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Old November 28th, 2010, 10:56 AM   #1
rahim.katchi
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Mughal Architecture of Lahore, Pakistan.

Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi.

Lahore touched the zenith of its glory during the Mughal rule from 1524 to 1752. The Mughals, who were famous as builders, gave Lahore some of its finest architectural monuments, many of which are extant today.

From 1524 to 1752, Lahore was part of the Mughal Empire. Lahore grew under emperor Babur; from 1584 to 1598, under the emperors Akbar the Great and Jahangir, the city served as the empire's capital. Lahore reached the peak of its architectural glory during the rule of the Mughals, many of whose buildings and gardens have survived the ravages of time. Lahore's reputation for beauty fascinated the English poet John Milton, who wrote "Agra and Lahore, the Seat of the Great Mughal" in 1670. During this time, the massive Lahore Fort was built. A few buildings within the fort were added by Akbar's son, Mughal emperor Jahangir, who is buried in the city. Jahangir's son, Shahjahan Burki, was born in Lahore. He, like his father, extended the Lahore Fort and built many other structures in the city, including the Shalimar Gardens. The last of the great Mughals, Aurangzeb, who ruled from 1658 to 1707, built the city's most famous monuments, the Badshahi Masjid and the Alamgiri Gate next to the Lahore Fort.

During the 17th century, as Mughal power dwindled, Lahore was often invaded, and government authority was lacking. The great Punjabi poet Baba Waris Shah said of the situation, "khada peeta wahy da, baqi Ahmad Shahy da" — "we have nothing with us except what we eat and wear, all other things are for Ahmad Shah". Ahmad Shah Durrani captured remnants of the Mughal Empire and had consolidated control over the Punjab and Kashmir regions by 1761.

The 1740s were years of chaos, and the city had nine different governors between 1745 and 1756. Invasions and chaos in local government allowed bands of warring Sikhs to gain control in some areas. The Sikhs were gaining momentum at an enormous rate. In 1801, the twelve Sikh misls joined into one to form a new empire and sovereign Sikh state ruled by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

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Old November 28th, 2010, 11:00 AM   #2
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Badshahi Mosque

The Badshahi Mosque or the 'King's Mosque' in Lahore, commissioned by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1671 and completed in 1673, is the second largest mosque in Pakistan and South Asia and the fifth largest mosque in the world. Epitomising the beauty, passion and grandeur of the Mughal era, it is Lahore's most famous landmark and a major tourist attraction.

Capable of accommodating 5,000 worshippers in its main prayer hall and a further 95,000 in its courtyard and porticoes, it remained the largest mosque in the world from 1673 to 1986 (a period of 313 years), when overtaken in size by the completion of the Faisal Mosque in Islamabad. Today, it remains the second largest mosque in Pakistan and South Asia and the sixth largest mosque in the world after the Masjid al-Haram (Grand Mosque) of Mecca, the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (Prophet's Mosque) in Medina, the Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca, the Istiqlal Mosque in Jakarta and the Faisal Mosque in Islamabad.

To appreciate its large size, the four minarets of the Badshahi Mosque are 13.9 ft (4.2 m) taller than those of the Taj Mahal and the main platform of the Taj Mahal can fit inside the 278,784 sq ft (25,899.9 m2) courtyard of the Badshahi Mosque, which is the largest mosque courtyard in the world.

In 1993, the Government of Pakistan recommended the inclusion of the Badshahi Mosque as a World Heritage Site in UNESCO's World Heritage List, where it has been included in Pakistan's Tentative List for possible nomination to the World Heritage List by UNESCO.

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Old November 28th, 2010, 11:06 AM   #3
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Badshahi Mosque







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Old November 28th, 2010, 11:09 AM   #4
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Old November 28th, 2010, 11:10 AM   #5
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Old November 28th, 2010, 11:12 AM   #6
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Old November 28th, 2010, 11:14 AM   #7
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Old November 28th, 2010, 11:16 AM   #8
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Old November 28th, 2010, 11:18 AM   #9
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Old November 28th, 2010, 11:20 AM   #10
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Old November 28th, 2010, 11:25 AM   #11
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Old November 28th, 2010, 11:35 AM   #12
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Hazuri Bagh Baradari

The Hazuri Bagh Baradari is a baradari of white marble located in the Hazuri Bagh of Lahore, Pakistan. It was built by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, an Indian Sikh ruler in 1818. Elegant carved marble pillars support delicate cusped arches. The central area, where Maharaja Ranjit Singh held court, has a mirrored ceiling. The pavilion consisted of two storeys until it was damaged by lightning in 1932.





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Old November 28th, 2010, 12:17 PM   #13
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Lahore Fort

The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila is citadel of the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is located in the northwestern corner of the Walled City of Lahore. The trapezoidal composition is spread over 20 hectares.

Origins of the fort go as far back as antiquity, however, the existing base structure was built during the reign of Mughal emperor Akbar (1556–1605), and was regularly upgraded by subsequent rulers, having thirteen gates in all. Thus the fort manifests the rich traditions of Mughal architecture. Some of the famous sites inside the fort include: Sheesh Mahal, Alamgiri Gate, Naulakha pavilion, and Moti Masjid. In 1981, the fort was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site along with the Shalimar Gardens (Lahore).

Timeline

It cannot be said with certainty when the Lahore Fort was originally constructed or by whom, since this information is lost to history, possibly forever. However, evidence found in archaeological digs gives strong indications that it was built long before 1025 AD.
1241 AD - Destroyed by Mongols.

1267 AD - Rebuilt by Sultan Ghiyas ud din Balban.

1398 AD - Destroyed again, by Amir Tamir's army.

1421 AD - Rebuilt in mud by Sultan Mubark Shah Syed.

1432 AD - The fort is occupied by Shaikh Ali of Kabul who makes repairs to the damages inflicted on it by Shaikha Khokhar.

1566 AD - Rebuilt by Mughal emperor Akbar, in solid brick masonry on its earlier foundations. Also perhaps, its area was extended towards the river Ravi, which then and up to about 1849 AD, used to flow along its fortification on the north. Akbar also built Doulat Khana-e-Khas-o-Am, the famous Jharoka-e-Darshan (Balcony for Royal Appearance), Masjidi Gate etc.

1618 AD - Jehangir adds Doulat Khana-e-Jehangir

1631 AD - Shahjahan builds Shish Mahal (Mirror Palace).

1633 AD - Shahjahan builds Khawabgah (a dream place or sleeping area), Hamam (bath ), Khilwat Khana (retiring room), and Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque).

1645 AD - Shahjahan builds Diwan-e-Khas (Hall of Special Audience).

1674 AD - Aurangzeb adds the massively fluted Alamgiri Gate.

(Sometime during) 1799-1839 AD - The outer fortification wall on the north with the moat, the marble athdera, Havaeli Mai Jindan and Bara Dari Raja Dhiyan Singh were constructed by Ranjit Singh, Sikh ruler from 1799-1839 AD

1846 AD - Occupied by the British.

1927 AD - The British hand over the Fort to the Department of Archaeology after demolishing a portion of the fortification wall on the south and converting it into a stepped form thus defortifying the fort.

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Old November 28th, 2010, 12:25 PM   #14
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Lahore Fort

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Old November 28th, 2010, 12:28 PM   #15
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Lahore Fort

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Old November 28th, 2010, 12:32 PM   #16
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Lahore Fort

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Old November 28th, 2010, 12:43 PM   #17
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Alamgiri Gate

The Alamgiri Gate, built in 1673 A.D., is the main entrance to the Lahore Fort in present day Lahore, Pakistan. It was constructed to face west towards the Badshahi Mosque in the days of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. The monumental gateway is an imposing vestibule flanked by two semi-circular bastions that have boldly fluted shafts and lotus petalled bases and are crowned with domed pavilions.

The huge arched entrance in the centre was designed to allow the emperor's elephant mounted caravan to pass through. It leads to the central square hall having deep arched recesses on the east and north and a staircase leading to the upper storey buildings. The archway on the south leads to interior of the fort.

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Old November 28th, 2010, 12:57 PM   #18
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Naulakha Pavilion

The Naulakha Pavilion is a prominent white marble personal chamber with curvilinear roof, located besides the Sheesh Mahal courtyard, in the northern section of Lahore Fort in Lahore, Pakistan. The structure was originally inlaid with precious and semi-precious stones and overlooked the Ravi river. Today, it is one of the 21 monuments situated within the Lahore Fort, with its western fašade providing a panoramic view of the ancient city of Lahore. In 1981, as part of the larger Lahore Fort Complex, it became inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

When the pavilion was built in 1633 by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan as a small summer house, it cost around 900,000 rupees, an exorbitant amount at the time.It is called Naulakha because in Urdu language, the word means 'worth 9 lakhs rupees'.This also brought the word Naulakha into common use to signify something precious.

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Old November 28th, 2010, 01:04 PM   #19
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Old November 28th, 2010, 01:11 PM   #20
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