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Old April 26th, 2010, 07:16 PM   #121
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Złotoryja (Злотория)



Złotoryja (German: Goldberg, Latin: Aureus Mons, Aurum) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, southwestern Poland. It is located in the Kaczawa river valley, close to Legnica.

Since the Middle Ages the town was a centre of gold and copper mining. Currently it has approximately 17,000 inhabitants and is one of the important centres of basalt mining.

During its long existence Złotoryja was referred to by various names. Since the Middle Ages it was referred to as either Aurum (Latin: Gold), Aureus Mons (Golden Mountain) or Goldberg (German: Golden Mountain). After 1945 the name was changed to Polish Złotoryja, which also includes the Polish root złoto meaning gold.

In late 12th century and early 13th century a small settlement of gold miners was founded on the slopes of Mount St. Nicholas (Góra św. Mikołaja), at the shores of the Katzbach (cats creek), Kaczawa river. The village grew rapidly and in 1211 it was named Aurum (Latin for gold) and located on the Magdeburg law by Polish Prince Henry I the Bearded as the first city of Silesia. It was attached to the Duchy of Legnica. The local golden ore deposits were rich and the town attracted both miners and gold washers from all the nearby areas. In the 13th century a Hospitaller and Franciscan monasteries were founded in the town, which thus became one of the important cultural and religious centres of the region. In 1241 many of the miners took part in the Battle of Legnica, where most of them died, but the mining quickly recovered. In 1290 the town was granted with a privilege to trade salt, one of the most expensive and valuable minerals in the Middle Ages.

In 1328 the whole Duchy of Legnica became a fief of imperial Bohemia, yet it retained its local self-government. During the Hussite Wars the town was captured by the Hussite forces in 1427, 1428 and 1431. It was severely pillaged, but it quickly recovered and the local city council decided to build city walls in order to spare the city such troubles in the future. Much of the mediaeval fortifications is preserved until today.

Although by early 15th century most of the gold deposits were depleted, the town started to gain significant income from the nearby road linking Breslau (Wrocław) with Leipzig. A brewery and several weavers shops were opened soon afterwards. In 1504 a school was opened by Aurimontanus. 1600s century maps show Silberberg in the Duchy of Monsterberg, Silesia, in Germany. In 1522 the first Protestant priests arrived in Silberberg (Złotoryja) and soon afterwards the school was turned into a Latin, humanistic gymnasium, the first in Silesia. One of its rectors, Valentin Trozendorf, wanted to turn it into a university and these plans were approved by prince Friedrich II of Legnica, but the prince died soon afterwards and the town was struck by a severe fire in 1554, which made the plans obsolete.

In 1526 the town together with the rest of Silesia was annexed by the Habsburgs. Goldberg continued to prosper until 1608, when the prosperity was stopped by a major flood that killed approx. 50 of the inhabitants and damaged large part of the city. Five years later, in 1613 the town yet again was struck by great fire that destroyed 571 houses.

During the Thirty Years' War Goldberg changed hands several times and suffered especially in 1633, when Albrecht von Wallenstein, a former pupil of the gymnasium, beleaguered the city. After that Goldberg needed almost 100 years to recover. In 1742 it was annexed by Prussia and in 1871 became part of the newly-formed German Empire. During the Napoleonic Wars, on August 26, 1813, the armies of French marshal Macdonald was defeated near the town by the forces of Prussian general von Blücher.

At the end of 19th century the town started to recover after almost 200 years of crisis. In 1862 the town of Silberberg was connected with Berlin by a telegraph. In 1884 the town was connected to Liegnitz (Legnica) by a rail road and by 1906 two additional lines were opened: to Świerzawa and Chojnów. In 1900 the first telephone line was started. At the same time various companies tried to recover the gold mining in and around the city, but the plans were soon abandoned. Instead the copper ore mines were opened, but they faced serious financial difficulties by the end of 1920s.

The town survived the World War II almost untouched. In 1945 it was captured by the forces of the Red Army 2nd Ukrainian Front under Ivan Konev. Following the decisions of the Potsdam conference it was transferred to Poland and renamed to Złotoryja.

In the nearby villages of Wilków and Nowy Kościół two important copper mines were founded and a large number of local engineers also participated in the development of the industrial region of Legnica. However, in early 1970s the mines were closed down due to the fact that ore deposits of much higher quality were found around Lubin.

Many factories were founded, including a shoe factory, Christmas tree ornaments factory and a basalt mine. Since 1989 the town of Złotoryja started to look for its past. The historical old town was restored and the traditions of gold mining were started. In 1992 a local Polish Guild of Gold Prospectors was started, which ever since organises the Polish Gold Panning Championships. In 2000 World Championships were held there.

Currently the town is one of the main tourist centres of the area. The heavy industry is also playing an important part in the development of the area. The local quarries are ones of the most profitable in Poland and the Christmas tree ornaments factory is exporting millions of ornaments every year, mostly to Western Europe and the United States.























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Old April 27th, 2010, 12:45 AM   #122
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Tarnowskie Góry (Тарновські Гури)



Tarnowskie Góry is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice. Borders on the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union - metropolis with the population of 2.7 millions (Katowice urban area).

The town has 61.6 thousand inhabitants (2005).

According to legend, around the year of 1490 a peasant called Rybka plowed up the first silver ore giving rise to the output of silver ore in the region of the village of Tarnowice. At that time in the surrounding area many villages were founded: Bobrowniki, Opatowice, Ptakowice, Rybno, Ruda and others.

In 1526 Tarnowskie Góry was granted a Town Charter and mining privileges. In 1528 the Duke of Opole Jan II Dobry granted the town a privilege as a “free mining town”. In 1327 Duke Władysław Bytomski (1277-1352) paid liege homage to the King of Czech and from that moment Tarnowskie Góry was under the Czech rule and shared the political lot of Silesia. In 1526 the King of Czech and Hungary Ludwik II Jagielończyk (1506-1526) died without an heir and then archduke Ferdinand Habsburg ascended the throne of Czech. Thus, Tarnowskie Góry came under the rule of the Habsburg.

In the 16th century the town was an important center for the reformation movement. At the turn of the 16th and 17th century there were about 20,000 mineshafts in the region of Tarnowskie Góry. It was one of the biggest mining centers of precious metals in Europe at that time. During the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) numerous armed forces ravaged Tarnowskie Góry. In 1676 the town was hit by the plague. In 1701 the great fire burnt part of the town. In the years 1715, 1723 and 1728 three plagues hit the town. From 1742 Tarnowskie Góry was in Prussia under the German name of Tarnowitz. In 1742 and 1746 great fires destroyed the town. Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm von Reden (1752-1815) contributed to the development of local iron and lead ore mining. In 1788 the steam machine imported from England, the first one on the European continent started to operate in Tarnowskie Góry. In 1800 the town had 1,037 inhabitants. At the beginning of the 19th century the ironworks and new factories were opened. In 1857 the railway line to Opole started to operate, which was a factor influencing the developing economy. In 1912 the town had 13,575 inhabitants.

In the interwar period, numerous inhabitants of Tarnowskie Góry took part in the Silesian uprisings of 1919-1921. As a result of Silesian uprisings the town was incorporated into Poland in 1922. At the beginning of the 20th century the local ore resources ran out and mining collapsed.

During World War II, the German army occupied Tarnowskie Góry in September 1939. In January 1945 the town was under Soviet occupation.





























Silver mine in Tarnowskie Góry

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Old April 27th, 2010, 04:01 PM   #123
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есть ли в Польше маленькие молодые города, построенные после 1950-х годов?
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Old April 27th, 2010, 04:49 PM   #124
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Originally Posted by IllyaDe View Post
есть ли в Польше маленькие молодые города, построенные после 1950-х годов?
Yes of course For the purpose of this thread I am concentrating on small and medium towns with longer history, most interesting for potential visitors.
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Old April 27th, 2010, 05:00 PM   #125
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а можно для примера выложить фотографии городов после 1950-х? Интересно их сравнить с украинскими аналогами
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Old April 27th, 2010, 05:24 PM   #126
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Wieliczka (Величка)



Wieliczka is a town (2006 population: 19,128) in southern Poland in the Kraków metropolitan area.

The town was founded in 1290 by Duke Premislas II of Poland.

Located under the town of Wieliczka is the Wieliczka Salt Mine – one of the world's oldest operating salt mines.



















Wieliczka Salt Mine (UNESCO)



The Wieliczka Salt Mine, located in the town of Wieliczka, is within Poland's Kraków metropolitan area.

It had been until 2007 in continuous operation, producing table salt, since the 13th century. Together with nearby Bochnia, it is the world's oldest operating salt mine.

The mine reaches a depth of 327 meters, and is over 300 km long.

The Wieliczka salt mine features a 3.5-km. tour for visitors (less than 1% of the length of the mine's passages) that includes statues of historic and mythic figures. The older works were sculpted by miners out of rock salt; more recent figures have been fashioned by contemporary artists. Even the crystals of the chandeliers are made from rock salt that has been dissolved and reconstituted to achieve a clear, glass-like appearance. The rock salt is naturally grey, in various shades like granite, so that the carvings resemble carved unpolished granite rather than having the white or crystalline appearance that many visitors expect. (The carvings appear white in the photos below; the actual carved figures are not white.)

Also featured is a large chamber with walls carved to resemble wooden chapels built by miners in earlier centuries; an underground lake; and exhibits on the history of salt mining. The mine is often referred to as "the Underground Salt Cathedral of Poland."

About 1.2 million people visit the mine each year.

In 1978 the Wieliczka salt mine was placed on the original UNESCO roster of World Heritage Sites.





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Old April 27th, 2010, 05:27 PM   #127
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Quote:
Originally Posted by IllyaDe View Post
а можно для примера выложить фотографии городов после 1950-х? Интересно их сравнить с украинскими аналогами
Yes - I'll try to post later some pic of relatively new towns.
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Old April 28th, 2010, 12:11 PM   #128
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Wałbrzych (Ва́лбжих)



Wałbrzych (German: Waldenburg, Czech: Valbřich or Valdenburk) is a city in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in south-western Poland, with 121,919 inhabitants (June 2009). Wałbrzych lies approximately 70 kilometres (43.5 miles) south-west of the regional capital Wrocław, and about 10 km from the Czech border.

According to the website of the Wałbrzych City Office, the city's predecessor was an early medieval Slavic settlement named Lasogród ("forest castle"), whose inhabitants engaged in hunting, honey gathering, and later agriculture. The website further says Lasogród lated developed into a defensive fort, the remains of which were destroyed in the 19th century during expansion of the city.

Some historians claim that during the Middle Ages the area of Wałbrzych was part of the Silesian Przesieka, a dense, unpopulated forest.

Wałbrzych was founded between 1290 and 1293 on a cleared spot in the mountains near the castle of Nowy Dwór (German: Neuhaus), and first mentioned as Waldenberc in 1305. Nowy Dwór, probably built around the same time, was first mentioned as "newe haus" in 1365, and built by Bolko I of the Silesian Piast dynasty of Świdnica-Jawor (German: Schweidnitz-Jauer). A part of Nowy Dwór castle, a manor built in the 17th century, was destroyed in the 19th century.

The city was chartered in 1426, but it did not receive the rights to hold markets or many other privileges due to the competition of nearby towns and the insignificance of the local landlords. Subsequently, the city became the property of the Silesian knightly families, initially the Schaffgotsches in 1372, later the Czettritzes, and from 1738, the Hochberg family, owners of Fürstenstein Castle.

Coal mining in the area was first mentioned in 1536. The settlement was transformed into an industrial centre at the turn of the 19th century, when coal mining and weaving flourished. In 1843 the city obtained its first rail connection, which linked it with Breslau (Wrocław). In the early 20th century a glassworks and a large china tableware manufacturing plant, which are still in operation today, were built. In 1939 the city had about 65,000 inhabitants.

After World War II, the area became Polish, and as in all of post-war Poland most of the German population was expelled. However, Walbrzych was one of the few areas where several Germans were held back as they were deemed indispensable for the economy. A contineous post-war German society is maintained in Walbrzych since 1957.

The city was relatively unscathed by the Second World War, and as a result of combining the nearby administrative districts with the town and the construction of new housing estates, Wałbrzych expanded geographically. At the beginning of the 1990s, because of new social and economic conditions, a decision was made to close down the town's coal mines. In 1995, a Museum of Industry and Technology was set up on the facilities of the oldest coal mine in the area, KWK THOREZ.

































Książ Castle in Wałbrzych

Książ Castle, the biggest in Lower Silesia, the third biggest in Poland and one of the biggest castles in Europe is also known as the Pearl of Lower Silesia.

Bolko I, prince from Polish piast dynasty, Duke of Świdnica and Jawor built a the castle between 1288 and 1292.

Duke Bolko II of Świdnica died in 1368 without having children with his wife Agnes von Habsburg. After her death in the year 1392 King Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia obtained the castle. In 1401 Janko z Chociemic obtained the castle. The Bohemian Hussites occupied the castle between 1428-1429. In the year 1464 Birka z Nasiedla obtained the castle from the Bohemian crown. He sold it to Hans von Schellendorf. This second castle was destroyed in 1482 by Georg von Stein. In the year 1509 Konrad I von Hoberg (from 1714: Hochberg) obtained the castle hill. The Hochberg family owned the castle until 1941. In the course of World War II the Nazis seized the castle, presumably with the intention of making it a most splendid headquarters for Hitler. It was turned into a bunker, with shelters and tunnels dug beneath it. It was a part of the Project Riese until 1945. The castle was occupied by the Red army in 1945.

In 1952 the renovation work was undertaken to restore the previous grandeur of the castle. Nowadays, visitors can admire numerous splendid chambers, terraces and surrounding gardens. The underground tunnel is also available for tourist.









The Stary Książ Castle was builded in 1779 as romantic ruins by Christian Tischbein funded by duke Jan Henryk VI von Hochberg.

Stary Książ was stylized to a gothic castle. What is also interesting it was builded on the ruins on some other castle builded in 1288 by Bolko I Surowy. Stary Książ was destroyed in fire initiated by soviet soldiers in 1945.

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Old April 29th, 2010, 12:05 AM   #129
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Opatów (Опа́тув)



Opatów is a town in Poland, in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. Its population is 7,833 (2007).

Tourist attractions include a 12th century Collegiate Church of St. Martin, 15th century baroque Franciscan monastery, 16th century city gate, and several other notable buildings.

Opatow, as one of the oldest Polish towns, witnessed many historical events.

At the end of the 10th century, a settlement and a fortified castle called Żmigród, situated probably on the hill near the present-day Bernardine Monastery, gave rise to the town. After the country had been divided into smaller principalities by Polish Prince Bolesław Krzywousty (the Wry-Mouth) in 1138, Opatow belonged to the Sandomierz District and it became the property of the duke. That was the time of town's development and prosperity. At the end of the 12th century church was erected. In 1237 Henryk Brodaty (the Bearded), the Polish Duke of Silesia, at that time also the Duke of Cracow and Sandomierz, bestowed Opatow and 16 neighbouring villages on the bishop of the Lubuski Region. During the Tatars invasion in 1241 Opatow was seriously damaged.

In 1282 the Polish Prince Leszek Czarny (the Black) granted the municipal charter for Opatow. At that time, Opatow was situated on the important trade route, running from the Black Sea, through the Podolska Upland, through Sandomierz, Opatow and westwards towards Cracow. Also, routes to Russia and Hungary ran through Opatow. As a result, the town was getting more and more prosperous. The handicraft developed and a few mills were erected. A lot of workshops were set up: leather, food, metal, clothes, butcher and others. The person who greatly contributed to the town's development was Krzysztof Szydłowiecki, the chancellor. Thanks to him Opatow, then called 'Great Opatow', became Poland's boast.

In 1409 a significant event took place in Opatow. Before the military operation against the Teutonic Knights, Polish King Władysław Jagiełło (Jogaillo) sent a war manifesto to all European countries. The manifesto, written in Opatow, accounted for the necessity of fight against the Teutonic Order. In 1514 Krzysztof Szydłowiecki purchased Opatow. It was he that brought the town back to its prosperity, surrounded it with town walls with four gates: the Krakow Gate, the Sandomierz Gate, the Lublin Gate and the Warsaw Gate. The latter has been preserved till the present day. At that time, the town hall, the municipal water supply and the baths were built as well. Opatow was also the site of landowners' meetings, which additionally influenced its growth. Trade and handicrafts were developing more dynamically then before.

After the death of Krzysztof Szydłowiecki, Opatow was taken over by the Tarnowski family, and then by the Ostrogski, Radziwiłł, Lubomirski and Potocki families. In the middle of the 19th century the Karski family of Włostow became the owners of Opatow. The 17th and 18th centuries were the times of unrest. Many wars broke out, (e.g. with Sweden), a few epidemics and fires took place. As a result, the output of many generations was damaged. Opatow lost its prosperity and its economic meaning. After the Partitions of Poland, the town found itself in the Russianoccupied part. The townspeople fought against the Russians during the January Rising of 1863. On 21st February, 1864, the Rakowska and Sandomierska divisions attacked Opatow - the town was occupied by the Russians. The insurgents did not capture the town. Their commandant, major Ludwik Zwierzdowski, called Topór (the Axe), who was wounded during the battle, was hanged in the market square two days later. During the 19th century risings the town was seriously damaged, especially in the fires.

During the Second World War Opatow suffered other losses. There were many casualties, especially among the Jews whose population decreased by 50%. The region of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains was a cradle of the partisan movement. In Opatow and its vicinity there were a few actively fighting squads: "Jędruś", the Peasants Battalions and the Peoples' Guard. After the WW2, Opatow was a district centre of administration and economy, concentrated on food production, small industry and services. As of 1975 Opatow ceased to be a district town.





















[IMG][/IMG]



Krzemionki Opatowskie - neolithic flint mines near Opatów

In the Mesozoic margin of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains there are outcrops of various kinds of flint and many prehistoric mines. Places where striped flint was mined were found at Korycizna, Borownia and Ruda Kościelna. In terms of area of the mining field, one of Europe’s biggest sites is the complex of flint mines at Krzemionki near Ostrowiec Świetokrzyski and Opatów. Its perfectly preserved ground landscape and underground structure give it extraordinary importance.

The mines were exploited ca. 3900 to 1600 BC. (radiocarbon dating) by different peoples who left artefacts categorized by archaeologists into cultures- e. g. the culture of funnel- shaped cups, culture spherical amphorae, Mierzanowice culture. It is possible that deposits of striped flint were known even earlier, to the Mesolithic hunters.

Underground exhibition gallery ca.0,5 km long passing through Neolithic mining units was opened for tourists 1 july 2004.



Krzyżtopór castle near Opatów

Krzyżtopór is a castle located in the village of Ujazd near Opatów in southern Poland. It was originally built by a Polish nobleman and Voivode of Sandomierz, Krzysztof Ossoliński (1587-1645).

The castle was partially destroyed during the Swedish invasion known as The Deluge in 1655, and then reduced to ruin during the Bar Confederacy by the Russians in 1770.

In 1980 the Polish Ministry of Internal Affairs decided to rebuild it for use as a rest area for officers. This work was halted in 1981, when martial law was imposed in Poland.

Krzysztof Ossoliński was enamored with black magic; while the unique symmetry of the castle is evident even in its ruined state, the hidden meanings that may have been incorporated into virtually every part of the castle are not obvious.

The very name of the complex is a mysterious one. Krzysztof Ossoliński officially named it Krzysztofory, which is derived from Latin word Christophoros. Later, the name changed to Krzyżtopór, which is a compounding of two Polish words – krzyż ("cross", a symbol of the Catholic faith and Ossoliński’s policies) and topór ("axe", the charge from the family's coat of arms). Both symbols can be seen on the gate of the castle. Also, above the gate there is the date 1631, but to what this date refers has not been firmly established.

The castle is a typical example of the so-called palazzo in fortezza – an intermingling of both palace and fortress. The total size of the complex is 1.3 hectares; the length of perimeter walls is 700 meters; the total area of all interior rooms is around 70 000 square meters. The basic design was based on the palace of Cardinal Alexander Farnese, located in the Italian village of Caprarola. Reportedly, the castle once had 365 windows (as many as days of the year), 52 rooms (as many as weeks of the year) and 12 ballrooms (as many as months of the year). For defensive purposes, the castle was erected upon a rocky hill.

Krzyżtopór was furnished with amenities that were rarely seen in the 17th century, such as ventilation and heating system, and unique waterworks that provided all rooms with fresh water. Allegedly, the ceiling in one of dining rooms was made up of an aquarium containing exotic fish. Additionally, a system of dumbwaiters carried food from pantries to the upper floors.

The castle, without convenient proximity to main roads and rail connections, is not visited by many tourists, nevertheless is becoming more and more popular. However, as walls, bastions and moat are relatively well-preserved, its magnitude is still very impressive. Though it is regarded as a permanent ruin, since around 90 percent of the walls have been preserved, reconstruction has been planned several times. Currently, efforts have been underway to roof the entire complex; however, this ambitious project lacks sufficient funding.





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Złoty Stok (Злоти Сток)



Złoty Stok [ˈzwɔtɨ ˈstɔk] (German: Reichenstein, Czech: Rychleby) is a town in south-western Poland. It is situated on the border with the Czech Republic, adjoining the Czech village Bílá Voda. The name Złoty Stok means "golden slope" in Polish.

As at 2006, the town has a population of 2,930.

Its Czech name is applied to the neighbouring mountain range, the Rychleby Mountains (Czech: Rychlebské hory). The corresponding Polish name is Góry Złote (Golden Mountains). This range is part of the eastern Sudetes.

The old gold mine houses the Underground Museum of Mining and Gold Metallurgy. Gold was mined here as early as the 13th century. Mining of the main deposits ceased in the 19th century, but the last 30kg of gold were excavated in 1962.

Two of the old galleries are open to visitors. The “Czarna” gallery leads through the 16th century hand-excavated heading. The “Gertruda” gallery features an underground waterfall (8m high) and an exhibition of old mining tools.

Competitions in gold-washing and minting of gold coins are organized in the mine.















Gold mine









said to be one of the biggest underground waterfalls in Europe

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Old May 7th, 2010, 01:23 AM   #131
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Bochnia (Бохня)



Bochnia is one of the oldest cities of Lesser Poland. The first known source mentioning the city is a letter of 1198, wherein Aymar the Monk, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, confirmed a donation by local magnate Mikora Gryfit to the monastery of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre in Miechów.

The discovery of a major vein of rock salt at the site of the present mine in 1248 led to the granting of city privileges (Magdeburg rights) on 27 February 1253 by Bolesław V the Chaste.









image hosted on flickr










The salt mine

The Bochnia Salt Mine is one of the oldest salt mines in the world and the oldest one in Poland and Europe. The mine was established between the 12th and 13th centuries after salt was discovered in Bochnia. The mine was closed some time after World War I. In 1981 it was declared a monument.

The mines measure 4,5 kilometres in length and 468 metres in depth at 16 different levels. Deserted chambers, shafts and passages form a so called underground town, which is now open to sightseers. The largest of the preserved chambers has been converted into a sanatorium.







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Old May 8th, 2010, 09:37 AM   #132
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Rydzyna (Ридзина)



Rydzyna is a Polish town that was the seat of Polish king Stanisław Leszczyński during Leszczyński's first short reign from 1704-1709. Rydzyna is known as "the pearl of the Polish baroque".

It was founded at the beginning of the 15th century by Jan from Czernina, a descendant of the Wierzbno family, a knight of king Władysław Jagiełło. At the end of the 17th century the town and its environs were owned by well-known magnates, the Leszczyński and then the Sułkowski families.

The most historically important site in Rydzyna is Rydzyna Castle, formerly the residence of king Stanisław Leszczyński and the Sułkowski princes. The castle in Rydzyna was built at the beginning of 15th century by Jan of Czernina. At the end of 17th century Italian architects Joseph Simon Bellotti and Pompeo Ferrari erected the present Baroque castle on its ancient foundations. The first owners of the castle were the Leszczyński family. Together with its park and surrounding areas, it was one of the most splendid palaces in Poland. Between 1704-1709 it was a residence of the Polish king Stanisław Leszczyński. In 1709, during the Great Northern War, the castle was partly burnt by tsar's soldiers. However wall-paintings and stucco works in representative rooms, made by best Italian artists, were not destroyed completely, and the castle was restored and expanded by Prince August Sułkowski , who purchased the Leszczyński estates in 1738. The castle together with its adjacent park and the surrounding terrain forms one of the most valuable castle-park complexes in Poland.

Other historical monuments within the town boundaries are baroque tenement houses around the market square together with the town hall and the baroque parish church, all built in the 18th century and designed by the same architects as the castle. The evangelical church building now serves as a concert hall. In the center of the market square a unique statue representing the Trinity was erected in 1761 by the sculptor Andrew Schmidt in memory of the plague that decimated the town in 1709. The monumental former annexes to the castle, facing its north side, are in Classic style. All the monuments are the works of prominent architects brought in from all over Europe by the Leszczyński and Sułkowski families.

At one time there were over 40 windmills around Rydzyna, Today only one remains, renovated in 2003 it now houses the Museum of Agriculture and Milling.























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Old May 11th, 2010, 10:18 PM   #133
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Trzebiatów (Тшебятув)



Trzebiatów (German: Treptow an der Rega) is a town in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland. As of June 2007, it has 10,196 inhabitants.

The city was member of the Hanseatic League. This very old Slav settlement in Pomerania used to be cult center where oblations were made to pagan gods.

The town received its urban rights in 1277 according to the so-called Lubeck law, and the right of navigation along the Reda river was granted to Trzebiatow in 1287. At that time the town had its own trade fleet and the big port of Regoujscie at the mouth of River Rega could receive numerous merchant`s ships. As a Hansa member, the town had the right to mint its own coins and it boasted of powerful fortifications much respected in the central Baltic Sea area.

The medieval urban layout of the town has been preserved until today. Trzebiatow has a number of historical monuments.

The most famous monuments of Trzebiatów are:

The St. Mary's Church - built in 1305 - 1370. At two-three high, there is a viewng platform, from where you can admire the panorama of the region. There are three bells at the entrance to the tower, the oldest one called the "Mary" is dated on 1515. inside the church, there are tombstones. On of the graves, belonging to the family of Arnold Crample, from 1382, is exhibited right next to the entrance to the church.

The Defense Walls - built in 1300-1370 had 2500 m in perimeter. The Walls had 4 gateways, 40 towers and lookouts. Up to this day, only one tower left - Kaszana.

The Kaszana Tower - called the Prochowa Tower, was built in the very act of building of the Defense Walls. There is a legend related to the Tower, which describes how it saved the city against attack of citizens of Gryfice city.

St. Spirit Chapel - nowadays the Eastern Orthodox Church. Build at the beginning of the 16th Century. The Regional Council of Pomeranian States took place there on December 13th, 1534, when the Reformation was resolved as major religion. Until 1903 there was a fire station and then the auditorium of the Female College.

Segraffito - there is an elephant image on the wall of the corner building, at Zajazdowska street, made with use of segraffito technique. Probably, in fall 1939, a parade with an elephant passed through Trzebiatów city. This fact was registered in the parish register. Segraffito became a symbol of the present Trzebiatów city.





















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Old May 12th, 2010, 07:06 PM   #134
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Can anyone show pictures of Racibórz?
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Old May 12th, 2010, 11:19 PM   #135
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Originally Posted by warden987 View Post
Can anyone show pictures of Racibórz?
Here you go:

Racibórz (Рацибуж)



Racibórz is a town in southern Poland with 60,218 inhabitants (2006) situated in the Silesian Voivodeship.

The name Racibórz is of Slavic origin and comes from the name of Duke Racibor, the city's founder.

Until the end of the 5th century AD, the lands of the later Racibórz settlement were inhabited by East Germanic Silinger tribes.

Racibórz was one of five strongholds of the Slavic Golezyce (Golenshitse, Holasici in Czech), a proto-Polish tribe. Racibórz, as a stronghold, was mentioned in a work of the "Bavarian Geographer" in 845. It was the first historical capital of Upper Silesia. The Duchy of Racibórz was established by Duke Mieszko Plątonogi in 1172. The city was granted municipal privileges in 1217. From 1299 Racibórz was ruled by its own city council. The last duke of the Piast dynasty died in 1336 and from that time until 1521 the duchy and the city were ruled by the cadet branch of the Přemyslid dynasty. Racibórz was also ruled by the duke of Opole. The first coin with the Polish description "MILOST" was issued in Racibórz, in 1211 as well the first Polish national anthem "Gaude mater Polonia" which was written ca. 1260–70 in Latin by a brother from the Dominican monastery in Racibórz.

In the first half of the 14 th century Raciborz had the largest population of all south-Silesian towns. It was ruled by the Piast Dynasty until 1336, and from that time by the Przemyslids, the Czech dynasty of Dukes. In those days, according to Norbert Mika, a historian, Raciborz managed to repurchase a hereditary voytship. The transaction took place before the year 1413, and the town paid in its own tender; Raciborz Heller – a two-sided minted silver coin. That was also a time when the council’s authority was extended; a right to choose a mayor.

In 1521, after the death of Walenty Przemyslid, who did not leave an heir, Raciborz was ruled by John II Dobry, Duke of Opole. The new ruler issued Hanuszowy privilege, and made Raciborz a place of proceedings of the country council and paying homage to the king of Czech.

In 1551 the Habsburgs gained control over Raciborz and Bohemia. During the Thirty Years’ War the town was destroyed several times. In 1683 townspeople gave a warm welcome to John III Sobieski marching to Vienna to save it from besieging Turks.

After the two Silesian Wars, Raciborz was joined to Prussia. In those days, the town experienced a rapid economic growth, that accelerated in 1846 due to the new railway line, that two years later joined Berlin via Raciborz to Vienna. Steelworks smelted ores. There was a faience factory in the town. Later, metallurgical industry developed. In the first ten years of the 20 th century the population of Raciborz was 39,000.

In the second half of the 19 th and 20 th century Raciborz was a centre of the Polish activity. There was a Polish-Upper-Silesian Association (1886 – 1939), a Polish bookshop, the Polish House ‘Strzecha’. Moreover, some Polish newspapers were published, for example, ‘Nowiny Raciborskie’ (1889 – 1921). The inhabitants took part in three Silesian Uprisings. After the plebiscite of 1921 Raciborz remained in Germany. Although, the Polish-German border ran nearby, Polish cultural, social and economic organizations were active, as well as the members of the Association of Poles in Germany, cooperatives ‘Rolnik’ and ‘Ogrodnik’ and Bank Ludowy. The cultural life thrived in the community centre, ‘Strzecha’.

The Polish people lived mainly in the nearby villages, while the town was dominated by Germans. By the time of Kulturkampf (1880s) the relationship between these two nations was quiet harmonious. The authorities even published all regulations in Polish and clerks had to have a good command of it.

Political and economic changes after WWI, as well as the rebirth of Poland and a new country, Czechoslovakia, decreased the town’s significance as an industrial centre. Newly established borders broke the economic relationships binding the region. Inhabitants were not in favour of fascism, which was shown in the documents gathered by Hitler’s political police. Both Polish and German citizens were victims of repression. According to American scientists, as stated by Ryszard Kincel, anti-fascists operating in Raciborz, prevented the Germans from constructing an atomic bomb in 1942 by fabricating the chemical composition of blocks made of graphite in Plania Werke (today’s SGL Carbon Group).

During the Hitler’s occupation, there were eight labour units consisting of the British, French, Russian and Italian prisoners. Moreover, Raciborz had a maximum security prison, a camp for the displaced Poles and three labour camps. At the beginning of 1945 hundreds of prisoners marched through the town. They had been evacuated from concentration camps due to the approaching front line.

It is estimated that approximately 80% of houses, public works, factories were destroyed. Only 3000 inhabitants returned to Raciborz during the first two months. Later, more of them appeared. Repatriates from different parts of Poland settled in Raciborz.

n the 1950s ‘Rafako’, a boiler engineering company was built. Housing estates mushroomed. In the first ten years after the war Raciborz was rebuilt, then it started to extend. In 1975 nearby villages were joined (Markowice, Sudół, Miedonia, Brzezie).





























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Old May 13th, 2010, 10:42 AM   #136
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Racibórz c.d.
















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Old May 15th, 2010, 06:37 PM   #137
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Suwałki (Сувалки)



Suwałki is a town in northeastern Poland with 69,340 inhabitants (2008). The Czarna Hańcza river flows through the town.

Suwałki is located about 30 km from the southwestern Lithuanian border. The town gives its name to the Polish protected area known as Suwałki Landscape Park.

The area of Suwałki had been populated by local Yotvingian and Prussian tribes since the early Middle Ages. However, with the arrival of the Teutonic Order to Sudovia, their lands were conquered and remained largely depopulated in the following centuries. The village was founded by Camaldolese monks, who in 1667 were granted the area surrounding the future city by the Grand Duke of Lithuania and the King of Poland John II Casimir. Soon afterwards the monastic order built its headquarters in Wigry, where a monastery and a church were built. The new owners of the area started fast economic exploitation and development of the forests and brought enough settlers (mainly from over-populated Masovia) to build several new villages in the area. Also, production of wood, lumber, tar and iron ore was started.

The village was first mentioned in 1688; two years later it was reported to have two houses. However, the growth of the village was fast and by 1700 it was split onto Małe Suwałki and Wielkie Suwałki (Lesser and Greater Suwałki). The village was located almost exactly in the centre of Camadolese estates and it was located on the main trade route linking Grodno and Merkinė with Königsberg. In 1710 Polish King Augustus II the Strong granted the village a privilege to organize fairs and markets. Five years later, in 1715, the village was granted city rights by the grand master of the order, Ildefons. The town was divided into 300 lots for future houses and its inhabitants were granted civil rights and exempted from taxes for seven years. In addition, the town was granted with 18.03 square kilometers of forest that was to be turned into arable land. On May 2, 1720, the city rights were approved by King August II, and the town was allowed to organize one fair a week and four markets a year. In addition, a coat of arms was approved, depicting Saint Roch and Saint Romuald.

After the Partitions of Poland in 1794 the area was annexed by Prussia. In 1796 the monastery in Wigry was closed and its property confiscated by the Prussian government. The following year a seat of local powiat authorities was moved to the town, as well as a military garrison. By the end of 18th century, Suwałki had 1,184 inhabitants and 216 houses. A large part of them were Jewish.

In 1807 Suwałki became part of the newly-formed Duchy of Warsaw and became one of the centers of the department of Łomża. After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte and the Congress of Vienna, the area was incorporated into the Kingdom of Poland. The status of a powiat capital was briefly withdrawn, but it was re-introduced on January 16, 1816, when the Augustów Voivodeship was created and its government was gradually moved to Suwałki. Soon afterwards the older city hall was demolished and replaced with a new one, and General Józef Zajączek financed the paving of most of the city's streets. The cemetery was moved to the outskirts from the town center, and that area became a city park. Also, the Russian authorities built the Warsaw – Saint Petersburg Railway, which added to the city's prosperity.

In 1820 a new church was built and the following year the first synagogue was opened. In 1829 a permanent post office was opened in Suwałki. Between 1806 and 1827 the town's population almost tripled and reached 3,753 people living in 357 houses. During the November Uprising of 1831 the town's population took part in the struggles against Russia, but the city was pacified by the Russian army on February 11, 1830. In 1835 the government of Tsar Nicholas I decided not to move the capital of the voivodeship to Augustów. Two years later the Voivodeships of Poland were renamed to gubernias and the town became the capital of the Augustów Gubernia.

In 1826 an investment plan was passed and new buildings were started by the Russian authorities. In 1835 a police station was built, in 1844 a new town hall and Orthodox and Protestant churches were completed. Soon afterwards a new marketplace was opened, as well as St. Peter's and Paul's hospital and a gymnasium. In addition, between 1840 and 1849 the main Catholic church was refurbished by many of Poland's most notable architects of the era, including Piotr Aigner, Antoni Corazzi and Enrico Marconi. To change the city's architecture and break with its rural past, the city council passed a decree banning the construction of new wooden houses in 1847.

The city's population continued to grow rapidly. In 1857 it had 11,273 inhabitants and in 1872 almost 20,000. Newly-built factories needed workers and these were brought from all over the world. Because of that, the mixed Lithuania-Polish-Jewish population was soon joined by people of almost all denominations that worshiped in the Russian Empire. Soon the city became the fourth most populous town in the Kingdom of Poland. After the January Uprising of 1863, the new administrational reform was passed to unify the Polish lands with Russia completely. In 1866 the gubernia of Augustów was finally renamed to Suwałki Gubernia. However, the newly-built Warsaw-Petersburg rail road passed by Suwałki and the town's prosperity diminished. It was not until the early 20th century, when the arrival of a new Russian army garrisons brought the economy back on track. Also a railroad line linking Suwałki with Grodno was finally completed.

After the spring of 1905, when the Russians were forced to accept a limited liberalisation, the period of Polish cultural revival started. Although the Polish language was still banned from official use, new Polish schools were opened, as well as a Polish-language Tygodnik Suwalski weekly and a library. After the Great War broke out, heavy fights for the area erupted. Finally in 1915, the Germans broke the Russian front and Suwałki was put under German occupation. The town and surrounding areas were detached from the rest of the Polish lands and were directly administered by the German military commander of the Ober-Ost Army. Severe laws imposed by the German military command and the tragic economic situation of the civilians led to the creation of various secret social organisations. Finally, in 1917, local branches of the Polska Organizacja Wojskowa were created.

After the collapse of the Central Powers in November 1918, the local commander of the Ober-Ost signed an agreement with the Temporary Counc l of the Suwałki Region and de facto allowed for the region to be incorporated into Poland. However, the German army remained in the area and continued its economic exploitation. In February 1919 the local inhabitants took part in the first free elections to the Polish Sejm, but soon afterwards the German commanders changed their mind and expelled the Polish military units from the area and in May passed it to Lithuanian authority. By the end of July the Paris Peace Conference granted the city to Poland and the Lithuanians withdrew from the city, but some of the Polish-inhabited lands were left on the Lithuanian side of the border while several Lithuanian villages were left on the Polish side of the so-called Foch Line. This led to the outbreak of the Sejny Uprising on August 23, 1919. To secure the city, the following day the first regular units of the Polish Army entered Suwałki. A short Polish-Lithuanian War erupted and for several days limited fights were fought for the control over Suwałki, Sejny and other towns in the area. The war ended on the insistence of the Entente in mid-September (negotiations took place in Suwałki in early October). During the Polish-Bolshevik War the city was captured by the Reds and after the Battle of Warsaw it was again passed to the Lithuanians, but it was retaken by the Polish Army with negligible losses soon afterwards.

In the interbellum Suwałki became an autonomous town within the Białystok Voivodeship (1919-1939). This led to yet another period of prosperity, with the city's population rising from 16,780 in 1921 to almost 25,000 in 1935. The main source of income shifted from agriculture to trade and commerce. Also, in 1931 the new water works and a power plant were built. Also, Suwałki continued to serve as one of the biggest garrisons in Poland, with two regiments of the Polish 29th Infantry Division and almost an entire Suwałki Cavalry Brigade stationed there. Since 1928 Suwałki was also the headquarters of one of the battalions of the Border Defence Corps.

During the later stages of the Polish Defensive War of 1939 the town was briefly captured by the Red Army. However, on October 12 of the same year the Soviets withdrew and transferred the area to the Germans, in accordance with the Nazi-Soviet Alliance. The town was renamed to Sudauen and incorporated directly into the German Reich's East Prussia. Severe laws and terror that erupted led to the creation of several resistance organisations. Although most of them were at first destroyed by the Gestapo, by 1942 the area had one of the strongest ZWZ and AK networks. Despite the resistance, almost all of the city's once 7,000-strong Jewish community was murdered in German concentration camps. Also, in Suwałki's suburb of Krzywólka a POW camp for almost 120,000 Soviet prisoners of war was established. On October 23, 1944, the city was captured by the forces of the Soviet 3rd Belarusian Front. The fights for the city and its surroundings lasted for several days and took the lives of almost 5,000 Soviet soldiers. The anti-Soviet resistance of former Armia Krajowa members lasted in the forests surrounding the city until the early 1950s.

After the war, Suwałki remained a capital of the powiat. However, the heavily-damaged town recovered very slowly and the Communist economic system could not help the city's problems. This period came to an end in 1975, when a new administrative reform was passed and Suwałki yet again became the capital of a separate Suwałki Voivodeship. The number of inhabitants rose rapidly and by the end of the 1970s it was over 36,000. Large factories were built in the city and it became one of the important industrial and commercial centres of Eastern Poland.

After the peaceful dissolution of the Communist system in Poland in 1989 the city experienced a period of economic difficulties. Most of the city's major factories were inefficient and went bankrupt. However, the creation of the Suwałki Special Economic Zone and the proximity of the Russian and Lithuanian borders opened new possibilities for the local trade and commerce. In addition, the ecologically clean region started to attract many tourists from all around the world.

Suwalki is often called "Polish pole of cold" because it has the lowest average temperature in the whole Poland, except mountain resorts.























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Old May 16th, 2010, 11:28 AM   #138
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Chełmża (Хелмжа)



The first signs of settlement date to 10.000 B.C. when reindeer hunters made their visits to the area. Around 4500 B.C. the first agricultural settlements were founded. Goth tribes also moved through the area on their trek from Scandinavia and North Germany. Visible signs of existence of the Old Prussians also exist. Around VII century Slavs(Goplans) arrived in the area.

In the time of first Piasts and the formation of Poland, ziemia chełmińska and the settlement of Łoza (now the town of Chełmża) was incorporated into chełmińska castellany. After the death of Polish Prince Bolesław Krzywousty in 1138 it was handed over to his son Bolesław IV Kędzierzawy – as part of Masovia. The fights with nearby Old Prussian tribes resulted in several raids that destroyed the area. In XIII century the ruler of the area was Konrad I Mazowiecki who in order to Christianize the Old Prussians brought a missionary bishop Christian. The bishop was granted a number of possession including the settlement of Łoza. Later Teutonic Knights were granted local lands to support the bishop by military means. However in time the Knights took over the possession of Christian, dividing the area into four dioceses in 1243, including the chełmińska diocese. At the end of 1245 Heidenreich(Heidenryk) of the Bishopric of Culm became the bishop of diocese. He picked Łoza as place of his stay. It was during that time that Łoza received its new name Culmense and became part of the residence of the Bishop who resided and governed in Warmia from 1245-1263. In 1251 (before July 22) Bishop Heidenreich bestowed city rights to Łoza and renamed it to Culmsee (Kulmsee). A number of other towns are mentioned in his territory as well, such as Hermannysdorp, Arnoldisdorp, Sconenwerde, Belacin, Razlai, Zcampe, Heiminsod and Vambresin or Wambresin.

On July 22, the bishop also founded the cathedral-church which was build starting in 1254. Bishop Heidenreich received permissions for his undertakings directly from the pope[citation needed]. Later, in 1255 the four dioceses of Prussia, including the Bishopric of Culm were put under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Riga as metropolitan.

In the 1250s Jutta von Sangerhausen came to live in Prussia and settled at Bielczyny[citation needed]. In 1256 she founded the St. George church. It was her wish to be interred at the Culmsee cathedral-church and upon her death in 1260 her wish was granted. The 5th of May is her memorial day. The nearby town of Bielczyny and the cathedral soon became a destination for pilgrims to her shrine.

The town witnessed many wars and uprisings. Local Old Prussians staged several sieges and raids. Additionally in XV century the town experienced the wars between Teutonic Knights and Poland. In 1410 Polish army took the town and the bishop of Chelmno Arnold Stapil made a tribute to Polish king Jagiełło. In 1422 Chełmża was taken again by the forces of the king and destroyed in large part. After 1466 the town was integrated into Polish Kingdom. In 1621 and 1627 the city hosted the court of Polish King Zygmunt III Waza along with prince Władysław. The Swedish wars of 1626-1629 and 1655-60 brought devastation to the town.

In the beginning of XVIII century Russian, Saxon, Swedish armies went through the area along with supporters of Stanisław Leszczyński. The constant warfare led to the fall of the city, and its breaking point was reached due a plague that happened in years 1708-1710. A next series of wars in 1733-1735 and in 1756-1763 along with fire in 1762 almost completely destroyed the city.

After first Partition of Poland on 15 September 1772 Chełmża was taken over by Kingdom of Prussia.At that time it counted only 600 inhabitants. In 1807 till 1815 it became part of Duchy of Warsaw only to be taken over by Prussia again after 1815 and Congress of Vienna. The city population in 1831 counted 1.200 people and in 1871 3.000. It’s economical situation improved as it became an economic center for local villages benefited with good soil. During the Spring of Nations in 1848 Polish patriotism reinvigorated. Circle of Polish League was established and Polish newspaper "Biedaczek" is being distributed in the years 1849-1850 by Julian Prejs. In 1866 “Towarzystwo Rolniczo-Przemysłowe” is created, an association dealing in industry and agriculture. In 1879 a regional court is established in Chełmża. Two banks and school are established as well. Jews who made up 8 % of local population built in 80s of XIX century a synagogue. The industrial development was increased and agricultural manufacturing plant and railway terminal were completed n 1882. The population rose as well from 3.400 in 1880 to 10.600 in 1910. In 1869 a local church choir “Cecylia” was founded, which exists to this day. The developlment of the city was stopped by the start of First World War. The living conditions declined and street riots became widespread. Poles rose up against Germanisation and protests were made against forced teaching in schools in German language. On 8 January 1919 local Poles attacked a Grenzschutz unit but were repelled. In revenge the Germans shelled the town by artillery, and 7 random citizens were killed. Additionally several people were arrested upon suscipition of leading the protests. On 21 January as result of Treaty of Versailles, Chełmża became part of Poland again. A part of pro-German population was deported(2000 people). The population counted 98% Poles, 1,8 % Germans, 0,2 % Jews. The overall number of Chełmża citizens rose from 10.700 in 1921 to 13.000 in 1939. After the Great Depression in 1929 wages became lower and unemployment rose. National Democrats and at the second place socialists lead by Stanisław Nehring became the main parties in Chełmża. “Gazeta Chełmżyńska” and “Głos Chełmżyński” were two papers distributed in the city. The mayor of the city was Bronisław Kurzętkowski from 1920 to 1933 and Wiktor Barwicki from 1933 till 1939. After German invasion of Poland, extermination of the Polish and Jewish people started. German state at the time considered Poles and Jews to be untermenschen and planned their eradication as national groups. As result of German repressions the population of the city declined to 10.000 in March 1945. On January 1945 Red Army took Chełmża ending the German occupation. Soviet repressions followed and 600 people were deported to Siberia. The losses inflicted by German occupation regarding the population were gradually reversed and in 1980 Chełmża counted 15.000 people.













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Old August 17th, 2010, 10:45 PM   #139
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czekam na kolejne zdjęcia
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Old August 19th, 2010, 11:05 AM   #140
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This is one of my favorite threads in Urban Ukraine's Photos from abroad section. A big thanks to DocentX
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