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Old April 26th, 2011, 01:59 PM   #1
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Science and technology in Iran

We're going to put different articles from different websites about Iran's scientific and technological advances in the recent years and in Ancient Persia.
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Old April 26th, 2011, 02:03 PM   #2
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Medical sciences in Iran: Wikipedia

Clinical sciences are highly developed in Iran. In areas such as rheumatology, hematology, and bone marrow trasplantation, Iranian medical scientists are among the world leaders.[53] The Hematology, Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Research Center (HORC) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Shariati Hospital was established in 1991. Internationally, this center is one of the largest bone marrow transplantation centers and has carried out a large number of successful transplantations.[54] According to a study conducted in 2005, associated specialized pediatric hematology and oncology (PHO) services exist in almost all major cities throughout the country, where 43 board-certified or eligible pediatric hematologist–oncologists are giving care to children suffering from cancer or hematological disorders. Three children’s medical centers at universities have approved PHO fellowship programs.[55] Besides hematology, gastroenterology has recently attracted many talented medical students. The gasteroenterology research center based at Tehran University has produced increasing numbers of scientific publications since its establishment.

Prof Moslem Bahadori, one of the pioneering figures in modern Iranian medicine


Modern organ transplantation in Iran dates to 1935, when the first cornea transplant in Iran was performed by Professor Mohammad-Qoli Shams at Farabi Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The Shiraz Nemazi transplant center, also one of the pioneering transplant units of Iran, performed the first Iranian kidney transplant in 1967 and the first Iranian liver transplant in 1995. The first heart transplant in Iran was performed 1993 in Tabriz. The first lung transplant was performed in 2001, and the first heart and lung transplants were performed in 2002, both at Tehran University.[56] Iran developed the first artificial lung in 2009 to join five other countries in the world which possess such technology.[57] Currently, renal, liver, and heart transplantations are routinely performed in Iran. Iran ranks fifth in the world in kidney transplants.[58] The Iranian Tissue Bank, commencing in 1994, was the first multi-facility tissue bank in country. In June 2000, the Organ Transplantation Brain Death Act was approved by the Parliament, followed by the establishment of the Iranian Network for Transplantation Organ Procurement. This act helped to expand heart, lung, and liver transplantation programs. By 2003, Iran had performed 131 liver, 77 heart, 7 lung, 211 bone marrow, 20,581 cornea, and 16,859 liver transplantations. 82 percent of these were donated by living and unrelated donors; 10 percent by cadavers; and 8 percent came from living-related donors. The 3-year renal transplant patient survival rate was 92.9%, and the 40-month graft survival rate was 85.9%.[56]


Neuroscience is also emerging in Iran. A few PhD programs in cognitive and computational neuroscience have been established in the country during recent decades.
Iranian surgeons treating wounded Iranian veterans during Iran–Iraq War invented a new neurosurgical treatment for brain injured patients which laid to rest the previously prevalent technique developed by US Army surgeon Dr Ralph Munslow. This new surgical procedure helped devise new guidelines which have decreased death rates for comatosed patients with penetrating brain injuries from 55% of 1980 to 20% of 2010. It has been said that these new treatment guidelines benefited US congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords who had been shot in the head.[59][60][61]
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Old April 26th, 2011, 02:04 PM   #3
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Computer Science and Robotics

Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics, and Automation was established in 2001 to promote educational and research activities in the fields of design, robotics, and automation. Besides these professional groups, several robotics groups work in Iranian high schools.[77] "Sorena 2" Robot, which was designed by engineers at University of Tehran, was unveiled in 2010. The robot can be used for handling sensitive tasks without the need for cooperating with human beings. The robot is taking slow steps similar to human beings, harmonious movements of hands and feet and other movements similar to humans.[78][79][80] Next the researchers plan to develop speech and vision capabilities and greater intelligence for this robot.[81] the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has placed the name of Surena among the five prominent robots of the world after analyzing its performance.[82] In 2010, Iranian researchers have, for the first time in the country, developed ten robots for the nation's automotive industry using domestic know how.[83]
Ultra Fast Microprocessors Research Center in Tehran’s Amirkabir University of Technology successfully built a supercomputer in 2007.[84] Maximum processing capacity of the supercomputer is 860 billion operations per second. Iran’s first supercomputer launched in 2001 was also fabricated by Amirkabir University of Technology.[85] In 2009, a SUSE Linux-based HPC system made by the Aerospace Research Institute of Iran (ARI) was launched with 32 cores and now runs 96 cores. Its performance was pegged at 192 GFLOPS.[86] Iran's National Super Computer made by Iran Info-Tech Development Company (a subsidiary of IDRO) was built from 216 AMD processors. The Linux-cluster machine has a reported "theoretical peak performance of 860 gig-flops".[87] The Routerlab team at the University of Tehran successfully designed and implemented an access-router (RAHYAB-300) and a 40Gbps high capacity switch fabric (UTS).[88] In 2011 Amirkabir University of Technology and Isfahan University of Technology produced 2 new supercomputers with processing capacity of 34,000 billion operations per second.[89] The supercomputer at Amirkabir University of Technology is expected to be among the 500 ones of the world.[89]
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Old April 28th, 2011, 10:26 AM   #4
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Famous Iranian scientists outside of Iran

*Famous Iranian scientists outside of Iran*

Nima Arkani-Hamed (born 1972) is a leading Iranian-American[1] theoretical physicist with interests in high-energy physics, string theory and cosmology.
Formerly a professor at Harvard, Arkani-Hamed currently sits on the faculty at the prestigious Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.[2]


Nima Arkani-Hamed
Born April 5, 1972
Houston, Texas, U.S. Fields Physics Institutions Harvard University, Institute for Advanced Study Alma mater University of Toronto,
University of California, Berkeley Known for Large extra dimensions, deconstruction, Little Higgs, Split supersymmetry Notable awards Gribov Medal of the European Physical Society (2003), Sackler Prize of Tel Aviv University (2008), Phi Beta Kappa Teaching Award (2005)

Arkani-Hamed was born on April 5, 1972 in Houston, Texas,parents from (Tabriz,Iran) and lived in Boston. His parents were both Iranian physicists. His family briefly returned to Iran after the 1979 revolution, then left again and moved to Toronto.[3] Arkani-Hamed eventually became a Canadian citizen.
Arkani-Hamed graduated from the University of Toronto with a Joint Honours degree in Mathematics and Physics, and went to the University of California, Berkeley for his graduate studies, where he worked under the supervision of Lawrence Hall. He completed his PhD in 1997 and went to SLAC at Stanford University for post-doctoral studies. During this time he worked with Savas Dimopoulos on large extra dimensions.
In 1999 he joined the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley physics department. He took a leave of absence from Berkeley to visit Harvard University beginning January 2001. Shortly after arriving at Harvard he worked with Howard Georgi and Andrew Cohen on the idea of emergent extra dimensions, dubbed dimensional deconstruction. These ideas eventually led to the development of little Higgs theories.


He officially joined Harvard's faculty in the fall of 2002. Arkani-Hamed has appeared on various television programs and newspapers talking about space, time and dimensions and the current state of theoretical physics. In 2003 he won the Gribov Medal of the European Physical Society, and in the summer of 2005 while at Harvard he won the 'Phi Beta Kappa' award for teaching excellence.
Arkani-Hamed participated in the Stock Exchange of Visions project in 2007.
In 2008 Arkani-Hamed won the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Prize given at Tel Aviv University to young scientists who have made outstanding and fundamental contributions in Physical Science.
He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2009.[4] In 2010 Arkani-Hamed gave the Messenger lectures at Cornell University.
He was a Professor of Physics at Harvard University from 2002–2008, and is now a Faculty member of the Institute for Advanced Study.[5]

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Old May 5th, 2011, 11:06 AM   #5
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Maryam Mirzakhani
(USA Today, 2005)
Born May 1977 (age 33–34)
Tehran, Iran Residence U.S. Citizenship Iranian[1] Nationality Iranian Fields Mathematician Institutions Princeton University
Stanford University Alma mater Sharif University of Technology
Harvard University Doctoral advisor Curtis McMullen[1][2] Notable awards Blumenthal Award

Maryam Mirzakhani (Persian: مریم میرزاخانی) (Born May[3] 1977 Tehran) is an Iranian mathematician, Professor of Mathematics (since September 1, 2008) at Stanford University.[4] Her research interests include Teichmüller theory, hyperbolic geometry, ergodic theory, and symplectic geometry.[3]
She found international recognition as a brilliant teenager after receiving gold medals in both the International Mathematical Olympiad (Hong Kong 1994) in which she scored 41 out of 42 points, ranking her 23rd jointly with five other participants, and in the International Mathematical Olympiad (Canada 1995) with a perfect score of 42 out of 42 points, ranking her 1st jointly with 14 other participants.[5]
Mirzakhani obtained her BSc in Mathematics (1999) from the Sharif University of Technology. She holds a PhD from Harvard University (2004), where she worked under the supervision of the Fields Medallist Curtis McMullen. She was a Clay Mathematics Institute Research Fellow and a professor at Princeton University.


Awards and honours

  • Full professor of Mathematics at Stanford University at age of 31, 2008.
  • AMS Blumenthal Award 2009 [6]
  • Clay Mathematics Institute Research Fellow 2004.
  • Harvard Junior Fellowship Harvard University, 2003.
  • Merit fellowship Harvard University, 2003.
  • IPM Fellowship The Institute for theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran, Iran, 1995-1999.
  • Gold medal. International Mathematical Olympiad (Canada 1995).[7]
  • Gold medal. International Mathematical Olympiad (Hong Kong 1994).[7]
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Old May 9th, 2011, 10:18 AM   #6
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Science and Technology in Iran - [Press TV - March 2011]

Laser, Cloning, Medicine, Aerospace, Nanotechnology, and Nuclear Technology

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f4fd1...eature=related

Iran unveils supercomputers - PressTV 110225

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXvxEgG1xhI

Press TV -Iran-Stem cell Technology in Iran- 03-07-2010

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OXKE3...layer_embedded

Iran's Advancements in Laser Technology

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F4cTA...layer_embedded

Press TV/Iran/An introduction to Jamshid Aryan asl, the Iranian inventor/ 11 /08/ 2009

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=53KSU...layer_embedded

Iran's scientific achievements- Iran Today-03-22-2011 (Part 1)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QRPrV...layer_embedded

Iran's scientific achievements- Iran Today-03-22-2011 (Part 2)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ZIVy...eature=related

Last edited by ardeshir8; May 9th, 2011 at 10:34 AM.
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Old May 9th, 2011, 10:21 AM   #7
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Iran dominira (dominates).

Last edited by The Texas Ranger; May 9th, 2011 at 11:55 AM. Reason: Added the English translation of the Croatian word.
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Old May 9th, 2011, 10:38 AM   #8
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Iranian Space Agency - Launch of Omid Sattelite سازمان فضایی ایران

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z_FaW...eature=related

Iran Builds 10 Labs to Strengthen Space Industry افتتاح تاسيسات فضايي ايران

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ooPMe...eature=related

Iran Launches New Space Rocket

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Dm5H...eature=related

Ahmadinejad inaugurate aerospace laboratory

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gkjzw...eature=related

Ahmadinejad unveils Iranian manufactured satellites

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=919yP...eature=related

Iran launched Kavoshgar 4 rocket

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KZfhg...eature=related

Ahmadinejad unveiled the monkey astraunote

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-hzma...eature=related
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Old May 9th, 2011, 10:39 AM   #9
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I don't know how the other Iranians here think about such issues, but I get extremely nationalistic by the videos.
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Old May 9th, 2011, 02:40 PM   #10
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Thank you Ardeshir for the links. but please try to upload more from independent sources rather than PressTV.

Thank you Texas ranger for the comment.
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Old May 9th, 2011, 06:52 PM   #11
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Firstly, I like to congratulate the Iranian people and their determination. They have made immense strives in the fields of science and technology. I am especially amazed at Iran’s space program. Since 2000, Iran is able to independently launch satellites into orbit, thus making them a very select few countries that can do this, even under the midst of sanctions.

Now they are able to send living creatures into space and return them safely. I really excited about the plans to send the monkey into space by mid 2011, this is a pivotal moment in Iran’s space ambitions. If the monkey can return safely, could Iran possibly send a man into space within the next decade?
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Old May 9th, 2011, 09:36 PM   #12
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70-80 million at least they have to do something
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Old May 9th, 2011, 10:49 PM   #13
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iran has the world's number one science and technological growth rate
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Old May 10th, 2011, 03:05 AM   #14
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Quote:
Originally Posted by QWECXZ View Post
Thank you Ardeshir for the links. but please try to upload more from independent sources rather than PressTV.

Thank you Texas ranger for the comment.
np! btw, yes it is presstv. however, I dont see anything wrong about it. They are showing the products and are talking about that even American and Canadian institutes are saying that Iran hast he highest growth of all countries in terms of technology and science.
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Old May 10th, 2011, 03:08 AM   #15
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Iran's Humanoid Robot Surena 2 Walking

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4bE9LyELTRs

Iranian scientists clone goat

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R-5DtAjA1oA
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Old May 10th, 2011, 06:04 PM   #16
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Quote:
Originally Posted by DaZed and DiZzy View Post
70-80 million at least they have to do something

So Why Egypt with 80M+ people and some other countries who have a 60+ population don't do something?
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Old May 10th, 2011, 06:07 PM   #17
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Quote:
Originally Posted by ardeshir8 View Post
np! btw, yes it is presstv. however, I dont see anything wrong about it. They are showing the products and are talking about that even American and Canadian institutes are saying that Iran hast he highest growth of all countries in terms of technology and science.
Yea, that one that says Iran has the highest scientific growth is an international report and has been repeatedly confirmed in independent research and scientific Analysis on Iran. in fact, the one that says Iran's scientific growth is 11 times of the world's scientific growth is from the Canadian science metrix, but I'm talking about other news that PressTV writes. you can usually find unprofessional mistakes in them, doesn't mean they are not true but it means that the person who has written the news is stupid lol.

Quote:
Originally Posted by The Nomadic Warrior View Post
Firstly, I like to congratulate the Iranian people and their determination. They have made immense strives in the fields of science and technology. I am especially amazed at Iran’s space program. Since 2000, Iran is able to independently launch satellites into orbit, thus making them a very select few countries that can do this, even under the midst of sanctions.

Now they are able to send living creatures into space and return them safely. I really excited about the plans to send the monkey into space by mid 2011, this is a pivotal moment in Iran’s space ambitions. If the monkey can return safely, could Iran possibly send a man into space within the next decade?
Actually Ahmadinejad boasted sometimes ago that Iran would send its first astronaut into space by 2017 to show that sanctions are ineffective. but regardless of what Ahmadinejad says, according to the 5th Iranian national progress plan, any Iranian government that comes to power has to achieve some certain goals. one of them is to send an astronaut to space by 2021. the other one is to have a network of recon. satellites like an LPS. (Local Positioning System, like the one that India is currently using it, in opposite to GPS).

Last edited by QWECXZ; May 10th, 2011 at 06:18 PM.
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Old May 14th, 2011, 10:14 AM   #18
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Now I'm going to write about Persian scientists in the Medieval Islam. commonly known as the Islamic Golden age.
I try to write only the things that are documented and I avoid writing things that are controversial. obviously unrelated posts should be removed by moderators and I don't want my thread to become a place for fighting about stupid things.
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Old May 14th, 2011, 10:32 AM   #19
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Avicenna

Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā[3] (Persian پورسينا Pur Sina /'puːr siːnɑː/ son of Sina) (c. 980, Afshana near Bukhara– 1037, Hamadan), commonly known as Ibn Sīnā or by his Latinized name Avicenna, was a Persian[4][5][6] polymath.
Ibn Sīnā studied medicine under a physician named Koushyar. He wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived. In particular, 150 of his surviving treatises concentrate on philosophy and 40 of them concentrate on medicine.[7][8] His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, and The Canon of Medicine,[9] which was a standard medical text at many medieval universities.[10] The Canon of Medicine was used as a text-book in the universities of Montpellier and Louvain as late as 1650.[11] Ibn Sīnā's Canon of Medicine provides a complete system of medicine according to the principles of Galen (and Hippocrates).[12][13]
He was also an astronomer, chemist, geologist, Hafiz, Islamic psychologist, Islamic scholar, Islamic theologian, logician, paleontologist, mathematician, Maktab teacher, physicist, poet, and scientist.[14] He is regarded as the most famous and influential of the Islamic Golden Age.[15]


Avicenna created an extensive corpus of works during what is commonly known as Islam's Golden Age, in which the translations of Greco-Roman, Persian and Indian texts were studied extensively. Greco-Roman (Mid- and Neo-Platonic, and Aristotelian) texts by the Kindi school were commented, redacted and developed substantially by Islamic intellectuals, who also built upon Persian and Indian mathematical systems, astronomy, algebra, trigonometry and medicine.[16] The Samanid dynasty in eastern part of Persia, Greater Khorasan and Central Asia as well as Buyid dynasty in the western part of Persia and Iraq provided a thriving atmosphere for scholarly and cultural development. Under the Samanids, Bukhara rivaled Baghdad as a cultural capital of the Islamic world.[17]
The study of Quran and Hadith thrived in such a scholarly atmosphere. Philosophy, Fiqh and theology (kalam) were further developed, most noticeably by Avicenna and his opponents. Al-Razi and Al-Farabi had provided methodology and knowledge in medicine and philosophy. Avicenna had access to the great libraries of Balkh, Khwarezm, Gorgan, Rey, Isfahan and Hamadan. As various texts, such as the 'Ahd with Bahmanyar show, he debated philosophical points with the greatest scholars of the time. As Aruzi Samarqandi describes in his four articles before Avicenna left Khwarezm he had met Abu Rayhan Biruni (a famous scientist and astronomer), Abu Nasr Iraqi (a renowned mathematician), Abu Sahl Masihi (a respected philosopher) and Abu al-Khayr Khammar (a great physician).


---------------------------------------------


I'm not going to write it all here, it takes a lot of space and I can't copy it here, for those who are interested to know more about him they can go to wikipedia. here's the direct link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avicenna
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Old May 14th, 2011, 10:42 AM   #20
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Rhazis

Muhammad ibn Zakariyā Rāzī (Mohammad-e Zakariā-ye Rāzi: Persian: محمد زکریای رازی), known as Rhazes or Rasis after medieval Latinists, (August 26, 865 – 925) was a Persian[1][2] physician, alchemist and chemist, philosopher, and scholar[3] . He is recognised as a polymath,[4] and biographies of Razi, based on his writings, describe him as "perhaps the greatest clinician of all times."
Numerous “firsts” in medical research, clinical care, and chemistry are attributed to him, including being the first to differentiate smallpox from measles, and the discovery of numerous compounds and chemicals including alcohol and kerosene, among others.[5] Edward Granville Browne considers him as "probably the greatest and most original of all the physicians, and one of the most prolific as an author".[6]
Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to the fields of medicine, alchemy, music, and philosophy, recorded in over 200 books and articles in various fields of science. He was well-versed in Persian, Greek and Indian medical knowledge and made numerous advances in medicine through own observations and discoveries.[7]
Educated in music, mathematics, philosophy, and metaphysics, he chose medicine as his professional field. As a physician, he was an early proponent of experimental medicine and has been described as the father of pediatrics.[8] He was also a pioneer of ophthalmology. He was among the first to use Humoralism to distinguish one contagious disease from another. In particular, Razi was the first physician to distinguish smallpox and measles through his clinical characterization of the two diseases.
As an alchemist, Razi is known for his study of sulfuric acid and for his discovery of ethanol and its refinement to use in medicine. He became chief physician of Rey and Baghdad hospitals. Razi invented what today is known as rubbing alcohol.
Razi was a rationalist and very confident in the power of ratiocination; he was widely regarded by his contemporaries and biographers as liberal, free of prejudice, and bold in expressing his ideas.[citation needed]
He traveled extensively, mostly in Persia. As a teacher in medicine, he attracted students of all disciplines and was said to be compassionate and devoted to the service of his patients, whether rich or poor.


Rhazes was born in the silk road passing city of Rey.[9] His name Razi in Persian means "from the city of Rey"), an ancient town called Ragha in old Persian and Ragâ in Avestan.[10] It is located on the southern slopes of the Alborz Range situated near Tehran, Iran. In this city (like Ibn Sina) he accomplished most of his work[11]
In his early life he could have been a musician or singer (see Ibn abi Usaibi'ah[citation needed]) but more likely a lute-player who shifted his interest from music to alchemy (cf. ibn Juljul, Sa'id, ibn Khallikan, Usaibi'ah, al-Safadi[citation needed]). At the age of 30 (Safadi says after 40) he stopped his study of alchemy because his experimentation had caused an eye disease (Cf. al-Biruni[citation needed]), obliging him to search for physicians and medicine to cure it. al-Biruni, Beyhaqi and others, say this was the reason why he began his medical studies.
He studied medicine under Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, known as Ali ibn Rabban al-Tabari or Ali ibn Sahl, (Cf. al-Qifti, Usaibi'ah), a physician and philosopher born in Merv about 192 AH (808 C.E.) (d. approx. 240 AH (855 C.E.)). Ali ibn Sahl belonged to the medical school of Tabaristan or Hyrcania).
Razi became famous in his native city as a physician. He became Director of the hospital of Rey (Cf. ibn Juljul, al-Qifti, ibn abi Usaibi'ah), during the reign of Mansur ibn Ishaq ibn Ahmad ibn Asad who was Governor of Rey from 290-296 AH (902-908 C.E.) on behalf of his cousin Ahmad ibn Isma'il ibn Ahmad, second Samanian ruler. Razi dedicated his al-Tibb al-'Mansuri to Mansur ibn Ishaq ibn Ahmad, which was verified in a handwritten manuscript of his book. This was refuted by ibn al-Nadim', but al-Qifti and ibn abi Usaibi'ah confirmed that the named Mansur was indeed Mansur ibn Isma'il who died in 365 AH (975 C.E.). Razi moved from Rey to Baghdad during Caliph Muktafi's reign (approx. 289-295 AH (901-907 C.E.)) where he again held a position as Chief Director of a hospital.


After al-Muktafi's death in 295 AH (907 C.E.) Razi allegedly returned to Rey where he gathered many students around him. As Ibn al-Nadim relates in Fihrist, Razi was then a Shaikh (title given to one entitled to teach), surrounded by several circles of students. When someone arrived with a scientific question, this question was passed on to students of the 'first circle'. if they did not know the answer, it was passed on to those of the 'second circle'... and so on and on, until at last, when all others had failed to supply an answer, it came to Razi himself. We know of at least one of these students who became a physician. Razi was a very generous man, with a humane behavior towards his patients, and acting charitable to the poor. He used to give them full treatment without charging any fee, nor demanding any other payment.[citation needed]
His eye affliction started with cataracts and ended in total blindness. One of his pupils from Tabaristan came to look after him, but, according to al-Biruni, he refused to be treated, proclaiming it was useless as his hour of death was approaching. Some days later he died in Rey, on the 5th of Sha'ban 313 AH (27 October 925).
However, his fame spread and lived on. In an undated catalogue of the library at Peterborough Abbey, most likely from the 14th century, he is listed as a part author of ten books on medicine.[12]


To read more about Rhazis: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Razi
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