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Old February 10th, 2011, 04:01 PM   #41
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Buitenzorg/Bogor

West-Java, Indonesia


In the Middle Ages, the city was the capital of Sunda Kingdom (Indonesian: Kerajaan Sunda) and was called Pakuan Pajajaran. During the Dutch colonization of Indonesia, it was named Buitenzorg and served as the summer residence of the Governor-General of Dutch East Indies. The area attracted the Dutch by a favorable geographical position and mild climate, preferred over the hot Batavia which was then the administrative center of the Dutch East Indies. In 1744–1745, the residence of the Governor-General was built in Pakuan which was hosting the government during the summer. In 1746, by the order of the Governor-General Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff, the Palace, a nearby Dutch settlement and nine native settlements were merged into an administrative division named Buitenzorg (meaning either "beyond care" or "outside care").


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The Palace

The original colonial building on the site of Istana Bogor was a mansion named Buitenzorg (also Sans Souci), which was built from August 1744 as a country retreat for the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. Notable occupants of the mansion include Herman Willem Daendels and Sir Stamford Raffles during the Bitish interregnum). This building was substantially damaged by an earthquake in 1834, triggered by the volcanic eruption of Mount Salak. The palace was rebuilt into its present form in 1856— this time with only one storey instead of the original three, as a precaution against further earthquakes. From 1870 to 1942 the Istana Bogor served as the official residence of the Dutch Governors General. After Indonesian independence, the palace was much used by President Sukarno, but then largely neglected by Suharto when he came to office.

The grounds of the estate contain several buildings - the largest of which is the main palace and its two wings. The main palace contains private offices for the head of state, a library, a dining room, a ministers' meeting room, a theater room, and the Garuda room (for welcoming State guests). The two wings are used as the guest residences for State guests. Kebun Raya Bogor ("Great Gardens of Bogor", the Bogor Botanical Gardens) are also part of the palace grounds. The palace houses an extensive art collection which had been accumulated by Soekarno. A herd of spotted deer still range within the palace grounds; a group of these had originally been brought there by the Dutch for hunting and sport.




bogorisme - The palace before the earthquake




Inflight with Glenn Martin bombers of the Royal Netherlands Indian Army (KNIL) over the Palace in Buitenzorg.





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The Botanical gardens

The world renowned Bogor Botanical Gardens (Indonesian: Kebun Raya) are situated in the city center of Bogor and adjoin the Istana Bogor (Presidential Palace). The gardens cover more than 80 hectares and was built by Java's Dutch Governor-General Gustaaf Willem, Baron van Imhoff who was governor of Java at the time.

The extensive grounds of the presidential palace were converted into the gardens by the German-born Dutch botanist, Professor Casper George Carl Reinwardt. The gardens officially opened in 1817 as 's Lands Plantentuin ('National Botanical Garden') and were used to research and develop plants and seeds from other parts of the Indonesian archipelago for cultivation during the 19th century. This is a tradition that continues today and contributes to the garden's reputation as a major center for botanical research. Today the garden contains more than 15,000 species of trees and plants located among streams and lotus ponds. There are 400 types of exceptional palms to be found along the extensive lawns and avenues, helping the gardens create a refuge for more than 50 different varieties of birds and for groups of bats roosting high in the trees. In 1862, the Cibodas Botanical Gardens were founded as an extension of the Bogor garden at Cibodas, approximately 45 kilometers to the southeast of Bogor.




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Prof. Treub

Melchior Treub (December 26, 1851 - October 3, 1910) was a Dutch botanist who was born in Voorschoten. In 1873 he graduated from the University of Leiden. From 1880 until 1909 he was a botanist in the Dutch East Indies. Treub is remembered for his botanical work with tropical flora on the island of Java. He is especially recognized for his organization of the Bogor Botanical Gardens at Buitenzorg as a world-renowned scientific institution of botany. He worked for nearly 30 years at the botanical gardens, returning to the Netherlands a year prior to his death in 1910 (wikipedia)


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Exultate choir blogspot page - Buitenzorg cathedral, built in 1896

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masoye.multiply.com - Bogor train station


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masoye.multiply.com - Laboratory (Agrogeologie en Grond Onderzoek), built in 1912


masoye.multiply.com - Telephone office


masoye.multiply.com - Catholic seminary


Wiki Commons - Department of Agriculture, Industry and Trade


Wiki Commons - 'Analyse-laboratorium'


Wiki Commons - The Trade section of the Department of Agriculture, Industry and Trade

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** Link: Aerial photograph of the palace grounds

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Old March 2nd, 2011, 06:37 PM   #42
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Wiki Commons - Army barracks next to Fort Zeelandia.



Hospitals

Suriname

Attribution: Tropenmuseum of the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT)



Military Hospital Paramaribo


Military Hospital Paramaribo


Military Hospital Paramaribo


Military Hospital Paramaribo


The garden and kitchen building.




Barracks next to the Military Hospital for persons with infections


The building of the Health Authority in the 'Oranjestraat'


Boarding school at leprosarium Bethesda


St.Vincentius hospital, Paramaribo

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Old March 2nd, 2011, 06:56 PM   #43
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Fantastic. I find cities, towns, trading posts and forts built by Europeans incredibly fascinating. I wonder what the life was like for the first settlers/traders.....anyone know any good literature on the subject?
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Old March 10th, 2011, 11:46 AM   #44
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@ElGreco

There are so many books on this subject - you just have to specify. There are many books about the Spanish and Portuguese voyages of discovery and equally plenty about the Dutch.

Last edited by Nemo; July 29th, 2011 at 04:55 PM.
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Old March 23rd, 2011, 01:43 PM   #45
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link to the website


Memorial Tomb of Susanna Anna-Maria

Chinsura, West Bengal, India

The tomb of Susanna Anna Maria Yeats 'Verkerk' as is readible in the top of the 8 meter high dome. She was first married to the VOC opperkoopman Pieter Brueys (his tomb is at the Duth cemetery in Chinsurah) and later with the British Thomas Yeats. She died in 1809. This building is one of the many old remenants of Dutch settlement in Chinsura, West Bengal, India between 1605 and 1825.



Read more on this webpage of mr. Dick de Jong


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Old April 22nd, 2011, 10:33 PM   #46
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paardenzoon.blogspot


Deshima

Nagasaki, Japan

1641-1857: 216 years trade monopoly.



Dejima ("exit island"; Dutch: Desjima or Deshima) was a small fan-shaped artificial island built in the bay of Nagasaki in 1634. This island, which was formed by digging a canal through a small peninsula, remained as the single place of direct trade and exchange between Japan and the outside world during the Edo period. Dejima was built to constrain foreign traders as part of "sakoku" self-imposed isolationist policy. Originally built to house Portuguese traders, it changed to a Chinese and Dutch trading post from 1641 until 1853. Covering an area of 120 m x 75 m (9000 square meters, or 0.9 hectares) it became integrated into the city.

In 1543 Portuguese traders were the first to land in Japan, on Tanegashima. The artificial island was constructed in 1634 on orders of shogun Iemitsu, originally to constrain Portuguese merchants living in Nagasaki. But after an uprising of the predominantly Christian population in the Shimabara-Amakusa region the Tokugawa government decided to expel all Western nationals except the Dutch employees of the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, VOC).

Since 1609 the Dutch had run a trading post on the island of Hirado. At its maximum the Hirado trading post covered a large area. In 1637 and 1639 stone warehouses were constructed within the ambit of this Hirado trading post. Christian era year dates were used on the stonework of the new warehouses. Without the annual Portuguese ships from Macau, the economy of Nagasaki suffered heavily. Government officials, who were looking for means to relocate the Dutch trading post, forced the Dutch to move from Hirado to Dejima.

From 1641 on, only Chinese and Dutch ships were allowed to come to Japan.

Organization
On the administrative level the island of Dejima was part of the city of Nagasaki. The 25 local Japanese families that owned the real estate received an annual rent from the Dutch. Dejima was a small island, 120 by 75 meters,[3] linked to the mainland by a small bridge, guarded on both sides, and with a gate on the Dutch side. It contained houses for about twenty Dutchmen, warehouses, and accommodation for Japanese officials. The Dutch were watched by a number of Japanese officials, gatekeepers, night watchmen, and a supervisor (otona) with about fifty subordinates. There were a number of merchants for supplies and catering and about 150 tsūji ("interpreters"). They all had to be paid by the VOC. Like the city of Nagasaki Dejima was under direct supervision of Edo by a governor (Nagasaki bugyō).

Every ship that arrived in Dejima was inspected, and sails were seized until that ship was set to leave. Religious books and weapons were sealed and confiscated. No religious services were allowed on the island. Despite the financial burden of the isolated outpost on Dejima, the trade with Japan was very profitable for the VOC, initially yielding profits of 50% or more. Trade declined in the 18th century, as only two ships per year were allowed to dock at Dejima. After the bankruptcy of the VOC in 1795, the Dutch government took over exchange with Japan. Times were especially hard when the Netherlands (then called the Batavian Republic) was under French Napoleonic rule and all ties with the homeland were severed. For a while Dejima remained the only place in the world where the Dutch flag was flown.

The chief VOC official in Japan was called the Opperhoofd by the Dutch, or Kapitan (from Portuguese capitão) by the Japanese. This descriptive title did not change when the island's trading fell under Dutch state authority. Throughout these years, the plan was to have one incumbent per year—but sometimes plans needed to be flexible.


Wiki Commons - View on Dejima. Chromolithograph by C.W. Mieling after a painting by J.M. van Lijnden


Trade
Originally, the Dutch mainly traded in silk, cotton, materia medica from China and India, but sugar became more important later. Also, deer pelts and shark skin were transported to Japan from Taiwan, as well as books, scientific instruments and many other rarities from Europe. In return, the Dutch traders bought Japanese copper, silver, camphor, porcelain, lacquer ware and even rice. To this was added the personal trade of VOC employees on Dejima which was an important source of income. More than 10,000 foreign books on various scientific subjects were thus sold to the Japanese from the end of the 18th to the early 19th century, thus becoming the central factor of the Rangaku movement, or Dutch studies.


Ship arrivals
Chinese men apreciating a Japanese fan.In all, 606 Dutch ships arrived at Dejima during two centuries of settlement, from 1641 to 1847. The first period, from 1641 to 1671, was rather free, and saw an average of 7 Dutch ships every year (12 perished in this period). From 1671 to 1715, about 5 Dutch ships were allowed to visit Dejima every year. From 1715, only 2 ships were permitted every year, which was reduced to 1 ship in 1790, and again increased to 2 ships in 1799. During the Napoleonic wars, in which the Netherlands was occupied by (and a satellite of) France, Dutch ships could not safely reach Japan in the face of British opposition, so they instead relied on "neutral" American and Danish ships. (Interestingly, when the Netherlands was made a province by France (1811–1814), and Britain conquered Dutch colonial possessions in Asia, Dejima remained for four years the only place in the world where the free Dutch flag was still flying, under the leadership of Hendrik Doeff.) After the liberation of the Netherlands in 1815, regular traffic was reestablished.

For two hundred years, Dutch merchants were generally not allowed to cross from Dejima to Nagasaki, and Japanese were likewise banned from entering Dejima, except for prostitutes from Nagasaki teahouses. These yūjo were handpicked from 1642 by the Japanese, often against their will. From the 18th century there were some exceptions to this rule, especially following Tokugawa Yoshimune's doctrine of promoting European practical sciences. A few Oranda-yuki ("those who stay with the Dutch") were allowed to stay for longer periods, but they had to report regularly to the Japanese guard post. European scholars such as Engelbert Kaempfer, Carl Peter Thunberg, Isaac Titsingh and Philipp Franz von Siebold were allowed to enter the mainland with the shogunate's permission.[4] Starting in the 18th century, Dejima became known throughout Japan as a center of medicine, military science, and astronomy, and many samurai travelled there for "Dutch studies" (Rangaku).

The Vinegar Tasters: Laozi, Buddha, and Confucius. Dejima was a center for the trade of products and ideas, at the same time Japanese intellectuals studied scientific developments in Europe they sought to remain in touch with the political and social philosophy of Neo-Confucianism which flourished in Japan during the Edo period.In addition, the Opperhoofd was treated like the head of a tributary state, which meant that he had to pay a visit of homage to the Shogun in Edo. The Dutch delegation traveled to Edo yearly between 1660 and 1790 and once every four years thereafter. This prerogative was denied to the Chinese traders. This lengthy travel to the imperial court broke the boredom of their stay, but it was a costly affair to the Dutch. The shōgun let them know in advance and in detail which (expensive) gifts he expected, such as astrolabes, a pair of glasses, telescopes, globes, medical instruments, medical books, or exotic animals and tropical birds. In return, the Dutch delegation received some gifts from the shogun. On arrival in Edo the Opperhoofd and his retinue (usually his scribe and the factory doctor) had to wait in the Nagasakiya, their mandatory residence until they were summoned at the court. After their official audience, they were expected, according to Engelbert Kaempfer, to perform Dutch dances and songs etc. for the amusement of the shogunate. But they also used the opportunity of their stay of about two to three weeks in the capital to exchange knowledge with learned Japanese and, under escort, visit the town.



Wiki Commons


New introductions to Japan
* Badminton, a sport that originated in India, was introduced by the Dutch during the 18th century.
* Billiards were introduced in Japan on Dejima in 1794.
* Beer seems to have been introduced as imports during the period of isolation.
* Clover was introduced in Japan by the Dutch as packing material for fragile cargo.
* Coffee was introduced in Japan by the Dutch under the name Moka.
* Piano. Japan's oldest piano was introduced by Siebold in 1823.
* Paint, used for ships, was introduced by the Dutch. The original Dutch name (Pek) was also adopted in Japanese (Penki/ペンキ).
* Cabbage and tomatoes were introduced in the 17th century by the Dutch.
* Chocolate was introduced between 1789 and 1801 and is mentioned as a drink in the pleasure houses of Maruyama.

Following the forcible opening of Japan by US Navy Commodore Perry in 1854, the Bakufu suddenly increased its interactions with Dejima in an effort to build up knowledge of Western shipping methods. The Nagasaki Naval Training Center, a naval training institute, was established in 1855 by the government of the Shogun right at the entrance of Dejima, allowing maximum interaction with Dutch naval know-how. The center was also equipped with Japan's first steamship, the Kankō Maru, given by the government of the Netherlands the same year.



The end - and reconstruction
The Dutch East India Company's trading post at Dejima was closed in 1857, once Dutch merchants were allowed to trade in Nagasaki City. Since then, the island has been surrounded by reclaimed land and merged into Nagasaki. Extensive redesigning of Nagasaki Harbor in 1904 has obscured the location. Edo-era boundaries of Dejima island (outlined in red) within the modern city of Nagasaki. In 1996, restoration of Dejima began with plans for rebuilding 25 buildings to their early 19th century state. To better display Dejima's fan-shaped form, the project anticipated rebuilding only parts of the surrounding embankment wall that had once enclosed the island. Buildings that remained from the Meiji Period were to be used. In 2000, five buildings including the Deputy Factor's Quarters were completed and opened to the public. In the spring of 2006, the finishing touches were put on the Chief Factor's Residence, the Japanese Officials' Office, the Head Clerk's Quarters, the No. 3 Warehouse, and the Sea Gate.

The long-term planning now anticipates that Dejima should again be surrounded by water on all four sides, which means that Dejima's characteristic fan-shaped form and all of its embankment walls will be fully restored. This long-term plan will involve a large-scale urban redevelopment in the area. If Dejima is to be an island again, the project will require rerouting the Nakashima River and moving a part of Route 499.



www.swaen.com


Wiki Commons - Naval training center


www.let.leidenuniv.nl - Dutch ships off port in Nagasaki bay.


Wiki Commons



----

** See: Museum Sieboldhuis, Leiden, Netherlands

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Old April 23rd, 2011, 01:53 PM   #47
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Wonderfull Thread!
I like so much the mix of architecture european with tradional architecture of Asia
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Old May 3rd, 2011, 12:13 PM   #48
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Petrus en Paulus kathedraal, 1883

Paramaribo, Suriname


The Saint Peter and Paul Cathedral (Dutch: Sint-Petrus-en-Pauluskathedraal) is a wooden Roman Catholic cathedral located in the center of the capital city of Paramaribo, Suriname. It is (claimed to be) the largest wooden building in South America, and the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Paramaribo.

Construction of the cathedral began in 1883, on the site of a former theatre. The church interior is constructed from unpainted Surinamese cedar. Although it was consecrated in 1885, the towers were not completed until 1901. After a botched restoration in 1977, the building began to fall into disrepair, encountering problems with tilting and termites. The building was extensively restored and brought back to usable condition in 2002. With help of EU-funding, actual restoration of the cathedral began in 2007 and after 3 years the church was re-opened on the 13th of November 2010. Dutch-Surinamese priest Petrus Donders is buried in Saint Peter and Paul Cathedral.


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Old June 1st, 2011, 12:38 PM   #49
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Malang

Java, Indonesia


Malang is the second largest city in East Java province, Indonesia. It has an ancient history dating back to the Mataram Kingdom. The city population at the present time is around 780,000. During the period of Dutch colonization, it was a popular destination for European residents. The city is famous for its cool air and the surrounding country regions of Tumpang, Batu, Singosari, and Turen. People in East Java sometimes call it "Paris of East Java." Malang was spared many of the effects of the Asian financial crisis, and since that time it has been marked by steady economic and population growth.
The city was incorporated into Mataram in 1614, then transferred to Dutch colonial rule. Malang was transformed under the Dutch; its cool climate which results from its elevation, along with its proximity to the major port of Surabaya, made it a popular destination for Dutch and other Europeans. In 1879, Malang was connected to Java's railroad network, further increasing development and leading to increased industrialization.



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Picture by Alwita at Flickr - - Stadhuis/Town Hall/Balai Kota

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Picture by esi-1 at Flickr


Picture by @Ace4, skyscrapercity- Dutch Reformed Church


Pic by @Aldy at Skyscrapercity - Jalan Teuku Umar


Pic by @Aldy at Skyscrapercity - Rumah tinggal di jl. RA Kartini


Pic by @Aldy at Skyscrapercity


Pic by @Aldy at Skyscrapercity - Gereja Bromo


Pic by @Aldy at Skyscrapercity - Jalan Dempo


Picture by @Ace4, skyscrapercity


Stadhuis/Town Hall


The Mosque


Wiki Commons - School in Malang


Malang East


Krebet Sugar factory
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Old June 20th, 2011, 11:39 AM   #50
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diary of a wanderer



Unravelling the past

Sadras - Tamil Nadu, India

The Archaeological Survey of India restores a Dutch fort in the medieval settlement of Sadras on the Tamil Nadu coast.


Until a few months ago, it was just another ruin of a fort on the Coromandel coast, its history buried in mounds of sand and wild grass that was pasture for goats. Its two bombed-out warehouses had deep cracks running the length of their semi-vaulted roofs. Today, its Dutch past and the settlement called Sadras are being brought back to life by the conservation and excavation efforts of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).

Besides restoring the bombed-out portions of the warehouses or granaries, the ASI, Chennai, has rebuilt the four walls of the fort and unearthed artefacts that provide insights into the 400-year-old fort and its Dutch inhabitants. They apparently had a fondness for the muslin woven at Sadras, 75 km from Chennai, and a weakness for liquor and tobacco and played the local game "aadu-puli aattam" (goat-and-tiger game).

The 30 trenches that the ASI dug between February 7 and March 28 this year exposed, among other things, a beautiful well; a kitchen with chulas and ash intact; rooms with arched windows; an advanced underground drainage system; floors made of square, rectangular and hexagonal bricks; exquisite pieces of Delft blue crockery from Holland; Gouda (a town in Holland) smoking pipes with tobacco stains; glazed ware; crockery made in China, England and Germany; two arrack glass jars with residues of white arrack; and a circular structure (tank) for dyeing the muslin cloth.

"This excavation has led to a number of outstanding discoveries," said K.T. Narasimhan, Superintending Archaeologist, ASI (Chennai Circle), who headed the team of archaeologists. Of them were two rooms that had been buried under the sand adjacent to the warehouse on the northeastern side. One room was bigger than the other and they had arched windows. "The rooms have a well-paved brick floor and proper drainage," he said.

The excavation also threw up evidence of how the natives influenced the Dutch inhabitants of the fort. For one, the local Tamils taught the Dutch how to play "aadu-puli aattam"; the grid used to play the game, comprising rectangles and triangles, was found engraved on a well-burnt brick.

Another exciting find was a circular structure that was used for dyeing muslin cloth. Two broken quarters of the structures were exposed during the excavation. These had perfectly engineered channels meant to drain out the coloured water. With fine lime used to plaster them, these channels are in mint condition even today. "This is an important discovery and it has to be studied," said G. Thirumoorthy, Assistant Archaeologist.

Sadras is situated about 17 km from Mamallapuram and 2 km from Kalpakkam, the site of the Madras Atomic Power Station and the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research. According to Thirumoorthy, during the period of the Sambuvarayars (local feudatories under the Cholas), Sadras was called Rajanarayanan Pattinam after a Sambuvarayar chieftain who ruled the region between A.D. 1337 and 1367. An inscription dated 1353 refers to the place by the name. Vijayanagara period (15th century) inscriptions refer to it as Sadiravasagan Pattinam - a reference to the deity at the local Vishnu temple. This name got twisted to Sadurangapattinam and eventually was shortened to Sadirai. The English called it Sadras.

Sadras was a flourishing weavers settlement during the medieval period from 10th century to 16th century. According to Thirumoorthy, an inscription found in the Siva temple at Sadras made a reference to "kaikolar", as weavers are called in Tamil. They made the muslin cloth that attracted traders from all over the world, including Holland, and Sadras emerged as a flourishing trading centre. P. Jayakumar, Research Assistant in Tamil University, Thanjavur, notes in his book Thamizhaga Thuraimugangal (Ports in Tamil Nadu; Anbu Publishers, Thanjavur, 2001) that Sadras was an international port well before the Dutch arrived in the early 1600s and that muslin was its main export, besides pearl and edible oil.


blogspot

The Dutch East India Company chose to build a fort at Sadurangapattinam not only because it was a centre for trade in muslin, spices, and so on but also because it was free of political disturbances. The beach is less than 100 metres from the eastern wall of the rectangular fort. The massive defence wall runs on all sides with flanking bastions on the eastern side. (A bastion is a circular structure built to guard the fort, with cannons mounted on it.) The Dutch built two magazines, flanking the eastern side, to store ammunition. The entrance to the fort was on the western side, and the two cannons that were placed on either side of the gateway still stand. A watch tower was built just above this entrance.

Within the fort is a cemetery with exquisitely engraved granite tombstones, the inscriptions on them giving the details of the Dutch buried there. One tombstone has a beautiful bas relief of a vessel with sails, another is chiselled with a coat of arms, a third has a rose, and so on. The inscriptions on the tombstones tell tragic tales of the dead. They refer to "Hier rusten Mejuff Anna Cornelia Bonk... " or "Hier rust Corneila van Outvelt... " There are references to Nagapatnam and Palliacatt (Pulicat). The Dutch had built a church at Nagapattinam, and both a fort and a cemetery at Pulicat, about 40 km from Chennai. The tombstone inscriptions at Sadras date from A.D. 1620 to 1769. Near the cemetery is a "secret chamber", so called because it is built at ground-level and cannot be seen from outside. The warehouses are on the southeastern and northeastern corners of the fort. There are a number of structures, including rooms, dancing halls and dining rooms in the fort. The arrival of the English East India Company set the stage for a commercial conflict that soon escalated into a military confrontation. The English marked out the fort at Sadras, and eventually captured it in 1796. The fort was virtually razed to the ground in the massive bombardment from the sea, with the warehouses suffering extensive damages. The Dutch got back the demolished fort in 1818 under a treaty, but the English reoccupied it in 1854 and held it from then on. This brought to an end the Dutch era on the Coromandel coast, the English having pulled down the Dutch fort at Pulicat as well. The Dutch cemetery at Pulicat, however, survives to this today and is a protected monument.

The Asi took up the reconstruction of the outer wall of the fort sometime after 1991. In the last two years it turned its attention to the conservation of the warehouses. After 1991, the ASI reconstructed the fort wall on all four sides. In the last two years, it turned its attention towards conservation of the warehouses.

Narasimhan called restoring the crumbled warehouses "a major conservation effort." About 50 per cent of the warehouseardment/granary on the south-eastern side had been bombed and fallen to the ground. Even the remaining portions hung in a precarious condition because the bomb shells had fallen over its semi-vaulted roof.ardment was

According to S.K. Jilani Basha, Conservation Assistant, ASI, Mamallapuram, the roof had got separated in three pieces. Besides, it had broken in several places. There were vertical and horizontal cracks in the roof. The vertical wall of the warehouse was out of plumb due to the bombardment. The disjointed pieces of roof were joined by using `I` or `T' shaped steel plates in five places. Pue lime was brought from Pollachi (Tamil Nadu) and it was ground into a fine paste. Ninety-five per cent lime was mixed with 5 per cent cement (allowed in conservation efforts) in plastering. The warehouse was thus conserved. Basha said, "We were scared to touch this warehouse. We took six months to restore it. It was a challenging job. This was a major conservation work."

Narasimhan was proud that the ASI was able to "conserve the warehouse without removing a single brick, by introducing the stainless steel teeth in the dome and by unifying its different broken portions as one unit,. People seeing it now will not believe that it had disintegrated in several pieces more than two centuries ago."

To their delight, they found a well, a kitchen with three chulas and ash intact, and rooms whose floors were made of rectangular bricks, square bricks, hexagonal bricks and even dressed granite slabs. The floors of a couple of rooms were paved with a mosaic of rectangular, hexagonal and square bricks, which created patterns. Basha praised the quality of the bricks used in the construction of the fort or the floors. "This fort was built essentially of bricks. These are very good bricks, of first class quality."

Hundreds of porcelain pieces too were found. They include the stunningly beautiful Delft Blue porcelainware, used by the Dutch aristocrats who lived in the fort. A piece of Delft blue porcelain shows Dutchmen wearing hats sitting on a bench, another shows tents pitched in Holland, and yet another a coat of arms. Delft is a town in Holland and it has been in existence prior to A.D. 1246. It is renowned all over the world as the city of Delft Blue pottery. In the 17th century, many small pottery factories came up there in buildings that originally housed breweries. Delft was one of the home ports of the Dutch East India Company. The Company also started returning from China with loads of porcelain. That explains the discovery of exquisite Chinese porcelain at this Dutch fort. A piece of such porcelain is truly interesting. It shows a Chinese Christian, holding a Cross and addressing the audience from the pulpitpiece . Yet another broken piece has Chinese characters on it. A porcelain has the manufacturer's stamp on it: "... ohrson Brothers, England." Another is made in Germany.

A valuable find was two glass arrack jars or bottles, with deposits of imported white attack. Porcelain with matted design - beautiful to look at - was found as well. This looks like a local terracotta but it is not.

Another discovery was several broken pieces of Gouda smoking pipes. They are in various sizes. These pipes were made in Holland, using pure white clay. Some of them have manufacturers' stamp, and burnt tobacco stains on them, to boot. The picturesque town of Gouda is in the southern province of Holland. There were many factories in Gouda, which started manufacturing clay pipes. Later, they diversified into making "Gouda style" of pottery. The Dutch at Sadras led a good life, dancing, drinking white arrack and smoking quality tobacco !

Thirumoorthy said, "The Dutch who lived in the fort used very little local ware. They brought almost everything with them (from Holland and other parts of the world." What is astounding is the use of advanced underground drainage system in the fort. There are drains leading from different directions and they meet in the northeastern corner in a massive collection chamber, located beneath the floor of the bigger warehouse. From the collection chamber, water is drained out of the fort into the sea.

While conserving the warehouse on the northeastern side, the ASI stumbled on the rainwater harvesting method used by the Dutch. The rainwater collected in the roof of the warehouse came down two pipes, on either side of an arched window. But the pipes were camouflaged like pillars and so it looks a piece of ornamentation! Narasimhan said, "The excavation will continue in future. Hopefully, the world will know more about the Dutch."

link to the article


Picture by 'The Hindu'- newspaper


Another article in 'The Hindu".

Link to: aerial view

Last edited by Nemo; August 2nd, 2011 at 11:12 AM.
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Old June 20th, 2011, 12:07 PM   #51
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Wow amazing pictures and like has been said before, very informative. I'm amazed at how well preserved some of the buildings are on the first page in the Dutch Antilles. Great thread!
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Old June 22nd, 2011, 04:32 PM   #52
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edit error de hilo

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Old June 22nd, 2011, 06:30 PM   #53
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This can be very helpful to a lot of people. There's so much to learn about this. I'm going to recommend my friends to read it too. Thanks for the knowledge you've shared with us
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Old June 22nd, 2011, 07:25 PM   #54
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What are pictures of buildings left behind by German immigrants in Chile doing in a thread about colonial Dutch architecture?
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Old July 7th, 2011, 12:14 PM   #55
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Picture by Le Scribbler at Flickr - Perfect example of Cape Dutch architecture.


Groot Constantia (built: 1685)

Cape Colony/South-Africa


Groot Constantia was established in 1685 by the VOC Governor of the Cape of Good Hope Simon van der Stel, and was used to produce wine as well as other fruit and vegetables and cattle farming. Following Van der Stel's death in 1712 the estate was broken up and sold in three parts: Groot Constantia; Klein Constantia; and Bergvliet). In 1778 the portion of the estate surrounding Van der Stel's Cape Dutch-style manor house was sold to the Cloete family, who planted extensive vineyards and extended and improved the mansion by commissioning the architect Louis Michel Thibault. The house remained in the possession of the Cloete family until 1885, during which period the estate became famous for its production of Constantia dessert wine.

In 1885 Groot Constantia was purchased by the government of the Cape of Good Hope and was used as an experimental wine and agricultural estate. Following a disastrous fire in 1925 the house was extensively restored.In 1969 the manor house became part of the South African Cultural History Museum, and in 1993 the estate passed into the ownership of the Groot Constantia Trust. The exhibition in the house is managed by Iziko Museums of Cape Town, and is particularly focused on rural slavery and the life of slaves during the early Cape colonial period.

Groot Constantia is noted particularly for its production of high-quality red wines, including Shiraz, Merlot and blended red Gouverneurs Reserve. In 2003 the estate began production of a Constantia dessert wine, called Grand Constance, for the first time since the 1880s.



Wiki Commons - Cloete wine-cellar at Groot Constantia



Anton Anreith (June 11, 1754 – March 4, 1822) was a sculptor and woodcarver from Riegel near Freiburg in Breisgau, Baden, Germany, who arrived at the Cape of Good Hope as a soldier in the service of the Dutch East-India Company in 1777. Although he was a trained sculptor, his was initially employed as a carpenter but in 1780, the Lutheran community commissioned him to carve a pulpit for their new church in Strand Street, Cape Town. He also carved the door of the neighbouring parsonage. In 1786, he was appointed master-sculptor to the Dutch East India Company.

From 1781, he worked closely with the architect Louis Michel Thibault. His first project with this architect was the Cloete wine-cellar at Groot Constantia for which he designed an elaborate baroque pediment, The Rape of Ganymede, a depiction of the myth of the youth, abducted by Zeus in the form of an eagle, who became cup-bearer to the Greek Gods. In 1789 they were joined by Hermann Schutte, an architect and builder from Bremen and the three of them had a profound influence on the development of Cape Town architecture in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. His works include the De Kat Balcony at the Castle of Good Hope, the Koopmans-De Wet House, and the Huguenot Memorial Museum in Franschhoek. In addition to his sculpture and plaster-work, Anreith made a living teaching life drawing and geometry. He was also head of the first art school in South Africa which was founded by the Freemasons. He became a Freemason in 1797 as a member of the Loge de Goede Hoop. He died in Bloem Street, Cape Town, unmarried and in poverty.


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Old July 27th, 2011, 11:47 AM   #56
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www.art-and-archaeology.com


Matara Starfort

Matara, Sri Lanka


The 18th century fort was named "Redoute (Fort) van Eck" after Lubbert Jan Baron van Eck, the Dutch governor at the time. The decorated gate bears a date of 1763, the fort's name, the Dutch coat of arms, and - within its lunette-shaped pediment - the insignia of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). The fort's moat is crossed by a chain-operated drawbridge. Projecting beams, from which the chains run out, appear halfway up the gate in this photo. The Dutch kept crocodiles in the moat, as a deterrent to potential attackers or escapees.




Matara is located close to the most southern point of Sri Lanka and its about 170 kilometres away from Colombo. The city has a history going back over 2000 years but the modern Matara becomes an important city only during the Dutch occupation as it was used as a main port for the exportation of cinnamon and elephants. The dutch completed the main Matara fort around 1640 but found it to be vulnerable from attacks coming from land during the matara rebellion when the Singhalese forces backed by Kandyan Kingdom took hold of the fort in 1762. The dutch managed to take back the fort and built a another on the west bank of the Nilwala River to protect the main fort form attacks originating from the river.

This fort was built to an unique shape of an six pointed star with space for 12 large cannons to cover approaches from all directions. The fort was surrounded by an deep moat and was built to hold a small garrison, food supplies and enough ammunition. It also had a two prison cells and a well in the centre to supply water. On the arch of the main entrance the year 1765 is embossed (year of construction) along with the VOC emblem and the coat of arms of Governor Van Eck. Currently it houses a museum and the fort has been restored to a great extent to show its ancient glory.



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Old August 13th, 2011, 10:47 PM   #57
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Goree Island (Goeree eiland)

Senegal

1617-1677: 60 years


The Dutch are said to have bought the island from a local chief for a trifling amount and took control over the island in 1588. Gorée became a way station for Dutch ships plying the route between their forts on the Gold Coast (now Ghana) and the caribbean West Indies. The Dutch named the island after the Dutch island of Goerée. or according to some—for its sheltered harbor, “Goode Reede” (good harbor).

The Slave House: Built in 1776 by the Dutch, the slave House is one of several sites on the island where Africans were brought to be loaded onto ships bound for the New World. The owner's residential quarters were on the upper floor. The lower floor was reserved for the slaves who were weighed, fed and held before departing on the transatlantic journey. The Slave House with its famous "Door of No Return" has been preserved in its original state. Thousands of tourists visit the house each year.

The Castle: Originally built by the Dutch in the 17th century, the fortress has been razed and reconstructed several times. In the 18th century it housed the residence of the Governor of Senegal and in 1940 it was bombarded by a combined British and Free French naval force.


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Old August 13th, 2011, 10:59 PM   #58
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As one would expect, there's a lot in Nieuw Amsterdam a/k/a NYC!

Here are a few.

Wykoff House 1651


Lent-Riker House 1654


John Bowne House 1661
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Old August 14th, 2011, 12:48 AM   #59
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Thanks! See page 2 of this thread for more New-Netherlands/New York State houses.
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Old August 16th, 2011, 04:22 AM   #60
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Nemo View Post
@ElGreco

There are so many books on this subject - you just have to specify. There are many books about the Spanish and Portuguese voyages of discovery and equally plenty about the Dutch.
Any non-fiction book with blood and guts will do (ie wars and such).

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