daily menu » rate the banner | guess the city | one on oneforums map | privacy policy | DMCA | news magazine | posting guidelines

Go Back   SkyscraperCity > Infrastructure and Mobility Forums > Railways

Railways (Inter)national commuter and freight trains



Global Announcement

As a general reminder, please respect others and respect copyrights. Go here to familiarize yourself with our posting policy.


Reply

 
Thread Tools
Old August 21st, 2015, 04:18 PM   #181
Treg11
Registered User
 
Treg11's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2015
Location: Marília, SP
Posts: 177
Likes (Received): 46

ALL - RUMO Merge

g1.globo.com/sp/bauru-marilia/noticia/2015/07/fusao-de-empresas-ferreas-pode-acabar-com-ferrovia-em-bauru.html

26/07/2015 19h00 - Atualizado em 26/07/2015 19h00

Fusão de empresas férreas pode acabar com a ferrovia em Bauru

Cidade já foi considerada o maior entroncamento ferroviário do país.
Transporte de trens foram suspensos e funcionários demitidos pela Rumo.

A cidade de Bauru (SP), que já foi considerada o maior entroncamento ferroviário do país, tem hoje uma via férrea praticamente sucateada. Com a fusão da América Latina Logística (ALL) com a empresa Rumo, concessionária liderada pela Cosan, grupo que produz açúcar e etanol, a história dessa ferrovia pode estar perto do fim na região.

A Rumo passou a comandar quase 13 mil quilômetros de linhas férreas. Em maio, a nova concessionária anunciou a suspensão do transporte de trens entre as cidades de Três Lagoas e Corumbá em Mato Grosso do Sul.
O diretor do sindicato dos ferroviários Marcos Antônio de Oliveira conta que, no total, mil quilômetros foram desativados e cem funcionários acabaram demitidos. Ele diz que a empresa Rumo tem interesse nos grandes corredores ferroviários e que, por isso, a linha que corta o Centro-Oeste Paulista corre o risco de em um curto espaço de tempo perder o interesse e a função.

“A tendência é parar, é morrer por si próprio. Está havendo várias demissões, no Mato Grosso do Sul foram cerca de 100 demitidos e aqui está em torno de uns 20 demitidos, também por consequência do corte desse tipo de transporte”, afirma.

Em um trecho da ferrovia que sai de Bauru e passa por Mairinque, na região de Sorocaba, com destino ao porto de Santos, circulavam trens carregados com cimento, grãos e combustível. Mas com a decisão da concessionária de diminuir o movimento, apenas trens carregados com placas de celulose vão passar pelo trecho.

Sem investimentos

Não é de hoje que a ferrovia no Centro-Oeste Paulista carece de investimentos. Ela foi importante para o crescimento da região, mas há tempos perdeu a importância. Bauru que foi considerada o maior entroncamento ferroviário do país, vive da memória, afinal passageiros não são mais transportados e o volume de carga só diminuiu nas últimas décadas.

O economista Reinaldo Cafeo conta que em média o transporte pela ferrovia é 30% mais barato do que o rodoviário, mas com menos trens circulando na região, o transporte terá que ser feito por caminhões. Em resumo, a nova medida da concessionária será um retrocesso para todo o setor.

“O custo para a reversão é muito elevado. Se lá atrás com volume de dinheiro menor nós conseguiríamos viabilizar, hoje, seria preciso um trem de dinheiro. Isso quer dizer que vai depender muito do apetite da iniciativa privada. O governo não vai ter recurso e é um projeto de longa maturação, com investimento maciço. E nesse momento não tem parceiros com esse interesse.”

A assessoria da ALL informou que a malha Novoeste continua em operação. Houve redução da circulação de carga de produtos perigosos entre Paulínia e Campo Grande e no caso de combustíveis, foi suspenso o transporte porque a via não oferece condições mínimas de segurança.

Sobre a suspensão dos passeios de Maria Fumaça, a concessionária esclarece que são necessários projeto e aprovação da agência nacional de transportes terrestres. Antes a Maria Fumaça em Bauru circulava com autorizações esporádicas para eventos especiais.
Treg11 no está en línea   Reply With Quote

Sponsored Links
Old August 28th, 2015, 05:44 PM   #182
Treg11
Registered User
 
Treg11's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2015
Location: Marília, SP
Posts: 177
Likes (Received): 46

Dilma assina ordem de serviço de lote da Transnordestina

http://agenciabrasil.ebc.com.br/poli...estina-e-reune

Dilma assina ordem de serviço de lote da Transnordestina e reúne governadores

28/08/2015

Paulo Victor Chagas – Repórter da Agência Brasil*

Ferrovia Transnordestina

Os mais de 1.700 km da ferrovia vão percorrer 81 municípios de Pernambuco, do Piauí e Ceará Divulgação/Ministério do Planejamento

A presidenta Dilma Rousseff assina hoje (28) a ordem de serviço de um lote da Ferrovia Transnordestina, que vai interligar dois portos do Nordeste ao sertão do Piauí. O empreendimento faz parte do Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento e vai entregar 1.753 quilômetros (km) de ferrovias, que farão conexão entre os portos de Pecém, no Ceará, de Suape, em Pernambuco, e a cidade piauiense de Eliseu Martins.

Durante o evento, à tarde, ao lado de empresários locais, a presidenta dará início às obras do Lote 4 do trecho Missão Velha-Pecém. Mais três dos 11 lotes da parte cearense da ferrovia, que terá 526 km, estão em obras e sete ainda não começaram. Assim como as demais etapas do contrato, a execução ficará por conta da empresa Transnordestina Logística S.A.

O trecho que terá as obras iniciadas hoje tem 50 km e compreende os municípios de Acopiara e Piquet Carneiro. O lote faz parte do eixo cearense da ferrovia, que tem como objetivo escoar a produção agrícola e mineral da região, promovendo a exportação dos produtos brasileiros pelo Norte do país. Nos últimos anos, o governo federal tem investido em novas rotas de escoamento que fujam da forte concentração atual nas regiões Sul e Sudeste.

Ferrovia

Os mais de 1.700 km da ferrovia vão percorrer 81 municípios de Pernambuco, do Piauí e Ceará. Trabalham hoje nas obras dos três estados cerca de 6 mil trabalhadores. Quando estiver funcionando, a ferrovia poderá transportar até 30 milhões de toneladas de produtos, como minério de ferro e grãos, por ano, de acordo com a Transnordestina Logística.

Fazem parte ainda da construção os trechos Salgueiro-Suape, em Pernambuco, Trindade-Eliseu Martins, de Pernambuco ao Piauí, Missão Velha-Salgueiro, do Ceará a Pernambuco, e Salgueiro-Trindade, em Pernambuco, esse último já concluído. Segundo informações sobre o PAC no site do Ministério do Planejamento, o investimento total será R$ 7,5 bilhões, com previsão de entrega para 2016.

Viagens ao Nordeste

O Ceará é o quarto estado do Nordeste que Dilma visita neste mês de agosto, Recentemente, ela esteve nas capitais São Luís, Salvador e Recife.

Antes de assinar a ordem de serviço, a presidenta vai à cidade de Caucaia (CE) entregar as chaves de unidades habitacionais do Programa Minha Casa, Minha Vida. Ao todo, serão 2.701 casas entregues, por meio de teleconferência com outras regiões, para cidades do Ceará, de Pernambuco, do Pará e Tocantins.

Em Fortaleza, além do evento da Transnordestina, a presidenta participa da divulgação do site Dialoga Brasil [1], que tem como objetivo pedir que a população debata programas do governo, enviando sugestões por meio da plataforma e conversando com ministros de Estado. O evento é feito no formato de um programa de televisão, com a participação de representantes da sociedade civil, organizados em uma plateia, que discutem ao vivo com os ministros os temas que estão disponíveis no site. O programa é concluído com a fala da presidenta.

A programação presidencial no Ceará termina à noite, quando Dilma participará de um jantar com os governadores do Nordeste. No mês passado, ela reuniu em Brasília governadores de todas as regiões do país e propôs uma parceria para enfrentar os problemas [2] e superar a crise.


*Colaborou Edwirges Nogueira, correspondente da Agência Brasil/EBC

Edição: Graça Adjuto
__________________

dimlys1994 liked this post
Treg11 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old October 27th, 2015, 09:14 PM   #183
Treg11
Registered User
 
Treg11's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2015
Location: Marília, SP
Posts: 177
Likes (Received): 46

Levantamento EF-270

http://www.antt.gov.br/index.php/con...catu__SP_.html

15/10/2015

A Agência Nacional de Transportes Terrestres (ANTT) inicia avaliação da demanda pelo serviço público de transporte ferroviário de cargas na região que abrange os municípios de Presidente Epitácio (SP) a Botucatu (SP), em trecho concedido à concessionária América Latina Logística Malha Sul (ALLMS). A iniciativa tem o objetivo de obter um melhor dimensionamento quanto ao volume potencial de cargas na região, bem como buscar o atendimento aos interessados em utilizar o trecho ferroviário.

Os interessados devem entrar em contato com a Agência, até 30/10/2015, pelos telefones (61) 3410-1802 ou (61) 3410-1803; por mensagem eletrônica para [email protected]; ou por correspondência, direcionada à Gerência de Regulação e Outorgas Ferroviárias (Gerof), para o endereço da ANTT (Setor de Clubes Esportivos Sul (SCES), Trecho 03, Lote 10, Projeto Orla, Polo 8, Brasília/DF – CEP 70.200-003).
Treg11 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old November 21st, 2015, 11:46 PM   #184
LuizMontanha
Registered User
 
LuizMontanha's Avatar
 
Join Date: Nov 2015
Location: Ipatinga - MG
Posts: 32
Likes (Received): 10

Hoje essas duas empresas(Rumo e ALL) já se encontram conjugadas.
LuizMontanha no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old November 22nd, 2015, 03:07 AM   #185
LuizMontanha
Registered User
 
LuizMontanha's Avatar
 
Join Date: Nov 2015
Location: Ipatinga - MG
Posts: 32
Likes (Received): 10

Não sei se ja postaram mas olha aí: http://www.euamoipatinga.com.br/foto...sp?codigo=1508
LuizMontanha no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old November 22nd, 2015, 11:05 AM   #186
hammersklavier
Feral
 
hammersklavier's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2010
Location: Philadelphia
Posts: 597
Likes (Received): 423

Um, I can't read anything on this page?
__________________

SpiderBHZ, FAAN, OOOPS, Nexis, Rail_Serbia and 1 others liked this post
hammersklavier no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 4th, 2015, 03:29 PM   #187
OOOPS
Idem velle. Idem nolle.
 
OOOPS's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2011
Posts: 2,648
Likes (Received): 2802

Quote:
Originally Posted by hammersklavier View Post
Um, I can't read anything on this page?
That's one of the main reason why I don't read international threads about my own country. The other one is the excess of photos and videos.

Quote:
Enterprise's fusion may put an end to railroad in Bauru [countryside city in São Paulo State]
City were once considered the country's biggest railway junction. Rail transportation has been suspended and employes were fired by Rumo


The city of Bauru (SP), which have already been the country's biggest railroad junction, has today rail tracks almonst scrapped. With the fusion of América Latina Logística [ALL - Latin America Logistics] with Rumo, dealership leaded by Cosan, a sugar and etanol producer group, the history of this reailroad may be very next to his end in the region.

Rumo is now controlling almonst 13 thousand kilometers of rail lines. In May the new dealership has announced the traffic suspension between the cities of Três Lagoas and Corumbá, in the Mato Grosso do Sul State [MS]. The director of railworkers' union Marco Antônio de Oliveira tells that a total of a thousand kilometers were made inactive and a hundred of employes were fired. He says that Rumo has interest in the big corridors and because of this that the line which cross the Middle-West of the São Paulo State may become uniteresting and lose its function in short-term period.

"The tendency is to stop, is to die by its own. There are now lots of demissals, nearly a hundred were fired in Mato Grosso do Sul State and here there are 20 fired, also due to transport downsizing". He says.

In a rail section from Bauru through Mairinque (Sorocaba's region) to Santos seaport full loaded trains of cement, grains and fuel used to run. But with the decision of the leadership to reduce the traffic only trains loaded with cellulose plates with run on the sectrion.


No investments

It's not only now that the railroad in the Middle-West Paulista [Translator note: Paulista stands in the text for places located in São Paulo State] lacks some kind of investment. It [the railroad] was important for the region's growth, but it has been so long it lost its importance. Bauru, which were once considered the biggest junction in the country, lives of its memory, after all passanger are no longer transported and freight's volume has been decreading in the past decades.

The economist Reinaldo Cafeo tells the rail transport is 30% cheaper in average the road transport, but with less trains running in area the transport will need to be done by trucks. In summary, the dealership's decision will be a retrocess to the whole sector.

"The custs to revert are too high. If back in the past it was possible to make it possible, today it's necessary a train [Note: in this case "train" is a slang standing for a high amount of something] of money. This is to say that it depends a lot from private's initiative desire. The govern won't have the needed resourced and this is a project of long-term maturation, with massive invetment. And in this moment there's no partners with the needed desire."

ALL's press office informed that Novoeste network remains in operation. There has been a decrease of dangerous good's transportation between Paulínia [Campinas region, a major junction which connects the Contryside to Santos Seaport] and Campo Grande, and the suspension of fuel good's transportation were due to the lack of minimal safety's condition of the tracks.

About the suspension of touristical rides in steam-powered locomotives, the dealership explains the project and approvation are needed from the Terrestrial Transport Nacional Agency [ANTT]. The rides which were done so used to have temporary authorization to special events.
I may translate the other ones if I remember, I need to be out for sometime. Now I must to do something that only I can do for myself [please, don't get it wrong].
__________________
Alocação de frota do Metrô de SP - Atualizado: 22.12.2017
Linha 1 E01 a E09 | L26 a L29 | L31 a L42 | L44 L46 L47 | I06 I11 I13 I15 I16 I19 I22 I24 I25 | J31 J33 J34 J37 J38 J40 J41 J44 J45 J46 J50 J51
Linha 2 E10 a E11 | G22 a G24 | G27 | I02 a I05 | I07 a I10 | I12 I14 I20 I23 | J26 J27 J30 J32 J36 J39 J42 J43 J48 J49
Linha 3 G12 a G21 | G25 G26 | H52 a H68 | K01 a K20 | K22 a K25 | Linha 5 P09 a P13 | P15 P16 | P18 a P22 | P24 | P26 a P30 | P32 a P34
Não-Operacional J29 J47 K21 L30 L43 L45 | Modernização I01 I17 I18 I21 J28 | A modernizar A35

Rail_Serbia liked this post
OOOPS no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 22nd, 2015, 07:22 PM   #188
paulista1978
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Posts: 10,840
Likes (Received): 3091

Yesterday, estação da Luz (Luz Station) caught on fire. It´s one of major hubs for suburban trains in Sao Paulo and two metro lines crosses this station (it´s an independent station beneath the railway station).

Quote:
Originally Posted by FlicK View Post
Pessoal, criei esse tópico para irmos acompanhando o incêncio que está acontecendo na Estação da Luz nesse exato momento.



Incêndio atinge Museu da Língua Portuguesa




Bombeiros enviaram 12 viaturas para o local.
Não há informações sobre as causas do incêndio e se há vítimas.

http://g1.globo.com/sao-paulo/notici...bombeiros.html











__________________

dimlys1994, Zaz965 liked this post
paulista1978 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 23rd, 2015, 07:08 AM   #189
zaphod
PRESIDENT OF SPACE
 
zaphod's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2005
Location: Texas
Posts: 1,175
Likes (Received): 1673

That's terrible? Anyone hurt?

What is the fate of the structure now? Did anything collapse?
__________________
What fun would internet discussions be if we weren't all amateur experts in everything?

After I'm gone, your earth will be free to live out its miserable span of existence, as one of my satellites, and that's how it's going to be...

Bring me the continuum transfunctioner...

zaphod no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 23rd, 2015, 01:54 PM   #190
paulista1978
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Posts: 10,840
Likes (Received): 3091

One firefighter died.
paulista1978 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 2nd, 2016, 02:00 PM   #191
dimlys1994
Moderator
 
dimlys1994's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2010
Location: Dniepropetrovsk
Posts: 16,336
Likes (Received): 26115

From Railway Gazette:

Quote:
http://www.railwaygazette.com/news/i...completed.html

Carajás branch completed
02 Aug 2016



BRAZIL: Tracklaying on the 101 km branch from the Carajás Railroad main line to Vale SA’s S11D mining project has been substantially finished, the company announced on July 29.

Construction locomotives are now able to traverse the entire length of the line. Completion of the branch from the junction near Parauapebas marks a key stage in the US$14·4bn project, which is due to come on stream later this year

...
__________________
Для Вас:
Страница в ВК:

For you:
Facebook & Flickr pages
dimlys1994 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 2nd, 2016, 11:06 PM   #192
rodineisilveira
Registered User
 
rodineisilveira's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2008
Location: São Paulo - SP, Brazil
Posts: 1,078
Likes (Received): 518

Estação da Luz (Luz Station): what happened after the fire from last December

Quote:
Originally Posted by paulista1978 View Post
Yesterday, estação da Luz (Luz Station) caught on fire. It´s one of major hubs for suburban trains in Sao Paulo and two metro lines crosses this station (it´s an independent station beneath the railway station).
I've passed thru Luz Station some days after this fire. After this tragedy, this São Paulo's railway terminal was reformed. And nowadays, this terminal continues working normally.

rodineisilveira está en línea ahora   Reply With Quote
Old September 2nd, 2016, 04:17 PM   #193
dimlys1994
Moderator
 
dimlys1994's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2010
Location: Dniepropetrovsk
Posts: 16,336
Likes (Received): 26115

From Rail Journal:

Quote:
http://www.railjournal.com/index.php...ml?channel=536

Brazil seeks to kick-start railway construction
Friday, September 02, 2016



BRAZIL’s interim federal government led by president Michel Temer is investigating how to revive the country’s ambitious new line construction programme at a time of financial austerity by involving the country’s concessionaire rail freight operators

One project under review is the planned 572km line linking Rio de Janeiro and Vitória which would serve major ports in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo. The government believes the project would only be viable if MRS Logistics and Central Atlantic Railway (FCA), which already have railway concessions in the two states, are willing to support it. The two states are now assessing whether to renew these concessions on condition that MRS and FCA become involved in the project

...
__________________
Для Вас:
Страница в ВК:

For you:
Facebook & Flickr pages
dimlys1994 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 7th, 2017, 06:51 PM   #194
Mariwa
Registered User
 
Mariwa's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2006
Location: Gdansk
Posts: 149
Likes (Received): 73

South America by rail

Hi Friends

I am railroad fan and retired sailor from Poland. I enjoyed some short rail trips in Ecuador, Brazil and Chile before, when sailed on board various merchant ships. Now I have enough time (and saved some money for it) to look closer at the railways on your continent. Nowadays the railway network in South America is like a patchwork and to set up a clever plan of my trip I need a truthful info about the railroads which are still in operation. May you advise me active passenger and cargo railroads and it’s operators in Brazil? I will be very grateful for your help.

Best Regards & All the Best in New Year
__________________
My railway videos on YouTube channel: Ty 51
Mariwa no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 8th, 2017, 11:41 AM   #195
mopc
Registered User
 
mopc's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2005
Location: Santos Sao Paulo
Posts: 17,226
Likes (Received): 11945

Quote:
Originally Posted by Mariwa View Post
Hi Friends

I am railroad fan and retired sailor from Poland. I enjoyed some short rail trips in Ecuador, Brazil and Chile before, when sailed on board various merchant ships. Now I have enough time (and saved some money for it) to look closer at the railways on your continent. Nowadays the railway network in South America is like a patchwork and to set up a clever plan of my trip I need a truthful info about the railroads which are still in operation. May you advise me active passenger and cargo railroads and it’s operators in Brazil? I will be very grateful for your help.

Best Regards & All the Best in New Year
Take a look at my Brazil General Infrastructure thread (in my signature), everything I know is there (first page, Railroads section)
mopc está en línea ahora   Reply With Quote
Old January 14th, 2017, 09:50 AM   #196
dimlys1994
Moderator
 
dimlys1994's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2010
Location: Dniepropetrovsk
Posts: 16,336
Likes (Received): 26115

From Rail Journal

http://www.railjournal.com/index.php...ml?channel=536

Brazil seeks funding to enhance passenger rail study
Friday, January 13, 2017



BRAZIL’s National Transport Agency (ANTT) invites funding offers by January 27 to enhance a technical and economic feasibility study conducted last year into a public-private project (PPP) to construct a 209km passenger railway between Brasilia and Goiãnia

The feasibility study will evaluate alignment alternatives and the location of stations, technologies to be used, economic and financial aspects of the project, environmental issues, and guidelines for the granting of a concession to operate the service

...
__________________
Для Вас:
Страница в ВК:

For you:
Facebook & Flickr pages
dimlys1994 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old June 11th, 2017, 12:43 PM   #197
Auxodium
What a timeline we're in!
 
Auxodium's Avatar
 
Join Date: Oct 2004
Location: Perth
Posts: 5,187
Likes (Received): 41

Oh Brazil, you are such a frustrating country with limited rail. Any news on the much touted rail links between Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro? Also there was talk on linking Brasilia to this also?
__________________

xrtn2, N3XY liked this post
Auxodium no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 11th, 2017, 11:26 PM   #198
xrtn2
Registered User
 
xrtn2's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2011
Location: Valadares, Brazil
Posts: 19,663
Likes (Received): 17481

Quote:
Originally Posted by Auxodium View Post
Oh Brazil, you are such a frustrating country with limited rail. Any news on the much touted rail links between Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro? Also there was talk on linking Brasilia to this also?
Unfortunately there are cheap flights from Sao Paulo to Rio De Janeiro, people like planes instead trains
__________________
BRAZIL !
xrtn2 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 12th, 2017, 05:31 AM   #199
EMArg
Registered User
 
EMArg's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2013
Location: Buenos Aires
Posts: 28,934
Likes (Received): 30497

On the Trem da Vale: Ouro Preto-Mariana














































































__________________
.....
INTERNATIONAL THREADS
.
Argentina - Brazil - Chile - Colombia - Italy - Panama - Perú - Uruguay
Boston - New York City - California

pai nosso, 8166UY, kdpy, Robi_damian, Sperrel and 1 others liked this post
EMArg no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 12th, 2017, 05:32 AM   #200
EMArg
Registered User
 
EMArg's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2013
Location: Buenos Aires
Posts: 28,934
Likes (Received): 30497




In HD:


__________________
.....
INTERNATIONAL THREADS
.
Argentina - Brazil - Chile - Colombia - Italy - Panama - Perú - Uruguay
Boston - New York City - California

pai nosso, kdpy, Zaz965 liked this post
EMArg no está en línea   Reply With Quote


Reply

Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off

Related topics on SkyscraperCity


All times are GMT +2. The time now is 11:33 PM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.11 Beta 4
Copyright ©2000 - 2018, vBulletin Solutions Inc.
Feedback Buttons provided by Advanced Post Thanks / Like (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2018 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

vBulletin Optimisation provided by vB Optimise (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2018 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

SkyscraperCity ☆ In Urbanity We trust ☆ about us | privacy policy | DMCA policy

tech management by Sysprosium