November 16th, 2005, 02:39 PM   #15
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history - where to begin eh?

what is Indonesia? where once we had a collection of statelets or empires across the region along came the british and the dutch and divided it in two, splitting 'brother from brother' in johore state which also included singapore and the riau islands...and setting everyone on the road to the map we recognise today

makes ambalat seems so small and irrelevant doesn't it. wonder where the borders will be in another 100 years???
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Old November 16th, 2005, 02:42 PM   #16
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majapahit...sirwijaya (sp)...what is that javanese chronicle called? is there an english translation anybody know??
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Old February 16th, 2006, 11:54 PM   #17
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Sorry I don't know the answer to your question. From what I've read, there are a great many historical chronicles, epics, etc.

I just finished reading a 33 page article entitled "Indonesian Influence on East African Culture." It's very interesting. One of the topics explored is why over half the population of Madagascar is of African origin but there are no Bantu words in the Malagasy language (an Austronesian language 90% similar to a language in Central Kalimantan). There are also records of Srivijaya diplomants bringing African slaves as tribute to the Chinese emperor. Thus, Srivijayan seafarers were involved in the slave trade, and perhaps immigrants had colonized Madagascar and brought over Bantu slaves. There are very few if any other instances of a majority population giving up their language in favor of a minority language without having a signicant impact on that minority language. As already mentioned, Malagasy has no Bantu words and has practically gone unchanged over the last millennium. There is linguistic evidence Indonesians began colonizing Madagascar before AD 200.

Another interesting fact was that an Arab scholar wrote in 1100 on his trip to East Africa that the Africans were not proficient sailors, but that sailors and traders from islands near India (which he called Zabag, identified as Western Indonesia) came to the coast regularly and they spoke the same language. The evidence seems to indicate the Indonesian seafarers and merchants had established colonies in East Africa. Another Arab scholar spoke of the people of Al-Komr who had conquered part of Aden (present-day southern Yemen). Al-Komr is now accepted as being Indonesia, and the description of their ships are exactly the same as Javanese ships.

Lots of interesting, hard-to-find Indonesian history out there. I'm going to keep looking.
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Old February 17th, 2006, 01:15 AM   #18
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that's fascinating stuff...wow. i must say indonesia is probably the most under-studied major civiliation of the world.
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Old February 17th, 2006, 03:44 AM   #19
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Totally agree. History is a marketing commodity and Indonesia does not have the funds to enforce it.
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Old February 17th, 2006, 05:29 AM   #20
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Absolutely. The countries with history people know about have generally been promoted by their government. For example, Japan's samurai history and Noh drama were heavily promoted by the Japanese government during from 60s-80s. Anyway, I'm going to post some more interesting stuff when I get a chance.

I also want to mention there has recently been an 'extreme' form of the history I posted above. You can read about it here:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/internatio...120895,00.html

Here is the summary:

"They were Africa's Vikings. Tough, daring voyagers who sailed thousands of miles to pluck riches from unmapped lands known today as Zimbabwe, Mozambique, South Africa and Nigeria.

Centuries before Europeans, mariners from Indonesia raided and traded across the continent, filling their vessels with gold and silver for the princes of Java and Sumatra.

In return they gave Africa the secrets of iron and bronze, exotic plants such as banana and yams, and a new culture enriched with music, architecture and spirituality."
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Last edited by Zorobabel; February 17th, 2006 at 05:36 AM.
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