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Old February 27th, 2005, 11:51 PM   #1
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The Resplendent Isle - Civilizations

The Resplendent Isle


Sri Lanka, since ancient times named as Serendib, Ceylon, Teardrop of India, Resplendent Isle, Island of Dharma, Pearl of the Orient, is a colourful country with a long history which expands to the very ancient times.


Marco Polo considered Sri Lanka the finest island of its size in all the world, and you'll likely agree after exploring the country's fabled delights.Ancient and inspiring architecture in the cities of Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa satisfies that inner archaeologist.

A world Heritage


Five centuries before Christ, Sri Lanka was a land throbbing with vitality and a well-ordered civilization. Cities, palaces, reservoirs, parks, temples, monasteries, monuments and works of art bore testament to the character, imagination, culture, philosophy and faith of the people of Sri Lanka, the Resplendent Land. Vestiges of this ancient civilization are abundantly extant today.


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Old February 27th, 2005, 11:53 PM   #2
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Mankinds First Reservoir.

Mankind’s First Reservoir

King Panduvasdev constructed Panda Wewa, in 450 B.C., in Sri Lanka, considered to be the worlds’ first reservoir. Panda wewa is located in the North Western province of Sri Lanka near Hettipola, sixteen miles from Chilaw. Fourteenth century book named “Pradhana Nuwarawal” (Major Cities) states that Panduwas Nuwara and Panda Wewa were built by King Panduwas Dev. The city was well fortified by a forty feet thick wall and a ten feet deep canal.

Note on Panda Wewa:

“Panda Wewa may be the first great reservoir ever constructed, if we omit from consideration the great lakes of Egypt, since they were merely immense natural hollows into which water was turned”
(Ref: H. Parker, Ancient Ceylon).

The Panda Wewa reservoir was formed by constructing a dam across Kolamunu Oya. The bund is 24 feet high and spans one and half miles. The ancient designer of this reservoir was able to reduce significant amount of earthwork by changing the direction of the embankment in a creative manner. Further he used 250 feet wide existing rock for the spillway. Full embankment of Panda Wewa is 8,400 feet long and 22 feet high. It has a slope of 2.5 feet horizontal to 1 ft vertical. Top of the embankment has a width of 8 ft. A layer of stones was placed on the inside slope of the reservoir to protect the slope from erosion due to wave action. When the reservoir is filled to its full capacity, it is capable of holding 416 million cu. ft of water and covers an area of 1,360 acres.

Note on Panda Wewa Design: (Ref. H. Parker)

“Although the size of this reservoir was surpassed by other pre-Christian ones and left far behind by many post Christian ones, we can not failed to be astonished at the boldness and originality of the early Engineer who ventured to construct such an earthen bank across a valley down which floods of considerable volume passed in the rainy seasons. Owing to the heavy rainfall of the gathering ground, which averages about 85 inches per annum, the maximum flood may amount to 14,000 cu. ft per second.

Every Engineer will recognize that to get rid of this volume of water in safety would be a serious problem. The old designer of the works must have been a highly intelligent man to overcome it so successfully.

Besides this he made every effort to reduce the quantity of earthwork to a minimum. To effect this the line of the embankment was twisted in order to avoid low ground, in a manner never found in later works of larger size”.
(Ref: H. Parker, Ancient Ceylon)

Original Panda Wewa Design Still Being Used:

Most modern reservoirs of the world today do not deviate much from the ancient design of Panda Wewa. Main components, such as embankment to hold water, sluice to obtain water and a spillway to get rid of flood water had not change conceptually from Panda Wewa to most modern reservoirs in the twenty first century.
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Old February 27th, 2005, 11:54 PM   #3
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Some Reservoirs of Ancient Sri Lanka

Reservoirs - Ancient Sri Lanka









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Old February 27th, 2005, 11:56 PM   #4
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RuwanweliSaya - Anuradhapura

Construction of Mahathupa (Ruwan Vali Saaya):

(Mahavamsa refers to Ruwan Vali Saaya as “Mahathupa” and that name would be used here in. Mahavamsa occasionally uses the word “Sonnamali” as well. Today “Sonnamali” has been converted to Ruwan Vali Saaya).

Construction of Mahathupa started on the full moon day of the month of Vesak. King Dutugamunu had the workers dug a 7 cubit deep excavation. (Approximately 10.5 feet). He had soldiers brought in round stones and had them crushed with hammers. Crushed stones were placed at the bottom of the excavation and compacted using elephants.



Elephants had their feet bound with leather to protect their feet.

Fine clay was brought in from a nearby river. This clay was known as butter clay since it was very fine. King Dutugamunu ordered to spread butter clay on top of crushed stones





On top of the copper plate, seven inch thick silver plate was placed.



(Author’s Note:Placement of a seven inch thick silver plate is an exaggeration).

Whole city rejoiced during construction of Mahathupa. Many bhikkus from foreign countries came to see the construction activities. Bhikkus from Rajagaha, Isipathana, Jethavana, Mahamevna and Gositharama came to see the construction of Mahathupa.

Circular Outline Ceremony for Mahathupa:

King Dutugamunu organized the ceremony for the circular outline of Mahathupa. All the bhikkus stood around the foundation for the great ceremony.

A post was erected at the center and a rope was attached to it. A marker was attached to the other end.

The circular outline was drawn using the marker.

King Dutugamunu Interviews Engineers:

After marking the boundary of Mahathupa, King Dutugamunu ordered top master builders of the country to come to the palace. Five hundred master engineers came to see the King.

King asked the first engineer “How are you planning to build the Thupa?”

The first engineer replied “I will use one wagon of sand every day”.
The King was not happy with this answer and rejected him.

(Author’s note: Mahavamsa does not tell why the first engineer was rejected. The reason for the rejection of the first engineer was given in Mahavamsa Tika. According to Mahavamsa Tika, King Dutugamunu told the first engineer “If you use one wagon of sand every day to mix cement, the Thupa would be a heap of sand and fall to the ground”).

The King asked the same question from the second master builder. The second builder stated that he would use half a wagon per day. The King rejected him as well. Similarly, King rejected builders who stated that they would use quarter wagon and one eighth of a wagon.

Seeing King’s anxiety, one experienced master builder stated that he would crush the sand and sift it prior to use. That way he would have to use only one Ammana of sand per day.

(One Ammana is equal to 700 handfuls).

(Author’s note: It is no secret that adding more sand to a mortar would diminish its strength. Mortar was used to bind bricks. Mahavamsa does not say what other material was used to prepare the mortar mixture. Previously mentioned butter clay could have been used as the cementing agent).

King accepted the last master builder’s proposal.

King’s next question was regarding the appearance of the Thupa. King asked “What’s the shape and form of the Thupa?”. The master builder took two bowls of water and poured one bowl into the other. When he was pouring water, bubbles were formed and rose to the surface. The engineer answered that the shape and form would be similar to the rising bubbles. King accepted the shape and form of bubbles as a model for the Thupa.

King Dutugamunu’s Concerns:

How to Construct The Mahathupa Without Taxing People:

King ordered that no person should be forced to work without pay. He ordered to place gold coins, garments, ornaments, food and sugar at each gate for the workers.
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Old March 1st, 2005, 01:35 AM   #5
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Anuradhapura looks awesome, btw how long did the civilization last ?
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Old March 2nd, 2005, 01:11 AM   #6
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hey ILOVEMTL .. im from sri lanka ..

i think anuradhapura flourished for like 1300 years as the capital of sri lanka
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Old March 2nd, 2005, 01:15 AM   #7
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will see if i can post more about anuradhapura
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Old March 2nd, 2005, 01:48 AM   #8
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Anuradhapura - Pt 1

According to the Mahawamsa, the great Chronicle of the Sinhalese, the city of Anuradhapura was named after a minister called Anuradha who founded this area as a village settlement by the Malwatu Oya where water was readily available in the second half of the 6th century BC.


It is said that King Pandukabhaya made it his capital in the 4th century BC, and that he also laid out the town and its suburbs according to a well organised plan. He constructed a reservoir named Abhayavapi. He established shrines for yakkhas such as Kalawela and Cittaraja. He housed the Yaksini-Cetiya in the form of a mare within the royal precincts and offerings were made to all these demi-gods every year. He chose the sites for the cemetry and for the place of execution, the Chapel of the Western Queen, the Pacchimarajini, the Vessavana Banyan Tree, the Palm of the Vyadhadeva, the Yona Quarter and the House of the Great Sacrifice. The slaves or Candalas were assigned their duties and a village was set apart for them. The build dwellings for Niganthas, for wandering ascetics and for Ajivakas and Brahmanas. He established, the village boundaries. The tradition that King Pandukabhaya made Anuradhapura the capital city of Sri Lanka as early as the fourth century BC had been very important. The administrative and sanitary arrangements be made for the city and the shrines he provided indicate that over the years the city developed according to an original master plan.

Vast amount of historical and archaeological evidence for Sinhala -Buddhist civilization in Sri Lanka. On the other hand very little evidence was available about the period prior to that, i,e the protohistoric period . But recent excavations carried out at the Citadel of Anuradhapura reveals much valuable information about the very early inhabitants of this city, one of the most ancient and most prosperous cities of South Asia


The archeological excavation site in the citadel of Anuradhapura has revealed details of the existence of a protohistoric habitation. The protohistoric Iron Age is considered to be from ca. 900-600 BC. This period is marked by the appearance of iron technology, pottery which is Black and Rd ware (BRW), the horse, domestic cattle and paddy cultivation. It is now evident that by ca. 700-600 BC. the protohistoric settlement at Anuradhapura had extended over an area of at least 50 he, designated a town. Its location, equidistant from the major ports of the northwest and northeast, surrounded by irrigable and fertile earth and defensible against invaders with its deep burrier of forests suggest a deliberate selection of the locus by a centralised authority.


The lower early historic period, which is ca. 500-250 BC., can be studied on the basis of the chronicles. In this regard the reference to King Pandukabhaya and the formal planning of the city, complete with gates and a quarter for the Yonas who are thought to have been Iranian of west Asian traders. The contact with the Gengetic valley is shown in the occurrence of Northern Black Polished were (NBP) in small quantities. By ca. 250-100 AC the early historic citadel of Anuradhapura was fully developed, covering an extent of ca. 100 ha. or more. Thus the ancient city of Anuradhapura would have represented one of the largest cities of its time in South Asia. This period is well documented with ample evidence of close cultural interrelations with the Asoka Empire.In the 4th century BC. There was a separate quarter set apart near the western gate of the city for men of Maditerranean or Persian (Yona) origin. It is not clear whether this group lived inside or outside the city walls.




It is evident from the Chronicle that the necessity to separate the inner city from the outer was felt only by King Kutakannatissa, he built the first city wall to a height of seven cubits with a moat in front of it. He also constructed a royal place. Thus Anuradhapura became a fortified city, This fortification was further strengthened and enlarged by raising the walls to a height of 18 cubits in the time of King Vasabha (65-106 AC). He added fortified gatehouses at the entrances, the ruins of which can be seen even today. In doing so the Mahavamsa say that he consulted soothsayers as well as architects.


Fa-Hsien, the Chinese pilgrim who visited Anuradhapura in the fifth century and who was impressed by the city, noted that there were four principal streets in the city at the time. He writes that the streets and lanes were well maintained and that they were smooth and level. The main street, called the Ceremonial Street or Mangala Vithiya, started at the southern gate near Thuparama. It veered eastwards and then northwards. Fa-Hsien further says that there were two major groups living within the city. One group consisted of merchants whose houses were richly adorned. We see from the account given in the Chronicles and other historical sources that some of these merchants were foreigners. The Mahavamsa speaks of South Indian traders in pre-Christian times who were also politically powerful and who in fact dominated the region. The western gates, at observed earlier, were the quarters of the Mediterraneans or Persians. The second group according Fa-Hsien consisted of city dwellers who were wealthy householders. These people were quite possibly rich, having resources from agricultural products.
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Old March 2nd, 2005, 02:28 AM   #9
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Anuradhapura - Pt 2

Beyond the city walls of Anuradhapura was located the major monasteries with their gigantic stupas. The Mahathupa, the Bodhi Tree and Thuparama of the Mahavihara stood to the south of the city, the Abhayagiri to the north, the Pubbarama to the east, the Tanovana to the north-west and the Jetavana to the south-east. In the fifth century when Fa-Hsien visited Anuradhapura he found that there were five thousand monks living at Abhayagoriya, three thousand at Mahavihara and another two thousand at Cetiyagiri or Mihintale. The number of monks living at Jetavana is not stated. It is reasonable to assume that at least ten thousand monks were living in Anuradhapura alone during the fifth century. We can see from the remaining ruins that Anuradhapura was a city of monastries. Alms for these monks were provided chiefly by the ruling king near his palace at Mahapali. Fa-Hsien goes on to say that 5-6000 monks were fed daily. The Mahavihara, Abhayagiri and Jetavana were the main monasteries in the capital city while the Cetiya Pabbata at Mihintale was the main monastery just outside the city.



Anuradhapura was thus an imposing city with imposing religious monuments. Traditional rituals were performed in the city which attracted thousands of pilgrims to it from all parts of the country almost daily. Fa-Hsien says that there were special halls at the head of the four main streets where preachers addressed the devotees on days set apart for religious activities in the lunar calendar of the Buddhists.

The importance of the city both as a ritual centre and as an administrative centre began to grow with the passage of time. Annually a large population was attracted to the city for permanent settlement or for temporary stay during festive seasons. The living facilities in the city had to be improved. Therefore during the reing of king Vasabha (65-106 AC) several ponds which were fed by a network of subterranean channels were built to supply water to the city. In addition to the esisting Tissa reservoir and the Abhayavapi, during the reign of King Gajabahu (114-136 AC). The Nuwaravava or the city tank was commissioned. Moggallana II (531-551 AC) dammed the Malwatu Oya and built the Naccaduwa Reservoir seven miles south of Anuradhapura, thus developing the areas adjoining the capital. This large reservoir covered 4,408 acres.



Parks were also provided in the city. The Ranmasu Uyana below the bund of Tissavapi (Tisavava) was one such, but it was strictly reserved for the members of the royal family. Health care and education were two other aspects to which the authorities paid attention. There were several hospitals in the city. In the forth century King Upatissa II provided quarters and homes for the crippled and the blind. King Buddhadasa (337-365 A.C) , himself a Physician great repute, appointed a physician to be in charge of every ten villages. For the maintenance of these physicians, one tenth of the income from the fields was set apart. He also set up refugees for the sick in every village. Physicians were also appointed to look after the animals. Kassapa V (914-923 A.D ) founded a hospital close to the southern gate of Anuradhapura. General Sena in the tenth century is believed to have built a hospital close to the ceremonial street (Managala Veediya) . The history of medical care began early, for in the fourth century B.C. King Pandukhabaya , in the course of sanitizing the town constructed a hospital. A large workforce was entrusted with the task of keeping the city clean.



By the fourth century the word underwent a semantic change and a parivena meant an educational institution. King Buddhadasa built the Mayurapada parivena in the Mahavihara premises to provide education for the monks of the Mahavihara. A century later, the greatest Buddhist commentator Buddhagosha arrived in Anuradhapura to translate the Sinhalese commentaries of the canonical texts into Pali, and lived in the Mahavihara. The three great monasteries in the city were undoubtedly great centers of leaning with an international reputation. They were also great centres of Buddhism. Many scholars from various countries came to these monasteries to broaden their knowledge. By the middle of the third century BC the fame of the capital city of Anuradhapura was known as far the Mediterranean and by the first century AD, during the reign of Bhatikabhaya , an embassy was sent to Rome to present its credentials to Claudius Caesar.



As the city was enlarging and the population growing day by day, an efficient organization was needed to supervise and ensure the comforts of the people. So in the fourth century BC a warden of the city called Nagaraguttika was appointed by the king himself. Among his duties were the maintenance of the security within the city, and the apprehension and punishment of thieves and burglars. He was also entrusted with the task of checking the people who entered the city during the night, and to ensure that they were residents of the inner city. The financial administrator of the city was called a Nagara Ganaka, the accountant. This leads us to believe that the residents of the citadel were influential and socially powerful. This area considered of about 200 acres. There is no trace of an outer wall of the city. By the tenth century the city extended to nearly twenty square miles.


The south Indian Coals and Pandiyans were responsible for these invasions, conquests and depredations. Occasionally internal conflicts added to added to these disasters.last king to ascend the throne of Anuradhapura was Vijayabahu I (1055-1110 AC), but he ruled from Polonnaruwa. Even after Anuradhapura ceased to be the capital, the Kalinga invadeer, Magha (1214-1239 AC) and the Javanese invader Chandrabhanu in the year 1240 AC plundered and again destroyed the city.


last capital had been utterly destroyed by the Cola army, the temples were overgrown with great trees, and bears and leopards dwelt there. He restored the great stupa. In the twelfth century, when Vijayabahu IV (1271-1273 AC) was on the throne, he found 'a mighty forest grown up round the sacred places in Anuradhapura's and carried out some restorations. Even thoughanuradhapura had already ceased to be the capital, almost all the succeeding kings from different seats of power strove to restore the lost glory of that ancient capital. After five hundred years Parakramabahu VI (1411-1466 AC) of Kotte repaired some monuments including the mahathupa which was painted with gold. His daughter was anointed and married to a Sundara Pandya in 1448 at Anuradhapura. It is said that Parakramabahu resided at the old capital for some time to oversee the restoration activities. This shows that the later kings still admired the glory that Anuradhapura possessed in its hey day. After another three centuries, an attempts was made by Kirti Sri Rajasinha (1747-1781 AC) of Kandy to restore the vanishing beauty and prestige of Anuradhapura. But it was a fruitless effort.


After the capital was shifted from Anuradhapura to Polonnaruwa in the late tenth century, the old city was neglected. Gradually the population began to move out. From then onwards nature took over where man ceased to labour. The jungle began to grow and the elephant began to roam. The monuments started to crumble. The lakes went dry and the vast plain of paddy lands turned into muddy lands. Malaria and other epidemics took the lives of the innocent people. At the census of 1871 the population of the district numbered only sixteen to the square mile. However, under British rule, Anuradhapura became the administrative capital of the North-Central Province of Sri Lanka in 1873. But unfortunately the new administrative buildings were put up amidst the historic monuments with no respect or regard for the culture and civilization of the nation. Untold damage was caused to the remains of a past and years late, after gaining independence in 1948, the government attempted to save what remained. A new town was founded and the administrative buildings were shifted to new premises. The old town was declared a sacred city. Mistakes were made by the British rulers, but at the same time it was they who ultimately established a Government Department for Archaeology in the year 1890 under the guidance of H.C.P. Bell, although the work of archaeological excavation and conservation was begun in 1884 under S.M. Burrows.


During the later period of Anuradhapura, Mahayana teachings influenced many of the kings and we see the result of this in various documents and historic monuments both at Anuradhapura and Mihintale. During the reign of Sena I in about 840 AC Sri Lanka suffered a terrible setback when Pandyan kings of South India launched a successful invasion defeating the Sinhalese and totally destroying the city of Anuradhapura. The Mahavamsa says that "The splendid city was left in a state as if it has been plundered by demons. "Then again the growing power of the Cola dynasty of South India was a threat to the stability of Sri Lanka. As a result of his the ruling kings at Anuradhapura shifted the capital from Anuradhapura to Polonnaruwa at the end of the tenth century. The final blow to Anuradhapura was struck in 993 AD when the Colas conquered Sri Lanka and looted the city. The Chronicle says that the Colas took all the treasures of Lanka for themselves. The capital was then shifted to Polonnaruwa. The grandeur of the ancient Anuradhapura that we see today is the result of the untiring efforts of patriotic religious people of Sri Lanka who contributed their share to preserve even a little of what their ancestores had left. Anuradhapura survives today as the national monument of Sri Lanka.


The alms hall of the king.






Lions, all with different expressions, once lined the gate into the dagoba complex.



The royal palace of a 12th century king who tried, and failed, to reclaim Anuradhapura permanently.



The massive Jetavanarama Dagoba, built in the 3rd century AD, undergoes restoration.



Thousands of stone elephant heads line the base of the dagoba, each in a different pose.



water tank in the massive monastery complex that once housed 5,000 monks.



Ruins



A bath for monks.

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Old March 2nd, 2005, 02:49 AM   #10
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Sri Pada (Adam's peak) - The Sacred Mount - Alexander's visit

Sri Pada (Adam's peak) - The Sacred Mount - Alexander's visit



By the time Macedon's illustrious son, Alexander the Great, Greek warrior king and empire builder is believed to have visited Sri pada (circa. 324 B.C.), the peak was already held in veneration. After his subjugation of the Persian empire and the dependencies thereof Alexander led his forces on to India beyond the Indus to the ancient city of Taxila. He was at last countered by Porus the Indian king and his battle-trained cohorts of fighting elephants.

These huge beasts were unfamiliar to the Greek cavalry to which they presented a forbidding and formidable obstacle. The terrified horses stampeded and began to scatter out of control in utter panic. On the representation of his generals and fearing mutiny by the army Alexander decided to come to terms with Porus. After his skirmish with Porus the restless and venturesome Alexander decided to detour the south west coast of India and explore further south where he had heard of the fabulous isle of Sri Lanka known to the early Greeks as 'Taprobane'.

Here reports of the Sacred Mount of Sri Pada, then dedicated to the Hindu deity Saman and known as Samanthakuti, attracted his attention. The peak with its proud pinnacle commanding an enchanting prospect was too much of an attraction for the pleasure-bent Alexander to resist.



Ancient artefacts

Ashraff the 15th century poet describes this odyssey of Alexander to Sri Pada in his 'Zaffer Namah Skendari'. After landing in the Island and indulging himself and his retinue in orgies and revelry he explores the wonders of the Island.



Sunrise from Sri Pada

Here Alexander is known to have sought the assistance of the Philosopher Bolinas, a celebrated Greek occultist and magician, to climb the Sacred peak, then supposed to be zealously guarded by various deities.

Among the artefacts devised to ascend the then almost inaccessible peak were massive iron chains affixed to stanchions of the same metal secured to the bare rock face. The chains were secured to the stanchions with rivets of iron and bronze.

Remains of these artefacts still evident. Early pilgrims to the peak made use of these chains to hoist themselves upto the summit.

The belief that Alexander visited Sri pada existed before Ashraff. Ibn Batuta, the romantic 14th century Arab pilgrim traveller from Tangiers in Morocco who sojourned in the Island visiting the Sacred Mount, refers to a grotto at the foot of the peak with the word "Iskander' inscribed on it.



This 'Iskander' and 'Skendari' of Ashraff are identical, both names refer to none other than the celebrated Alexander the Great himself. Notes Batuta in his memoirs: "The ancients have cut steps of a sort on the vertical rock face, to these steps are fixed iron stanchions with suspended chains to enable pilgrims clamber up to the top with ease and minimum risk.

The impression of the Almighty's foot is observed upon a black and lofty rock in an open space on the summit.

Apart from scanty and much belated Arab sources, history is strangely silent for over seventeen centuries on the visit of Alexander to the Island and his journey to Sri Pada. Neither the Great Dynastic Chronicle Mahawamsa nor any other historical record of significance refers to it. Alexander's exploits were centred mainly in and around Persia and the Persian empire, the legends and folklore of the early Persians were, as a matter of course, handed over to their Arab posterity.

Commenting on the ancient artefacts on Sri Pada, the Englishman Robert Percival, who served with the British garrison in Colombo in the early nineteenth century, notes: "The iron chains on the rock face of Adam's Peak have the appearance of being planted there at a very early date, who placed them there or for what purpose they were set up there is difficult for anyone to know.

The beliefs and superstitions of the natives present difficulties. Whatever it is, all evidence indicates that the Peak was in the limelight long before the recorded history of the Island.

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Old March 2nd, 2005, 04:16 AM   #11
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Quote:
Originally Posted by serendib
hey ILOVEMTL .. im from sri lanka ..

i think anuradhapura flourished for like 1300 years as the capital of sri lanka
hey Serendib, i am Sri Lankan aswell, too bad i don't live there n i can only find picture via web, and most of them are already posted here!
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Old March 2nd, 2005, 06:31 AM   #12
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oh i see ..
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Old March 2nd, 2005, 06:37 AM   #13
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Ancient


"To me the beauty of Ceylon lies not so much in its blue seas and golden beaches, its jungles and its mountain peaks, as in its ancient atmosphere. There is no nation, from Egypt of the Pharaohs to modern Britian, in whose literature this island has not at some time been mentioned by one or other of its many names -- Lanka, Serendib, Taprobane, Cellao, Zellan, to recall a few. History lies buried in its sands, and ghosts of romance lurk among its bastioned rocks, for Lanka is very, very old."

- D. J. G. Hennessy, GREEN AISLES, 1949
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Old March 2nd, 2005, 06:42 AM   #14
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1,750,000 Year Old Man-Made Bridge between India and Sri Lanka Found

1,750,000 Year Old Man-Made Bridge between India and Sri Lanka Found

Space images taken by NASA reveal a mysterious ancient bridge in the Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka. The recently discovered bridge currently named as Adam´s Bridge is made of chain of shoals, c.18 mi (30 km) long.

The bridge´s unique curvature and composition by age reveals that it is man made. The legends as well as Archeological studies reveal that the first signs of human inhabitants in Sri Lanka date back to the a primitive age, about 1,750,000 years ago and the bridge´s age is also almost equivalent.

This information is a crucial aspect for an insight into the mysterious legend called Ramayana, which was supposed to have taken place in tredha yuga (more than 1,700,000 years ago).

In this epic, there is a mentioning about a bridge, which was built between Rameshwaram (India) and Srilankan coast under the supervision of a dynamic and invincible figure called Rama who is supposed to be the incarnation of the supreme.

This information may not be of much importance to the archeologists who are interested in exploring the origins of man, but it is sure to open the spiritual gates of the people of the world to have come to know an ancient history.



Comment From Hugh Joseph
I read the story headlined above with great interest. This is a story of major significance, as understanding its implications will turn the entire world of Science and History on its head.


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Old March 2nd, 2005, 06:47 AM   #15
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Sri Lankan Myths, Miracles & Mysteries


"The island of Sri Lanka has been a favorite haunt of aliens, extra terrestrials, gods, devas, angels, sky dwellers, demons, deities whichever way you describe them. Our chronicles, traditions, folklore, prehistoric cave drawings, archaeological evidence and ancient traveler's' records testify that there have been strange beings living in this island from time immemorial." There were and there are Mountains, Hills, buildings and even plants with full of mysteries, power and wisdom which are beyond human understanding. 200 million years ago, geologically Sri Lanka was linked with India, Madagascar, Australia and Antarctica, in a land mass known as Gondwana. Sri Lanka separated into a land mass known as Lanka Dvipa (Island of Lanka), and part of the land submerged into the sea. According to the Ramayana epic this took place because of the misdeeds of Ravana, but this seismic happening is confirmed by modern science."
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Old March 2nd, 2005, 07:07 AM   #16
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UFO - HISTORY

UFO - HISTORY - http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showth...89#post3442589

Quotes from report :-

He points out that there have been a number of such sightings in Egypt where historical structures exist. "It is possible for them to be interested in ancient sites such as Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa."

"However, Sri Lanka Air Force and the Air Traffic controllers have the capacity to track each and every object that crosses into our air space, and so far, nothing of that nature has been reported," he says.

"these sightings have been confirmed by a group of keen observers," at a press conference held in the Colombo University. One of the observers, Sanjeeva Bandara, has even written books on UFOs.

The Bandarawela Police cannot explain the abnormal sightings over their town. They dismiss the suggestion that it could relate to some military activity stemming from the Diyatalawa camp.


(The Army and Police Do not Co Ordinate )
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Old March 2nd, 2005, 06:55 PM   #17
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World Heritage Sites in Sri Lanka

Sacred City of Anuradhapura

Brief Description
This sacred city was established around a cutting from the "tree of enlightenment", Buddha's fig tree, brought there in the 3rd century B.C. by Sanghamitta, the founder of an order of Buddhist nuns. Anuradhapura, a Ceylonese political and religious capital that flourished for 1,300 years, was abandoned after an invasion in 993. Hidden away in thick jungle for a long time, the splendid site, with its palaces, monasteries and monuments, is once again accessible.


Ruvanweli Seya Dagoba

The Ruvanweli Seya Dagoba
Considered the greatest dagoba of Anuradhapura. With its 55 meters (180 feet) in height and snowy white colour, the impressive magnificent Elephant Wall which carries the terrace and the dagoba.



The Elephant wall of the great Ruvanweli Seya Dagoba. The elephants carry the dagoba just like in Buddhist cosmology elephants

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Old March 7th, 2005, 12:11 PM   #18
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World HeritageSites

THE SACRED CITY OF ANURADHAPURA 5 BC
THE MEDIEVAL CAPITAL OF POLONNARUWA 10 AD
THE CAVE TEMPLES OF DAMBULLA 1 BC
THE SIGIRIYA ROCK FORTRESS 5 AD
THE ROYAL CITY OF KANDY 15 AD
THE DUTCH FORTIFICATIONS AT GALLE 17 AD
THE SINHARAJA FOREST RESERVE
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Old April 3rd, 2005, 01:52 AM   #19
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As far back 400 years before the birth of Jesus Christ, before the birth of the Roman Empire, when Greek States Athens and Sparta were fighting for supremacy, Sri Lankans lived in cities of skyscrapers. Their homes had spas. Three dimensional replicas of marvels of Sinhala architecture such as Vatadage and Lovamahapaya compels a visit to the great city, Anuradhapura. Being devout Buddhists they practised the most tolerant multi-culturalism the world had ever seen, that was unique both in spiritual and temporal aspects
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Old April 7th, 2005, 01:00 AM   #20
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Very interesting. What do you mean by the cities of skyscrapers 400 BC? Did some stupas already exist back then or is it buidings on the mountaintops?

I'll take the time to read through this thread later
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