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Old August 6th, 2006, 08:53 PM   #1
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Chinese common knowledge serise---geography

Hong Kong China Tourism Press.

Population

China has the largest population in the world,with 1,295 billion people by the end of the 1st of November 2000,or one fifth of the world's total.
Population is a prominent problem in China,creating great pressure on economic development and environment protection. Since the 1970s,Chinese government has pushed forward a family planning program aimed at greatly reducing this population.
Moreover,the Chinese population is unevenly distributed.The east is densely populated,while the west is sparsely populated;the plains are densely populated, but the mountainous areas and plateaus are sparsely populated.

Last edited by taibei12345; August 6th, 2006 at 09:21 PM.
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Old August 6th, 2006, 09:20 PM   #2
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United Multi-ethnic Country

China is a united multi-ethnic nation of 56 ethnic groups made up of Han,Mongolian,Hui,Tibetan,Uygur,Miao,Yi,Zhuang,Bouyei,Korean,Man and so on.A policy of equity has always been promoted among the many ethnic groups. The Han ethnic group has the largest population,accounting for 91.59% of the total population.The other 55 ethnic groups are customarily referred to as national minorities.The fifth census (by the end of the 1st of November 2000) showed that the population of the ethnic groups came up to 106.43 million,accounting for about 8.41% of the total population.

The ethnic minorities,with a comparatively small population,are distributed widely in China,but are mostly congregated in the northwest,southwest and northeast.The Uygur people, good at singing and dancing,are concentrated in Xinjiang.Mongolians,long known as the 'grassland people',are mainly distributed on the Mongolian Plateau.Tibetans distributed over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are often called the 'eagles of plateau'.The Oreqen people inhabiting the mountainous areas of the Xing'an Range are often simply called the 'mountain people'.

For hundreds of years, various customs and habits of different Chinese ethnic groups have developed under different nature,social and historical conditions.

In China ,there are other ethnic groups that haven't yet been formally identified,with a population of 749,000, accounting for 0.066% of the total.
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Old August 6th, 2006, 09:25 PM   #3
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Topograghy

China's topograghy is very complicated. There are broad and flat plains,undulating hills,towering mountains,and vast plateau with high altitude and dotted with basins.The terrain gradually descends from west to east like a three-step staircase.
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Old August 6th, 2006, 09:43 PM   #4
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Climate

The east of China is characterized by a monsoon climate.Most of the country has a cold and dry winter and hot and rainy summer.
In winter, there is a big temperature difference between north and south.When people of Harbin brave the deep snow to visit the annual 'Ice Lantern Garden Party',people in Guangzhou are enjoying a beautiful spring with flowers in bloom.In summer,most of China is very hot with plentiful rainfall,greatly benefiting agriculture.
Precipitation is unevenly distributed,resulting in plentiful rain in the southeast but little in the northwest.In Huoshaoliao of Taiwan,the average annual precipitation reaches 6,557.8 mm,while in the middle of the Turpan Basin in Xinjiang it drops to below 10mm.
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Old August 6th, 2006, 10:08 PM   #5
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Economy

Since China launched its reform and opening up policy in 1978,the economy has been developing at a continuously high rate.The industrial and agricultural products of grain,cotton,meat,cloth,steel,raw coal and TV sets have grown markedly;and the technologies of atomic energy ,biology ,computers,aviation and aerospace and so on have reached the world level.

Since the reform and opening up,China has introduced a lot of talented personel,capital and technologies from other countries,greatly accelerating economic growth.It is estimated that by the middle of the 21st century,China will be generally modernized and reached the level of the middle-developed countries.

China is a country with a large population.Calculated according to per capital income,the economic level is still low,and there still exists a fairly large gap with the developed countries.China's economical level varies according to region. The areas along the coast in eastern China are rather developed,while those in the west are backward.China is carrying out a western development plan to promote rapid economic growth in that region.
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Old August 6th, 2006, 10:28 PM   #6
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Industry

Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949,industry has been developing fast so that an independent and complete modern industrial system has now been astablished.All industrial categories are represented,such as iron,chemicals,machine building,textile,electronics,aviation and aerospace and so on.

Before 1949,most Chinese industrial enterprises were distributed in shenyang,Dalian,Tianjin,Qingdao,Shanghai and Guangzhou along the east coast.The large areas in the middle and west of China, excluding Wuhan,Chongqing,etc.,had fewer industries by comparison.

Since 1949,great changes have taken place in the distribution of industry,forming a heavy industrial base in the middle and south of liaoning Province;a comprehensive industrial base focusing on Beijing,Tianjin and Tangshan;the largest comprehensive industrial base focusing on Shanghai,Nanjing and Hangzhou;and a comprehensive industrial base centered on Guangzhou and Shenzhen in the Pearl River Delter.
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Old August 6th, 2006, 10:38 PM   #7
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Agriculture

China is a big agriculture country with one of the longest histories of agriculture development. Crops such as rice originated in China.

The Chinese government has been paying close attention to agriculture,increasing investment and actively carrying out irrigation and water conservancy capital construction to speed up the modenization of agriculture being that,with less than ten percent of the world's cultivatable land,China manages to feed over one-fifth of the world's population.
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Old August 6th, 2006, 11:18 PM   #8
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Land of Charm and Beauty

Mountain
The Himalayas
The Qinling Mountains
The Changbai Mountains
The Tianshan Mountains
The Kunlun Mountains

Plateaus
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
The Inner Mongolian Plateau
The Loess Plateau
The Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau

Plains
The Northeast Plain
The North China Plain
The Middle and Lower Yangtze Valley Plain

Basins
The Tarim Basin
The Junggar Basin
The Qaidom Basin
The Sichuan Basin

Rivers and Lakes
Yangtze River
Yellow River
Yarlung Zangbo River
Beijing-Hangzhou Canal
Poyang Lake
Dongting Lake
Taihu Lake
Qinghai Lake
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Old August 7th, 2006, 12:02 AM   #9
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Islands

Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island located in the Southeast China Sea,with an area of about 35,000 km2,is the largest island in China.
Taiwan has been an inseparable part of China's territory since ancient times.In the Three Kingdoms Period ( 220-280 AD) it was called Yizhou.Not untill the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD) was it named Taiwan.It has been invaded many times.In 1662, Zheng Chenggong (1624-1662 AD)reoccupied Taiwan.


Hainan Island
the second largest island in China,lies in the far south,with an area of over 32,200 km2.It faces the Leizhou Peninsula across the Qiongzhou Strait to the north.
Hainan Island is a famous tourist place,reputed to be a ' pearl ' in the south China sea,one will enjoy tropical scenery everywhere on Hainan.There is a large area of tropical forest,a variety of evergreen plants,plus many special biological phenomena,such as plate-like roots,blossoms on old stems and so on.
Hainan is the main production area for tropical cash crops such as rubber,coconuts,oil palms,sisal nd pepper,etc.


The South China Sea Islands
is scattered with many islands,reefs and submerged shoals to which the general name South China Sea Islands is given.
The South China Sea Islands are made up of the East Sand Islands,West Sand Islands,Middle Sand Islands,South Sand Islands and Yellow Rock Island.
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Old August 7th, 2006, 01:02 AM   #10
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Water Transport

China's water transport has a long history. Early in the Shang Dynasty ( 1600-1046 BC ) there were sailing boats. The great canal in the Sui Dynasty (581-618 AD) provided great convenience for south-north water transport.In the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD),Zheng He (1371-1433 AD) navigated across seas seven times and reached the eastern coast of Africa in one of his voyages.
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Old August 8th, 2006, 05:34 PM   #11
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The Three Gorges Project

The Three Gorges Project is a grand project to control the Yangtze River and exploit its hydropower potential.It has comprehensive functions of preventing floods,generating electricity and allowing passage of much larger ships than before.

The Three Gorges Project can radically solve the flood threats of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.
It is equivalent to ten 2 million kw thermal power stations which can ease the problem of power shortages in central and eastern China,and other areas.
It can improve the navigational condition of the upper reaches of the Yangtze River.After its completion,10,000-tn ships can reach Chongqing directly and 35% of the current shipping costs will be cut.The link between the southwest and other regions will be strengthened.

The Three Gorges Dam of the Yangtze River is the biggest dam in the world.It is 1,983 m long.After its completion,it looks like a ' GreatWall on the water ' ,becoming a new landscape attracting tourists
The Three Gorges Project began in 1992 and was scheduled for completion in 18 years.
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Old August 8th, 2006, 05:56 PM   #12
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小浪底水利枢纽工程
The Xiaolangdi Key Water Control Project

Xiaolangdi is located on the main stream of the Yellow River 40 km north of Luoyang in Henan Province and at the key point in terms of controlling the mud and sand content of the lower Yellow River.The Xiaolangdi Key Water Control Project is a comprehensive large-scale control project giving priority to controlling floods,reducing sand and mud deposits and also pays attention to irrigation,supplying water and generating electricity.

After the completion of the Xiaolangdi Key Water Control Project,the standard of the flood control over the lower Yellow River will have been advanced from the farmer level of one major flood every 60 years to once in a thousand years.
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Old August 8th, 2006, 06:41 PM   #13
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Special Administrative Region of China

Hong Kong
Hong Kong is a special administrative region of China. It has an area of 1,096 km2 with a population of 6.78 million (according to the fifth census on November 2000).

On August 29, 1842, Britain forced the government of the Qing Dynasty to sign the Treaty of Nanjing after the opium war,ceding Hong Kong Island to Britain.
On 1st July 1997,the Chinese government resumed sovereignty over Hong Kong.



Macao
The Macao Special Administrative Region,located on the southwest bank of the estuary of the Pearl River,comprises the Macao Peninsular,Dangzai Island and Luhuan Island ,covering an area of 23.5 km2 with a population of 440,000 (according to the fifth census,1st November 2000).

Since ancient times,Macao has been part of China's territory.In 1553,Portuguese colonists made an excuse of drying goods soaked by seawater to make a landing and secure their influence.After the Opium War Macao was occupied by Portugal.On 20th of December 1999,the Chinese government regained sovereignty.
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Old August 8th, 2006, 08:30 PM   #14
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Territory of China

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Old August 9th, 2006, 03:11 PM   #15
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picture of the Three Gorges



satellite picture of the dam

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