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Old September 19th, 2010, 02:25 AM   #21
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MOROCCO / SPAIN | Gibraltar Tunnel

Mainly of those posts come from TANGIER | Gibraltar Tunnel | #Project
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Old September 19th, 2010, 02:29 AM   #22
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Bridge option is abandonned

By nwusaad






-----------------------------

By nwusaad

http://www.secegsa.com/frances.wmv

Imagine Tarifa to Tangiers in 30minutes. After this period you are in different city, country, and continent! The presentation is great...
The video makes it seem that it doable project and that it is not as challenging as we thought it would be.

Projections:
1- Maximum train speed: 120km/hr
2- Time necessary from one terminal to the other: 30minutes

Phase I initial annual capacity
1- 1.6million tourism cars.
2- 500000 heavy weight trucks
3- 5 million car passengers
4- 11 million individual train passengers

Final Phase annual capacity after Extension(if judged necessary)
1- 50 million passengers
2- 100 million vehicules
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Old September 19th, 2010, 02:30 AM   #23
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30/01/2007

Quote:
Originally Posted by Redalinho View Post

Tunnel linking Europe and Africa inches closer




The dream of a tunnel between Africa and Europe is coming closer to reality, but it may be another 20 years before you can hop on the fast train at Seville and disembark in Tangier 90 minutes later.

After decades of plans and geological tests, the governments of both Spain and Morocco are now keen to push ahead with a twin-track rail tunnel linking the two countries. Madrid and Rabat gave the project a boost late last year when they contracted a French, Spanish, Moroccan and Swiss consortium to draw up fresh blueprints for the under-sea tunnel. Preliminary work could begin this year, following a report on the complex geology of the Strait of Gibraltar.

The technical obstacles are formidable. "It's a challenge without precedent in the construction of large-scale infrastructure, pushing the limit of what is technically viable," said Giovanni Lombardi, the head of the participating Swiss company Lombardi Engineering. "The Channel Tunnel was child's play in comparison. The depth of the Channel, and the pressure of water there, is much less; marine currents are much weaker and the rock more solid."

Morocco and Spain are separated at the narrowest point by only nine miles. The opposite coastline is so clearly visible across the strip of Mediterranean that you imagine a bridge would span the gap easily. But the bridge option was discarded years ago - it would have needed 900-metre supports, and would not have withstood the fearsome winds and currents that lash the Mediterranean bottleneck.

Nor will the proposed tunnel join the two continents at the narrowest point. The Strait plunges to nearly 1,000 metres in depth, so a longer, shallower tunnel descending to only 300 metres is planned. It would run from Morocco's Cape Malabata, near Tangier, to Punta Paloma near Cadiz in Spain, an underwater stretch of some 28km. With gently sloping approaches on either side, the full length of the tunnel will be 40km.

Compounding the difficulties, however, is the seabed around Gibraltar, which is made of shifting sands. The tunnel must run deep beneath the seabed.

Rabat is particularly keen on the project, seeing a fixed link as tangible evidence that the country is closer to Europe. "We've done a tremendous amount of work to make this dream come true, to go from an idea into something we can transform into reality," said Karim Ghellab, Morocco's Transport minister, this week. "It's hard to predict a date, but it's a project that will happen."

No one has put a figure on the final cost, though estimates range from €6.5bn to €13bn. Both Spain and Morocco have applied for funds from the EU, and promise lucrative private contracts.

The partner countries hope the tunnel would improve prosperity in southern Spain and northern Morocco; traffic between the two is already huge. Up to a million Moroccans live in Spain,more still in France and elsewhere in Europe, while Morocco hopes to attract 10 million tourists in 2010.

http://news.independent.co.uk/europe/article2198398.ece
Quote:
Originally Posted by Redalinho View Post
Work is expected to start in 2008.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/6442697.stm



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Old September 19th, 2010, 02:33 AM   #24
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June 2008

Quote:
Originally Posted by Redalinho View Post
Morocco, Spain submit tunnel train project to European Commission






Rabat, June 8 - Morocco and Spain on Friday submitted the tunnel train project, to link Morocco and Spain through the Gibraltar Strait, to the European Commission, during a meeting held in Luxembourg between Moroccan and Spanish delegations and representatives of the Commission.



The delegations presented the results of the studies related to the project and the prospects of its implementation as well as the master plans of its extensions to the North and the South.
The elaboration of those studies, fruit of cooperation between Morocco and Spain since the 1980s, has gained momentum over the past years, mainly due to the drilling operations in the sea and the experimental works on the two shores, which enabled the identification of the geological formations the future tunnel will go through.
These studies have also paved the way for economical technical, environmental and legal complementary studies being carried out by the project studies companies, SECEG (Spain) and SNED (Morocco).
Studies showed the possibility of drilling the 40-km tunnel at 300 or 400 meters under the sea to establish a double-track train line, linking the two continents, through Tangier, Morocco, and the Spanish town of Tarifa at Europe’s southernmost tip.
The project is among priority projects maintained for the extension of the trans-European network of transport to neighbouring regions and countries, and among the Regional Transport Action Plan for the Mediterranean Region, set up for 2007-2013.
The future tunnel will include a side platform of 38.7-km, including 27.7 km under the Mediterranean
.
The World Bank, the European Investment Bank, and the African Development Fund, in addition to Arab funds will finance the project.
Quote:
Originally Posted by Redalinho View Post
Un tunnel ferroviaire pourrait relier l'Afrique à l'Europe d'ici à 2025

http://www.letemps.ch/template/econo...article=213332

GRANDS TRAVAUX. Les études géologiques et de faisabilité économique d'une liaison entre le Maroc et l'Espagne sont bouclées. Conçu notamment par la société suisse Lombardi Engineering Ltd, le projet coûterait 8 milliards de francs.

Si tout va bien, le premier coup de pioche sera donné vers la fin de l'année prochaine. Puis il faudra environ dix-huit ans pour réaliser le projet: un tunnel ferroviaire sous la Méditerranée, via le détroit de Gibraltar, pour relier le Maroc et l'Espagne. Autant dire qu'il s'agit de ces travaux herculéens de la même ampleur que celui du canal de Panama ou du tunnel sous la Manche.

Le Maroc et l'Espagne ne sont séparés que par 16 km de mer. Mais, les études géologiques obligent, le projet de tunnel porte sur un tracé plus sûr de 37,7 km de long, dont 27,7 km sous la mer. Il relierait Punta Paloma et Cap Malabata, près de Tanger. La profondeur maximale sera de 340 mètres sous la Méditerranée.

Relier les continents africain et européen est un vieux rêve. Mais le premier pas concret vers sa réalisation a lieu en 1979. Le roi d'Espagne Juan Carlos et le roi du Maroc Hassan II décident de lancer les premières études de faisabilité. Plusieurs accords se succèdent et des comités hispano-marocains sont chargés d'assurer le suivi. Il est question d'abord d'un pont suspendu, puis d'un tunnel routier. En 2003, les décideurs arrêtent le projet d'un tunnel ferroviaire. Celui-ci reçoit un véritable coup de fouet lorsqu'en 2006 plusieurs entreprises sont engagées pour finaliser les études de faisabilité.

Parmi celles-ci, Lombardi Engineering Ltd de Lugano qui est chargée de concevoir le projet. Fondée en 1989, cette société qui emploie une centaine d'ingénieurs a fait valoir son expérience dans la construction des tunnels, dont celui du Gothard. Pour l'entreprise, la construction du tunnel de Gibraltar représente un plus grand défi que celui sous la Manche, opérationnel depuis 1994. Selon Andrea Pancieri, chef de projet et cité par le Wall Street Journal, l'instabilité géologique du fond de la mer pose la plus grande difficulté.

Plusieurs millions de Marocains en Europe

«Toutes les études géologiques et de perspectives de trafic sont terminées», a affirmé Angel Aparicio, responsable espagnol du projet, dimanche sur la télévision romande. Selon lui, les travaux pourraient être achevés en 2025.

La question du financement reste toutefois entière. Les promoteurs du tunnel ainsi que la société Lombardi estiment les coûts à 8 milliards de francs. Pour les Marocains, c'est à l'Espagne et à l'Europe de payer l'essentiel. De son côté, Madrid a déjà sollicité Bruxelles pour participer au financement.

Il y a unanimité autour de l'urgence d'un tel projet. Il donnerait une importante impulsion économique de part et d'autre de la Méditerranée. Entre 2 et 3 millions de Marocains habitent actuellement en Europe et une bonne partie d'entre eux se rendent au pays chaque année. Par ailleurs, le Maroc entend attirer jusqu'à 10 millions de touristes européens par année à partir de 2010. A présent, surtout en été, les voyageurs doivent attendre pendant des longues heures pour prendre la navette maritime entre Tanger et Algésiras et vice versa. La traversée dure au moins une heure. Avec le tunnel ferroviaire, ce sera trente minutes.
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Old September 19th, 2010, 02:35 AM   #25
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Sanlucar-Playa View Post
Quote:
Originally Posted by VegaM View Post
Tunnel Maroc/Espagne

Un projet à près de 5,3 milliards d'euros

· Les résultats de faisabilité présentés en octobre
· Le tunnel n’entrera en activité qu’en 2025




Après le tunnel sous la Manche, un autre devra bientôt voir le jour, cette fois-ci sous le détroit de Gibraltar. Lors d’une rencontre avec son homologue marocain à Tanger le 4 août dernier, le ministre espagnol des Affaires étrangères, Miguel Moratinos, a annoncé l’achèvement des tests de faisabilité. Pour lui, l’ouvrage est un «projet de grande ambition qui permettra de relier l’Afrique à l’Europe».
Le diplomate espagnol a ajouté que les résultats seront présentés à l’Union européenne à partir du 13 octobre prochain au Luxembourg, à l’occasion de la réunion préliminaire du conseil d’association UE-Maroc. Pour rappel, depuis 1995, un organe intergouvernemental, le Comité mixte maroco-espagnol pour la liaison fixe à travers le détroit de Gibraltar, se charge de la supervision du projet. Il a confié les analyses du tracé initial de la future liaison conjointement à la Société marocaine d’études du détroit de Gibraltar (Sned) et la Société espagnole d’études de la communication fixe dans le détroit (Seceg). Les travaux menés par les deux entreprises publiques ont conclu à la faisabilité d’un tunnel qui devra relier Malabata près de Tanger à la ville espagnole Tarifa. «Le tunnel représente la solution la plus simple et la plus économique du point de vue du génie civil», est-il expliqué auprès de la Sned. La future construction sera longue de 37,7 km, dont 27,2 km sous le sous-sol marin. Une galerie de reconnaissance constituera une étape initiale avant le début des travaux d’excavation pour la construction du tunnel principal. Deux sections y seront prévues : l’une destinée au transport de personnes et de marchandises par le biais d’un TGV, l’autre au transport automobile.

Un plan dégagé par les études a prévu que l’édifice ne deviendrait opérationnel qu’en 2025, estimant son coût à 5,3 milliards d’euros. Le projet devra être co-financé par le Maroc et l’Espagne. L’UE et des organismes privés participeront également au financement. Si le projet aboutit, il contribuera à mettre fin aux encombrements causés régulièrement par le ferry reliant le Maroc à l’Espagne. Rappelons que le projet de liaison fixe a été lancé sur la base d’un accord de coopération bilatérale, signé le 24 octobre 1980. Un accord additionnel actualisant le premier a été conclu par la suite le 29 juillet 1989.

L'économiste
This mixt solution was'nt approved

Quote:
Originally Posted by Desertlife View Post
The Afro-Bridge comes nearer


November 26, 2008

Could ’sustainable’ 24-lane superhighway now be favoured over a tunnel?



A BRIDGE across the Straits of Gibraltar could have just come a step nearer after a viability study for a tunnel came back negative.
The bridge scheme, which would go from Tarifa to Tangier, would involve nine miles of bridges 24 lanes wide, all connected to a floating island.
In good news for environmentalists a full geological study for a tunnel shows that two clay sections under the sea would make it difficult to build.
Angel Aparicio, boss of the group SECEG, the engineering group in charge of the project, admitted: “It is not clear whether it will be possible.
“Until we start building it is going to be very hard to know what to expect.”
The company is now proposing to build an exploratory tunnel from the Moroccan side up to the clay section in order to carry out tests.

“This would be better on environmental grounds and will give us a better idea of what the geology is like below the sea,”

“This would be better on environmental grounds and will give us a better idea of what the geology is like below the sea,” added Aparcio.
But this would also add an extra billion euros to the already huge projected cost of 3.4billion euros.
It has led the authorities to once again look at a bridge scheme, that was commissioned by the Junta two years ago.
Designed by US architect Eugene Tsui, the seven billion euro superhighway would be used by trains, cars and pedestrians to transport around 60 million people a year.
The 14.5km bridge would be submerged in two parts and linked up by a floating ‘ecological island’.
The design allows for the largest ocean-going ships to pass unimpeded within a four mile width where the bridge is submerged and leaves marine currents undisturbed.
Financed by Spain, Morocco and the European Union, it would take seven years to complete and would link the towns of Punta Cires in Morocco with Tarifa in Spain.
In a clever add on, the three-mile long island will be an energy production centre with 150 windmills and 80 underwater tidal turbines generating 12 billion kilowatts of electricity an hour. ‘This in itself allows the bridge to pay for itself many times over in the generation of electricity, not to mention tourist dollars,’ Tsui told the Olive Press.Launched in 2006, it would also create less damage on the fragile ecology around Tarifa.
Currently, the longest existing bridge is the Seto Ohashi Kojima bridge some 13.22 kilometres long and built in 1988 for $8.3 billion dollars
A source at the Junta told the Olive Press: ‘We are taking this seriously. The environmental aspects of the scheme are of particular interest, as is the fact that it would pay for its way.”

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Old September 19th, 2010, 02:36 AM   #26
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The model is the same than in Channel Tunnel (UK-France)

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Old September 19th, 2010, 02:38 AM   #27
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By Amine2040







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Old September 19th, 2010, 02:39 AM   #28
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[dailymotion]x2cws4[/dailymotion]
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Old September 19th, 2010, 02:41 AM   #29
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The propose, is to make only 1 tunnel in a first time added to service tunnel.

Whith traffic increase, a second tunnel will be added in 20-30 years.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Ωρτimuş View Post


tpi.setec.fr
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Old September 19th, 2010, 02:42 AM   #30
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As you can see, making a bridge is quite impossible.

Quote:
Mesures batymétriques permettant de mieux visualiser les défis de la profondeur du détroit.


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Old September 19th, 2010, 02:45 AM   #31
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Spain HST







Morocco HST (North Section works have begin, Tangier-Kenitra)





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Last edited by Gadiri; September 19th, 2010 at 03:00 AM.
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Old September 19th, 2010, 03:05 AM   #32
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I see some small problems:

The first is that a tunnel like this would certainly cost 8 to 10 billions euro, but maybe more.

The second and most important of all is that except the Maghreb region and South Africa all african railways are isolated from each other and links a port with some cities and resources in the interiors (not only, most lines are built with a often narrow gauge different to the one used by neibourough countries). And being poor countries they don't generate much non-bulk, and bulk goods as mineral or wood travel by sea (using the isolated railways to reach it).

A third problem is that a 2.5% grade for heavy trains is hard and limiting, but not as the fact of not having railways at all...
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Old September 19th, 2010, 03:19 AM   #33
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Coccodrillo View Post
I see some small problems:

The first is that a tunnel like this would certainly cost 8 to 10 billions euro, but maybe more.

The second and most important of all is that except the Maghreb region and South Africa all african railways are isolated from each other and links a port with some cities and resources in the interiors (not only, most lines are built with a often narrow gauge different to the one used by neibourough countries). And being poor countries they don't generate much non-bulk, and bulk goods as mineral or wood travel by sea (using the isolated railways to reach it).

A third problem is that a 2.5% grade for heavy trains is hard and limiting, but not as the fact of not having railways at all...
One major problem is that the new Tanger med Harbour is very huge, and facilitate the strait crossing.

Traffic will not be very important.

There is a HST project from Morocco to Lybia. Morocco and Algeria have began building there HSL.

Quote:
TGVM : Trains à Grande Vitesse Maghrebin








http://www.ctfm.org.dz/Fr-TGVM.htm
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Old September 19th, 2010, 04:03 AM   #34
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Alternatives?

Instead of a bridge or a tunnel, why has it never been tried to use a floating bridge (a bridge on pillars that are submerged and which float and are attached with cabled to the ocean floor) or a floating tunnel (same as the pillars of the floating bridge, the floating tunnel is attached to the ocean floor with cables).

For the bridge, the part where ships need to pass is high and wide enough so that ships can pass, and the floating basins on which the pillars are mounted are at 50 m depth and are protected against collisions of ships with a torus like floating structure, also attached to the ocean floor.

Seems to me that it would cost much less and is as robust as standard bridge and tunnel designs. Just that these structures, since they are floating and even when firmly attached to the ocean floor with strong cabled, will have a tendency to give way due to ocean currents, and so can not be very rigid and must accomodate for motion.
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Old September 19th, 2010, 05:05 AM   #35
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As I said in another post, there is no serious plan AT ALL for such a tunnel.
Too costly.
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Old September 20th, 2010, 01:35 PM   #36
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Coccodrillo View Post
The second and most important of all is that except the Maghreb region and South Africa all african railways are isolated from each other and links a port with some cities and resources in the interiors (not only, most lines are built with a often narrow gauge different to the one used by neibourough countries). And being poor countries they don't generate much non-bulk, and bulk goods as mineral or wood travel by sea (using the isolated railways to reach it).
Well, not even that... even if there is a rail link, the border between Maroc
and Algeria is currently closed and this rail link is not in use. So the tunnel
costs would have to be sustained by the traffic generated by Maroc alone.
This is clearly not enough and the first step to make this tunnel a realistic
view would be to re-open that closed border. Then, with the rail construction
currently happening in Lybia, we have a potential traffic coming from the
whole of North Africa. A totally different picture, I would say...
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Old September 20th, 2010, 01:37 PM   #37
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Gadiri View Post
.

There is a HST project from Morocco to Lybia. Morocco and Algeria have began building there HSL.

Ah yes ? And as I said above, when does the border between Morocco and
Algeria re-open ? Seems to me that it should be the first step, before
constructing anything, no ?
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Old September 20th, 2010, 01:57 PM   #38
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Quote:
Originally Posted by MarcVD View Post
Then, with the rail construction currently happening in Lybia, we have a potential traffic coming from the whole of North Africa. A totally different picture, I would say...
Ok there are some railways along the north coast of Africa...but nearly nothing south of it. And I don't think there would be a lot of goods wanting going from Lybia to Germany via Morocco and Spain.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...auge_world.png

different colours = different gauges

grey = no railways at all

Two neighboring states with or without the same gauge doesn't mean that their railways are linked up. And I don't think you can find something better than a two lanes paved road there...
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Old September 20th, 2010, 03:48 PM   #39
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Quote:
Originally Posted by MarcVD View Post
Ah yes ? And as I said above, when does the border between Morocco and
Algeria re-open ? Seems to me that it should be the first step, before
constructing anything
, no
?

The situation is very sensible. But look at the highway between Algeria and Morocco.

The highway have just been built and the political situation is always the same, the border is still closed. So they build, and after it will be opened.





Quote:
Originally Posted by Coccodrillo View Post
Ok there are some railways along the north coast of Africa...but nearly nothing south of it. And I don't think there would be a lot of goods wanting going from Lybia to Germany via Morocco and Spain.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...auge_world.png

different colours = different gauges

grey = no railways at all

Two neighboring states with or without the same gauge doesn't mean that their railways are linked up. And I don't think you can find something better than a two lanes paved road there...
Railway link between Morocco and Algeria is old.

Look at this map in OUJDA - BOUARFA | Oriental Express | #Realized

During french occupation, the train from Oran to Bechar in Algeria passed by Morocco (no in South Bouarfa is abandonned). There are historical railway links between 2 countries.



But what is sure is that Morocco looks like an island :
- North : Sea
- West : Ocean
- East : closed border
- South : Sahara desert

Cost of a such tunnel is incredible, and rentability is small (maybe no rentability).
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Old September 23rd, 2010, 04:08 PM   #40
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The idea is very old indeed. Adolf hitler had another plan, he would just build a damn dam over the Gibraltar! That woulb be provide with both road and railroad, and the damn would produce MASSIVE amounts of electricity, think about it, how much power there is in the Mediterranean sea! Although it would ruin a lot of cost city's, that's why i'm glad he didn't.

About the tunnel, no rent ability? There is alot, not enough to cover the project in normal time terms maybe, but if you along with this line, construct major rail lines deep into africa, just along the cost. You would have a massive cargo ability, which may have a greater effect in a really long term.
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