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Old February 12th, 2009, 05:03 PM   #1
Redalinho
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1001 Inventions of the Islamic civilization

http://www.1001inventions.com


This timeline of science and engineering in the Islamic world covers both the classical Islamic Golden Age (usually dated from the 7th to 16th centuries) and the post-classical period (after the 16th century). From the 19th century onwards, the advances by Muslim scientists and engineers occurred both within and outside of the Islamic world. All year dates are given according to the Gregorian calendar except where noted

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timelin...nd_engineering
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Old February 12th, 2009, 05:06 PM   #2
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Soap bar by al-Razi (Rhazes)



Shampoo by the Sake Dean Mahomet in 1759.

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Perfume usage recorded in 7th century Arabian Peninsula

Perfume industry established by Geber (Jabir) (b. 722, Iraq) and al-Kindi (b. 801, Iraq)



Jabir developed many techniques, including distillation, evaporation and filtration, which enabled the collection of the odour of plants into a vapour that could be collected in the form of water or oil.



Al-Kindi carried out extensive research and experiments in combining various plants and other sources to produce a variety of scent products.



Al-Kindi elaborated a vast number of recipes for a wide range of perfumes, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.



The preparation of a perfume called ghaliya, which contained musk, amber and other ingredients, and the use of various drugs and apparatus, by al-Kindi.



Extraction of fragrances through steam distillation by Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) in the 11th century.



Introduction of new raw ingredients in perfumery.



Perfumery produced from different spices, herbals, and other fragrance materials.



Introduction of jasmine from South and Southeast Asia, and citrus fruits from East Asia in modern perfumery.

Cheap mass production of incenses.

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Old February 12th, 2009, 05:07 PM   #3
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The Islamic hospital-universities were the first free public hospitals, the first medical schools, and the first universities to issue diplomas. The first of these institutions was opened in Baghdad during the time of Harun al-Rashid. They then appeared in Egypt from 872 and then in Islamic Spain, Persia and the Maghreb thereafter. Physicians and surgeons at Islamic hospital-universities gave lectures to medical students and a diploma would be issued to any student who completed his/her education and was qualified to be a doctor of Medicine.




The psychiatric hospitals were also built in the medieval Islamic world



Plaster by Abu al-Qasim (Abucasis) in 1000.



Tracheotomy by Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) in the 12th century.



The medical procedure of inoculation in the medieval Muslim world, later followed by the first smallpox vaccine in the form of cowpox, invented in Turkey in the early 18th century.



At least 2,000 medicinal substances.



Other medical treatments developed by Muslim physicians include:

Modern oral and inhalant anesthesia by Muslim anesthesiologists.



Surgeries under inhalant anesthesia with the use of narcotic-soaked sponges which were placed over the face, by Abu al-Qasim and Ibn Zuhr.

Medical and anesthetic use of Opium by Avicenna.



Application of purified alcohol to wounds as an antiseptic agent by Muslim physicians and surgeons in the 10th century.



Utilization of special methods for maintaining antisepsis prior to and during surgery by surgeons.

Specific protocols for maintaining hygiene during the post-operative period.



Drug therapy and medicinal drugs for the treatment of specific symptoms and diseases, and the use of practical experience and careful observation, by Avicenna, al-Kindi, Ibn Rushd, Abu al-Qasim, Ibn Zuhr, Ibn Baytar, Ibn al-Jazzar, Ibn Juljul, Ibn al-Quff, Ibn al-Nafis, Al-Biruni, Ibn Sahl.



Chemotherapeutical drugs in the Muslim world.



Specific substances to destroy microbes, and the application of sulfur topically specifically to kill the scabies mite.



Medicinal-grade alcohol through distillation, and the first distillation devices for use in chemistry manufactured on a large scale, in the 10th century.



Alcohol as a solvent and antiseptic

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Old February 12th, 2009, 05:11 PM   #4
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634 - 644 [technology] Windmill invented in Afghanistan during the time of the Rashidun caliph, Umar.

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Old February 12th, 2009, 05:14 PM   #5
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715 - 815 - [crystallography] Crystallization is invented by Geber.

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Old February 12th, 2009, 05:16 PM   #6
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754 - [medicine, pharmacy] The first pharmacy and drugstores are opened in Baghdad. The first apothecary shops are also opened in the Islamic world

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Old February 12th, 2009, 05:16 PM   #7
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has the Islamic world invented anything worthwhile recently? particularly after the Islamic revolution?
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Old February 12th, 2009, 05:17 PM   #8
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763 - 800 - [medicine, psychiatry, psychology] The first psychiatric hospitals and insane asylums are built by the Muslim Arabs in Baghdad and then Fes

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Old February 12th, 2009, 05:22 PM   #9
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The earliest known paper mill is known to have operated in Baghdad, modern-day Iraq, as early as 794. After Baghdad, the paper-making process spread to Damascus, Egypt, and Morocco, and by the 10th century, it had replaced papyrus, wood, silk and parchment as the cheapest and most widespread writing medium in the Islamic world

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Old February 12th, 2009, 05:23 PM   #10
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2008: Cumrun Vafa, pioneered the F-theory, Vafa-Witten theorem and topological string theory, and discovered the microscopic origin of black hole entropy.


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Old February 12th, 2009, 05:25 PM   #11
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1924: Behçet's disease, strongly associated with HLA-B51, was discovered by Hulusi Behçet

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Old February 12th, 2009, 05:31 PM   #12
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1960-1970: Kerim Kerimov from Azerbaijan was one of the most important key figures in early space exploration. He was one of the founders of the Soviet space program, one of the lead architects behind the first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), and responsible for the launch of the first space stations (the Salyut and Mir series) as well as their predecessors (the Cosmos 186 and Cosmos 188).

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Old February 12th, 2009, 05:33 PM   #13
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2007: In 2007, Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor from Malaysia traveled to ISS with his Expedition 16 crew aboard Soyuz TMA-11 as part of the Angkasawan program during Ramadan, for which the National Fatwa Council wrote Guidelines for Performing Islamic Rites (Ibadah) at the International Space Station, giving advice on issues such as prayer in a low-gravity environment, the location of Mecca from ISS, determination of prayer times, and issues surrounding fasting. Shukor also celebrated Eid ul-Fitr aboard ISS. He was both an astronaut and an orthopedic surgeon, and is most notable for being the first to perform biomedical research in space, mainly related to the characteristics and growth of liver cancer and leukemia cells and the crystallization of various proteins and microbes in space

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Old February 12th, 2009, 05:38 PM   #14
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Sorry, but the idea of "Islamic Civilization" is absurd.

Imagine "I001 achievements of Christian Civilization".

It was Arabic, Persian, Turkish etc. etc.
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Old February 12th, 2009, 06:01 PM   #15
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I don't remember a Christian Empire....
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Old February 12th, 2009, 06:19 PM   #16
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And I can't recall the name of an Islamic empire that existed since the 7th century till today…
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Old February 12th, 2009, 07:06 PM   #17
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Marathaman View Post
Sorry, but the idea of "Islamic Civilization" is absurd.

Imagine "I001 achievements of Christian Civilization".

It was Arabic, Persian, Turkish etc. etc.
No but we say Western civilization, including France, Austria, Canada...





And when we say "Islamic civilization" it includes also many Jewish, Christian, Zoroastrian & atheist scholars

Last edited by Redalinho; February 12th, 2009 at 07:11 PM.
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Old February 12th, 2009, 07:36 PM   #18
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Well then an Islamic Civilization with Jewish/Zoroastrian/atheist scholars is kinda self-contradictory.

Perhaps, "Middle-Eastern and North African" civilization would be a better term, in the same league as "Western Civilization".

Although both terms are vague and sweeping, and cover a huge number of diverse cultures.
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Old February 12th, 2009, 07:50 PM   #19
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Here we go again!!
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Old February 12th, 2009, 08:42 PM   #20
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Quote:
Originally Posted by shugs View Post
Here we go again!!
Exactly! I can predict where this thread is going....
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