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Old May 16th, 2012, 05:56 AM   #761
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3000-year-old stone axe unearthed in Tamil Nadu

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Nagapattinam (Tamil Nadu): A small polished stone axe, believed to be dating back to the new stone age period, has been unearthed at Thirukkadaiyur near Porayar in Nagapattinam district, an archaeological expert said on Monday.

The axe, called Celt, is believed to be 3,000 years old, Kudavayil Sundaravelu told reporters here.

Celt was found when a well situated in the backyard of a house of one Manikandan at Thirukkadaiyur was being de-silted.

Mr Sundaravelu said during the new stone age period, the Celt had probably been designed to serve as an attachment to wooden shafts and mainly used for felling trees, shaping wood and in agricultural purposes.

He said the Celt found at Thirukkadaiyur was 18 cm long and 5 cm broad. It might have been carved from basaltic dike rocks, Mr Sundaravelu added.
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Old May 23rd, 2012, 08:49 AM   #762
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CHENNAI : Post Independence Sino-Indian diplomatic relations may be only a few decades old. However, China and ancient Tamils shared a trade relationship that dates back hundreds of years.
This is amply demonstrated by an expo on ‘Select Coinage of Tamil Nadu’ at the Centenary Exhibition Hall of the Government Museum in Egmore.
“An identified coin is a piece of history,” says N Sundrarajan, curator, numismatic section of the Museum, summing up its import. The Museum in Egmore has a collection of three coin hoards from China discovered in Tamil Nadu.
Sundararajan said, “The first hoard of Chinese coins the Museum received was in 1943 from Pattukottai Taluk in then Thanjavur district. It had a collection of 20 square-holed coins dated between 1073 CE to 1237 CE.”
Around 1,822 coins were discovered in 1944 form the second hoard of Chinese coins from Thallikottai, Mannarkudi Taluk in Thanjavur district dated between 713 CE to 1265 CE.
In the third lot are 323 coins discovered in 1962 at Olakkunnatham in Pattukottai Taluk. These coins are dated between 126 BCE to 1241 CE.
He mentioned the presence of a bi-lingual inscription, now in China, dated 1203 CE, perhaps done during the period of the last of the Cholas.
The inscription talk about a person named Samudhara Perumal who made an offering at the Seeru Kanniswaran Udaiyar Kovil for the well-being of a Chinese Emporer named Che-ka-cai-kan.


Some Chinese annals refer to Raja Raja Chola as Lo-t-sa- Lo-t-sa Chu-lien, added the numismatics curator.
These coins give the viewer a sense of the history the ancient Tamil Kingdom shared with the Chinese. Sundarajan said, “Coins are considered the metallic rearview mirrors which reflect our hoary past.”
Other coins on display are some from the Sangam period, Roman coins and coins of the ancient Tamil Kingdoms of the Cheras, Cholas and Pandiyas. The expo is open to the public from 10 am to 4.30 pm till May 24.
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Old May 25th, 2012, 08:19 AM   #763
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ACK Media, an education and entertainment company for children, will launch its new Amar Chitra Katha title ‘Thanjavur – City of Brihadeeswara’ on Facebook on May 30.


The new title will then be available in all bookstores nationally at Rs. 50 and on Apple iTunes and Amazon Kindle apps for $ 0.99. The launch of Thanjavur on Facebook also brings a unique opportunity for Amar Chitra Katha fans.

They can speak with the author and editor of ‘Thanjavur’ through a “live chat” on May 30 and ask questions about the Amar Chitra Katha comic book series.

“We have a vibrant community of readers of Amar Chitra Katha who engage with us on our Facebook page. Launching our latest title, Thanjavur, on this forum is our way of celebrating this growing community. An online event gives us a chance to include a large group of readers for the launch and we hope to make the event enjoyable and participative”, said Mr. Shubhadeep Bhattacharya, Business Head - Digital, ACK Media.

“We are launching a video on 24th of May, which will give a sneak peek into the new title ‘Thanjavur – city of Brihadeeswara’. This will be followed by a series of engaging activities like quiz contests, fun facts and quests around the tale of Thanjavur that will lead up to the launch on 30th May," he said.

The new title narrates the story of Thanjavur, which is home to the 1000-year-old Brihadeeswara Temple. Declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, Thanjavur was the capital of the Chola empire for many years. The comic book highlights the fascinating history and the large number of myths and local legends associated with it. These stories, put together, make an interesting read for both children and adults. The comic will also interest tourists who wish to know more about the town and its unique identity.

Ms. Reena Puri, Editor Amar Chitra Katha says, “Thanjavur is part of our titles planned on historical cities. It was the capital of the Chola empire and the hub of great political activity. But like most ancient Indian temple cities the historical has merged with the mythological in a fascinating manner. We hope to create at least one comic each year which will tell in a simple way the stories behind some of our greatest cities.”

Ms. Prabha Nair, scriptwriter of Thanjavur says, “Thanjavur is a treasure chest of stories, historical and mythical. To weave the two in a plausible way was a challenge. What I have told is only the tip of the iceberg. There is much more to Thanjavur's art and culture, to its monuments and temples. I hope this comic creates an interest in people to discover these facets for themselves.”

Speaking about the illustration, artist Rakesh C.S. highlights, “It's the first time I'm illustrating a story for Amar Chitra Katha. As Thanjavur is one of the most important temple-towns in South India, the work has been very interesting and challenging. The composition of the pages and panels of this comic was done using pictures of statues and frescoes of the temples as reference. Although, historically, the story is that of the temples of Thanjavur, the comic narrates the story of Shiva from a devotional perspective. I'm very happy to have illustrated the comic and to have brought more of Shiva's illustrations to the Amar Chitra Katha comics.”
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Old May 31st, 2012, 12:41 PM   #764
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature...&v=8qXEDmuQsFc

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?f...type=1&theater




'Amar Chitra Katha ' - the popular Magazine in India has launched its latest comic called "Thanjavur" with the Big temple and Rajaraja chola on its front page.

History repeats itself .Invincible chola Capital will be spoken for many thousand years.Long live.

Note:Im posting it in many places, Never mind
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Old May 31st, 2012, 03:40 PM   #765
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This was taken at PANJAVARNESHWAR temple at woraiur, which was built 1000 years ago, This is from one of its pillar it shows the relation between KING CHOLAS and CHINA. There is also another pic of KUMFU LOGO in the temple.

The pic and information shared by Prasanna Sivakumar.
cross post
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Old May 31st, 2012, 03:48 PM   #766
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Time to call Ancient Alien guys.. That looks like a bicycle ??!! 1000 years ago ??!!
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Old May 31st, 2012, 04:09 PM   #767
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Time to call Ancient Alien guys.. That looks like a bicycle ??!! 1000 years ago ??!!
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Old June 1st, 2012, 01:52 PM   #768
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Originally Posted by satchitananda View Post
Time to call Ancient Alien guys.. That looks like a bicycle ??!! 1000 years ago ??!!
Chinese invention.

China sent large no of scholars to India esp to Pataliputra, Nalanda, Kanchi as India edu system was very good at that time.

Kanchi was a well developed city at that time and it was called "Nagareshu Kanchi", meaning, if it is City, it should be like Kanchi.

But we have studied that wheels were invented in the west and industrial reviolution was started in UK.

My patti asked me a googly question on Iddlies. Tamilaians were using steam to cook Iddlies for many centuries.
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Old June 1st, 2012, 11:20 PM   #769
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The problem is we lack documentation and publicity.
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Old June 2nd, 2012, 11:11 AM   #770
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We lack self confidence and with full of Infriority complex.
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Old June 2nd, 2012, 11:15 AM   #771
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I Always wonder, While there were old Temples why not old Palaces where Raja raja cholan had lived. Answer to this may reveal system of governance then.
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Old June 2nd, 2012, 12:18 PM   #772
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Many of the old forts and palaces have been vandalised by thiefs and robbers.

Those days, only the temples will be built by stone and the so called palaces (huge houses with ponds & courtyards et al ) were built by using Sudhai (Chunna and mud).

Only Moghal Kings were living in luxury of top order. In South, only Mysore Palace has similar rich interiors.

Only forts & palaces built with stone long last. Kerala Kanaka Kunnu Palace & Padmanabhapuram palace are predominantly made of wood.
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Old June 2nd, 2012, 01:44 PM   #773
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Sri Panchavarneswarar Temple



Usually siva lingam was found in black colour. sivalingam is worshipped by doing different types of abhisegam with materials like food,vegetables, ash and oil. In some temples, siva lingam is made of sand and only lamps are lighted and perfumes are offered in pooja.

Speciality: specially one can find sivalingam in 5 different colours during the 5 times of pooja in a temple situated in a place called urayur in trichy district.The temple is called as panchavarneswarar temple.This temple is said to be more than 1000 years old.

5 colours of lingam seen during pooja are



1.Rathna lingam (Morning)
2.Spadiga lingam (Afternoon)
3.Gold lingam (Evening)
4.Diamond lingam (Night)
5.Chitra lingam (Midnight)

Bairavar,san and saturn are in a straight line here as it is a special remedial place for all types of dosham.Panchamuga vinayagar is also here.Business men worship here for welfare of business.This temple is a place where lord siva who had separate temples in the form of 5 elements in five different places can be seen as a single form as panchavarna lingam combining all 5 elements together.Amman is called as gandhimathiyammai.This temple is in urayur near trichy and direct buses are available from trichy.

-TP Admin

More on the temple with earlier Quote
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Old June 4th, 2012, 03:49 PM   #774
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Inside the Chola Temple



History scholars kept their audience spellbound with an action-packed account of the mighty Cholas, writes Pankaja Srinivasan.

The clunk of chisel on stone fills the air. Instructions fly around. Priests, courtiers, masons and architects confer. The Natya Karanas (dance movements) are being carved into the wall of the corridor around the garbhagruha. Landmark judgements, donations and minutiae of day-to-day administration are inscribed on the outer rock walls. On the inside, artists capture scenes from the royal court, stories from the Puranas, gods, goddesses and creatures great and small. There is a tinkle of anklets, a rustle of silk, someone singing a Thevaram, someone else tuning a musical instrument…

The Brihadeeshwara temple as it must have been a thousand years ago came alive as 12 speakers — a combination of scholars, researchers, writers and die hard history enthusiasts — spirited us away to a time of the mighty Cholas and their marvels of engineering, the temples.

The focus of the two-day seminar organised by the Rotary Club of Metropolis was the heritage of the Cholas. The speakers lucidly described the temple — from its layout, vimana, garbhagruha and gopura to its symbolism, iconography, vaastu and its canons of architecture and rituals.

Professor S. Swaminathan explained the tradition and evolution of temple architecture, starting from the Pallavas to the Nayakas. He pointed out the change in the style of the sculptures from small and simple carvings to the increasingly voluptuous and grand. The Tamil Nadu temples were mostly square or rectangular (the shastras list 16 different shapes). Most importantly, these temples were repositories of art, music and dance.

A living monument

UNESCO described the Brihadeeshwara temple as ‘The great Living Chola Temple', said Chithra Madhavan in her lecture on the Brihadeeshwara temple. “Living” because people still visit, worship and use the temple premises like they did at the time of Raja Raja Chola.

It is a matter of pride that 80 per cent of temple inscriptions in India were in Tamil Nadu, and Chithra spoke of the calligraphy that was of the highest order, with a wealth of information contained in them. From the inscriptions one learns of the transfer of 400 dancing girls to the temple, where they lived, how much they were paid, who the musicians were and who were the choreographers! She spoke of the monolith Nandi, the paintings on the ceiling, the massive dwarapalakas…

She mourned the destruction of the Gangai Konda Chola Puram temple of Rajendra Chola. The British carried away huge chunks of it to build a dam. Even then the temple remains a jewel.

Parts of these grand monuments are forever closed to the public. But, thanks to the slide shows at the seminar, one travelled the secret passages around the sanctum sanctorum, gazed up the inside of the Sri Vimana and came within touching distance of frescoes and murals. Having worked tirelessly with the Archeologically Survey of India, P.S. Sriraman shared his breath taking experience of the work he and his team did in the dark, unlit, unventilated passage behind the sanctum sanctorum trying to photo-document the priceless works of art for posterity.

Building a dream
S. Rajendran who evaluates repairs and restores old heritage buildings gave a block by block explanation of the enviable engineering skills of the Cholas who put up structures that were built to last ad infinitum. The session ended with an eloquent description of the Darasuram temple by Kudavoil Balasubramaniyam who walked the gathering through every nook and cranny of the exquisite structure.

The brain behind the seminar, S. Gurumurthy, had reason to be pleased. From a class nine student Sanjay Krishna from Perianaickapalayam, architect K.V. Roshini and homemaker Renuka Seshachalam to professors of design Balaram and Padmini, students of history, doctors, artists…they filled the GKD Auditorium. “Spell bound”, “a sea of information”, “Awe-inspiring”, “Moving” were just some of the reactions. “I wanted it to reach out to everyone,” said Gurumurthy. “Our speakers were knowledgeable and held audience attention. Our apprehension whether such a subject would evoke interest were laid to rest.” Gurumurthy was besieged with requests to have more such programmes.

The seminar was inaugurated by Swami Dayananda Saraswati. It concluded with industrialist Ravi Sam, who is deeply involved in the conservation of south Indian temples, pledging his support to such endeavours and promising more heritage-related events for Coimbatore. The chief guest Babaji Raja Bhonsle, prince of Thanjavur, appreciated the interest in conserving heritage and lauded the effort of the organisers.

The other eminent panellists were R Nagaswamy, R. Gopu, Silpa Sastra scholar K.P. Umapathy Acharya, Aravind Venkatraman, sculptor P. Sivaramakrishnan and Marabin Maindhan Muthaiah.
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Old June 9th, 2012, 12:03 PM   #775
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Ancient factories and foreign trade
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Old June 9th, 2012, 03:27 PM   #776
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Buried treasure: what big business was like 2,300 years ago



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An archaeological dig at Kodumanal in Tamil Nadu reveals what big business was like 2,300 years ago.

It is a long, tiring journey to Kodumanal, a tiny village in western Tamil Nadu — a place virtually unheard of until archaeologists recently unearthed a 2,500-year-old industrial estate there.

The trip from Chennai to this inland village happens in three stages: eight-hour bus ride to Erode (district headquarters), two-hour bus ride to Kangeyam (small town in the textile district of Tirupur), final bus ride to Kodumanal.
The last leg is the most interesting. At first the rickety bus passes farmland and pretty bungalows, but then the surroundings grow barren. There is only the occasional coconut tree. It is hard to believe that this area once held a thriving town. Modern Kodumanal has just around 1,000 people; to make a living they breed cattle and work in the nearby textile town of Tirupur.

The chatty bus conductor asks, “Sir, are you from the archaeological department?” When I shake my head, he says, “So many people from the archaeological department come here these days that I assumed you were one of them.”

At the archaeological site near Kodumanal, even at 8 am the sun is merciless. Approaching the arid excavation area, one hears the sounds of digging, and of instructions being yelled to the scores of archaeology students busy on the site.

K Rajan, professor and head of the Department of History at Pondicherry University, leads the team. Rajan is in his early 50s. He stands in the heat talking to the students gathered around. Today is the last day of this dig at Kodumanal.

Kodumanal, Rajan explains, was a manufacturing and trading centre in the 4th century BCE. It is mentioned as such in the Sangam literature of classical Tamil (circa 300 BCE-300 CE). The settlement, which would have accommodated several thousand people in its heyday, appears to have been abandoned after the 3rd century CE.

Archaeologists arrived in Kodumanal in 1961, when V N Srinivasa Desikan of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) led the first dig. In 1980 a second, trial excavation was carried out by the Tamil Nadu State Archaeology Department. More digs were executed in 1985, 1986, 1989 and 1990 by the Departments of Epigraphy and Archaeology of Tamil University, with the Department of Ancient History and Archaeology of Madras University, and the State Archaeology Department. However, not much was found. Between 1985 and 1990 the archaeologists laid 49 trenches but collected only 170 inscribed potsherds (pottery fragments).

In 2012 the pattern has broken, and Rajan’s team has struck gold. Between April 21 and this week, they laid four trenches and collected as many as 130 inscribed potsherds. Yathees Kumar V P, 32, a PhD student of archaeology from Pondicherry University, has worked at Kodumanal for two months. “I have worked in four different sites since 2005,” he says. “In those areas, finding one script itself is a big thing, here in one site we found 130.” Kumar and another student have found two large pots, one of which bears a Tamil-Brahmi inscription in tall letters reading “Samban Sumanan” — a name. The pot is 4 ft tall, says Kumar, and was used to store water. Nearly all the newly unearthed inscriptions, in fact, are personal names; a few also refer to the trade performed by the named individual.

The words on the pots are in Prakrit, a north Indian language of the time. This tells us, says Rajan, that Kodumanal had cultural and trade contacts with the north.

Hard, slow work led up to these exciting discoveries. Rajan has been involved in excavating this site since 1984. The last excavation was in 1990. For this year’s dig, the professor managed to raise Rs 3.5 lakh from the ASI and the Central Institute of Classical Tamil.

From the trenches have emerged fascinating and beautiful artefacts. Among the more decorative items are semi-finished bangles and bracelets made from beryl, a crystalline mineral. Some of these stones are so pure that they are colourless. One find is a tiger-shaped object made of copper, about 15 cm long (see image above). It was studded with carnelians, sapphires and diamonds. Old quartz stones and broken beads — of sapphire, beryl, agate, carnelian, amethyst, lapis lazuli, jasper, garnet, soapstone and quartz — are strewn across the village. In one memorable case, the archaeologists found 2,220 carnelian beads in a single grave. This may be the first instance of its kind in India, Rajan says.

There are sources of sapphire, beryl and quartz near Kodumanal, but carnelian, agate and lapis lazuli came from distant sources — as far away as Gujarat, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. The ancient economy, too, was global.

The finds show that workshops for cutting and shaping precious gems, for making semi-precious stone beads, and also, incidentally, for shell-cutting, were present in Kodumanal more than 2,300 years ago. But the workers’ technical skills did not begin and end with gem-making. They also worked with iron and steel. In fact, ancient sources of iron ore have been found in and around Chennimalai hill, 15 km to the east. There was, the archaeologists say, “constant movement of foreign traders between Chennimalai, where there are iron ore deposits, and Kodumanal where the ore was processed” and from where finished items were exported. And in Kodumanal itself, Rajan’s team has found pieces of a crucible furnace. Such furnaces can withstand heat up to 1,300 C, well over the melting point of cast iron. This find has been confirmed, Rajan says, by Sharada Srinivasan of the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, who has examined the crucible.

Kodumanal was one of the earliest wootz steel centres of the world. Wootz steel, a form of carbon steel, was a prized, highly durable speciality of ancient India, and much sought-after in the West. In Roman literature there are references to the import of steel from the Chera country, or south India. References to wootz steel in Sangam literature indicate that Roman Egypt imported its finest steel from here. The rust-free ancient iron pillar still standing near the Qut’b Minar in Delhi is said to be made of iron from this region.

Kodumanal is not far from Tirupur, the textile hub of modern India. Ancient Kodumanal also manufactured textiles. A number of terracotta cotton spindles pierced through the centre with an iron rod have been unearthed here. Incredibly, a well-preserved piece of actual cotton has been found. It is believed to be 2,200 years old.

More proof of Kodumanal’s trade links comes in the form of Roman coins, dug up in hoards as well as single pieces. The town lay on a trade route frequented by Roman merchants, who came to buy beryl, quartz and other stones. Goods to be exported to the West were carried by road to the Chera port of Muziris (Pattinam) on the west coast near Thrissur, and then went by ship. Goods for South-east Asia were carried east to Karur, capital of the Chera kingdom, then to Poompuhar near the mouth of the Kaveri, and then overseas. Judging by the trade pattern, and as is suggested by finds of beryl jewellery in eastern Europe and elsewhere, Kodumanal’s exports went a long way.

Although Kodumanal is on the Noyyal, a tributary of the Kaveri, the river was not used by shipping. The Noyyal is shallow, rocky and has strong currents, so the trade route followed its banks.

Rajan’s findings suggest that only about half of the Kodumanal site, which is about 100 acres in all, was inhabited in ancient times. The other half is a huge burial ground. In the last three months, the archaeologists have opened some 180 graves.

The number of graves is not so unusual, says Rajan, as the kinds of graves. There are three types: pot, urn and chamber stone burials. The last is for people of high status, and in these graves the archaeologists have found gold and other items. A few of the big tombs are surmounted by stone megaliths (though some 300 megalithic tombs in all, of different grades, have been found in the region). The archaeologists have also recovered three skeletons, two female and one male.

One that may be typical is of a person buried with legs crossed, a large stone under one knee and a gold ring in the hand. As Rajan explains, this tells us about the dead person’s profession. It was jewellery workers who sat in this position with a stone under a knee, to work the precious stones.

The cists, or chamber burials, come in three varieties depending on orientation, the number of connected chambers and layout. The cists are covered by individual capstones.

The number and variety of the tombs and graves tell us what the rest of the site already makes clear: at its peak this was a prosperous place, with many residents, whose pride in their work, which was organised on an industrial scale, reflected the strong worldwide demand for it.

This is the last day of the dig at Kodumanal. Work has been on for three months, since April, performed by six PhD scholars, numerous students and 40 local labourers. And yet it is as if the archaeologists have merely scratched the surface. There is still a large historical treasure trove, of material and insight not bullion, waiting to be unearthed. According to Rajan it will take another 10 years to complete the excavation.

Not only does this excavation bring to light the rich industrial and cultural past of this region, and reveal to us an important chapter in India’s economic history, it also offers the people of Kodumanal a better future. Roads are being laid, drinking water and electricity being provided. Youngsters from Kodumanal have started going to school and college — and some will have been inspired to learn history.
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Old June 9th, 2012, 04:16 PM   #777
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Originally Posted by kannan infratech View Post
My patti asked me a googly question on Iddlies. Tamilaians were using steam to cook Iddlies for many centuries.
Idly came to india only few centuries back from Indonsia, they call it as Kidly.
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Old June 9th, 2012, 11:44 PM   #778
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Ancient factories and foreign trade

Buried treasure: what big business was like 2,300 years ago

An archaeological dig at Kodumanal in Tamil Nadu reveals what big business was like 2,300 years ago

http://business-standard.com/india/n...-trade/476749/
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Old June 10th, 2012, 04:07 AM   #779
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Originally Posted by Anniyan View Post
Idly came to india only few centuries back from Indonsia, they call it as Kidly.
Ittu enraal maavu enru porul, so the name also came from Indonesia?
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Old June 10th, 2012, 06:15 AM   #780
karkal
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Anniyan View Post
Idly came to india only few centuries back from Indonsia, they call it as Kidly.
Idly came from indonesia ? How about chutney ?
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