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Old September 1st, 2017, 10:25 AM   #221
ChrisZwolle
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Sweden evidently also used the word autostrade in the 1950s. In Flanders they are also called an autostrade besides autosnelweg, without taking into account that autostrade is plural in Italian.
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Old September 1st, 2017, 03:10 PM   #222
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Adopting a word from another language not taking care it's plural (because the plural form just fits better to the new language) is quite a usual thing. Let's say Eskimo - in Polish, a single Eskimo is called Eskimos.

And you will find many such examples.

But concerning the motorways and autostrads, we just adopted the Italian word autostrada, without any change, which was quite logical, as the -a ending works quite similarly in both most Slavic languages, including Polish, as well as in many Romance languages, including Italian. Both here and here it indicates a feminine noun.

What's more, the Polish word for a road - droga - is also feminine, similarly as the Italian strada.

Some other European languages, including probably most of the Germanic ones, and French, by the way, too, ends the feminine nouns with -e. So "autostrade" in Swedish must have made sense.
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Old September 1st, 2017, 06:05 PM   #223
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Generally yes, but they may also be single-carriageway motorways (grade-separated, access controlled) like the Autoroute 50, sections of A-55. Most of these roads are planned / built to be expanded to divided 4 lane in the future.

But there are some rare exceptions, A-955 being most prominent where no real motorway nature is evident (however ! The road is limited-access... there's nothing near there ) and the somewhat debatable city street sections of A-19 on Montreal Island (and former A-25 along Henri-Bourassa Blvd).
In Italy there are some 2-lanes roads signposted as motorways:

- T1 Mont Blanc tunnel
- T2 Gran San Bernardo Tunnel and its access road
- T2 Frejus tunnel
- beginning of A3 in Naples (opened in 1929!)
- end of A15 in La Spezia
- A6 "raccordo di Fossano" (connection between A6 and the town of Fossano)

Maybe there are other short branches I don't know.
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In real life, electronic toll collection was first introduced in Bergen, Norway in 1986, and well into the 21th century many countries still struggle to implement it.

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Old September 1st, 2017, 06:33 PM   #224
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In Italy there are some 2-lanes roads signposted as motorways:
Also every motorway access road in Italy is signposted as a motorway, even when the directions are not separated. In some countries no bidirectional piece of road can be a motorway, not even the shortest ramp: the motorway sign is only shown after the directions have been separated.

An another difference is in toll plazas. In Denmark there can be no stopping on a motorway, and this is why the motorway ends right before the toll plaza (and begins again right after).
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Old September 1st, 2017, 07:15 PM   #225
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Also every motorway access road in Italy is signposted as a motorway, even when the directions are not separated. In some countries no bidirectional piece of road can be a motorway, not even the shortest ramp: the motorway sign is only shown after the directions have been separated.
This is because because when you turn into the on-ramp, you have no other choise than entering the motorway, so is useful to put the motorway sign just at the beginning to prevent pedestrians, bicycles, mopeds and tractors to get in.

But the road I listed can be used even without using the motorway proper, so the only reasons they are signposted as motorways are historical (in the past, the double carriaggeway wasn't a requirement to get motorway designation, as single-carriaggeway motorways were allowed).
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In real life, electronic toll collection was first introduced in Bergen, Norway in 1986, and well into the 21th century many countries still struggle to implement it.
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Old September 2nd, 2017, 10:53 AM   #226
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Quote:
Originally Posted by italystf View Post
In Italy there are some 2-lanes roads signposted as motorways:

- T1 Mont Blanc tunnel
- T2 Gran San Bernardo Tunnel and its access road
- T2 Frejus tunnel
- beginning of A3 in Naples (opened in 1929!)
- end of A15 in La Spezia
- A6 "raccordo di Fossano" (connection between A6 and the town of Fossano)

Maybe there are other short branches I don't know.
Also ending of A8 in Varese, also if I don't know if it's classificated A8, but was the end of the historical stretches of the motorway.
I don't remember eventually other stretches one carriageway 2-lanes, but I know that till 10 years ago there was also 3-lanes stretches, like A6 and final part of A32 near T4 tunnel.
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Old September 2nd, 2017, 11:22 AM   #227
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Also ending of A8 in Varese, also if I don't know if it's classificated A8, but was the end of the historical stretches of the motorway.
I don't remember eventually other stretches one carriageway 2-lanes, but I know that till 10 years ago there was also 3-lanes stretches, like A6 and final part of A32 near T4 tunnel.
No, it's classificated SS707 and has blue signs.
Was it the last section of Autostrada dei Laghi from 1924?

Also some viaducts on A24 were open only half-profile until the 2000s.
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“The transponder’s personalised signal would be picked up when the car passed through an intersection, and then relayed to a central computer which would calculate the charge according to the intersection and the time of day and add it to the car’s bill” - Nobel Economics Prize winner William Vickrey, proposing a system of electronic tolling for the Washington metropolitan area, 1959
In real life, electronic toll collection was first introduced in Bergen, Norway in 1986, and well into the 21th century many countries still struggle to implement it.
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Old September 2nd, 2017, 01:00 PM   #228
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Some other European languages, including probably most of the Germanic ones, and French, by the way, too, ends the feminine nouns with -e. So "autostrade" in Swedish must have made sense.
Language lesson of the day. Swedish (and Danish) no longer has feminine, so autostrade (did they really use that form in singular. It sounds strange to me) , would probably be masculine. In most flavors of Norwegian, feminine is still used. Autostrada is also used in Norwegian, mainly about foreign roads or figuratively speaking, but it is masculine. Scandinavian languages change the ending of nouns to make them definite, and only sometimes use the definite article. Hence, autostradaen is the definite form in Norwegian. The main words for motorway/freeway are however motorveg/motorvei (both are allowed).
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Old September 2nd, 2017, 01:50 PM   #229
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Autostrada is official used in Polish, Romanian and Albanian, although plurals are different. It's also used in Russian (together with another word I don't know), of course translitterated in Cyrillic.
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“The transponder’s personalised signal would be picked up when the car passed through an intersection, and then relayed to a central computer which would calculate the charge according to the intersection and the time of day and add it to the car’s bill” - Nobel Economics Prize winner William Vickrey, proposing a system of electronic tolling for the Washington metropolitan area, 1959
In real life, electronic toll collection was first introduced in Bergen, Norway in 1986, and well into the 21th century many countries still struggle to implement it.
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Old September 2nd, 2017, 07:11 PM   #230
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And isn't it "autoestrada" in Portuguese?
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Old September 2nd, 2017, 11:18 PM   #231
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Old September 2nd, 2017, 11:32 PM   #232
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Old September 2nd, 2017, 11:49 PM   #233
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That car looks like the present-day Norwegian...
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Old September 3rd, 2017, 12:14 AM   #234
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And isn't it "autoestrada" in Portuguese?
Yes, but estrada means road in Portoguese, so autoestrada is the natural composite word.
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“The transponder’s personalised signal would be picked up when the car passed through an intersection, and then relayed to a central computer which would calculate the charge according to the intersection and the time of day and add it to the car’s bill” - Nobel Economics Prize winner William Vickrey, proposing a system of electronic tolling for the Washington metropolitan area, 1959
In real life, electronic toll collection was first introduced in Bergen, Norway in 1986, and well into the 21th century many countries still struggle to implement it.

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Old September 3rd, 2017, 10:25 AM   #235
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There are also some languages borrowing from German... Isn't it "autobana" in Bulgarian? I think I heard it from a coach driver there. But Wiktionary says "автомагистрала" (avtomagistrala).

Because as a slang word for a German motorway, it's used even in English on this forum ("autobahns"), in Polish sometimes too, but I am talking about a general use for any motorway.
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Old September 3rd, 2017, 12:42 PM   #236
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this car on 1997 and 2016 cversions looks like anything but the car
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Old September 3rd, 2017, 12:50 PM   #237
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this car on 1997 and 2016 cversions looks like anything but the car
Our independent-Slovakia traffic sign design is horrible. Fortunately, there are some attempts to change it. To me, it looks like all signs are made of paper-cuts done by pupils in nursery school
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Old September 3rd, 2017, 03:14 PM   #238
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There are also some languages borrowing from German... Isn't it "autobana" in Bulgarian? I think I heard it from a coach driver there. But Wiktionary says "автомагистрала" (avtomagistrala).

Because as a slang word for a German motorway, it's used even in English on this forum ("autobahns"), in Polish sometimes too, but I am talking about a general use for any motorway.
A lot of Americans insist on saying things like "I've driven on the Autobahn." As if there's only one. Makes me grit my teeth.
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Old September 3rd, 2017, 06:54 PM   #239
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There are also some languages borrowing from German... Isn't it "autobana" in Bulgarian? I think I heard it from a coach driver there. But Wiktionary says "автомагистрала" (avtomagistrala).
Autoban is used in Bulgarian but not a lot. The main word is magistrala.
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Old September 3rd, 2017, 08:21 PM   #240
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In Polish, magistrala refers to any important transportation path. Like "magistrala wodociągowa" - which would be one of the main water supply pipes in the city. Or "Centralna Magistrala Kolejowa", which is the main central railway line. Of course, "magistrala drogowa" is also sometimes used, but it's a general word for a main route in any type of transport. Not necessarily to a motorway while talking about roads (although it's possible).

Also in computer science, the English word "bus" (like in USB - Universal Serial Bus or FSB bus on old computer motherboards) is translated as "magistrala". Or as "szyna" - "rail".
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