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Old March 23rd, 2016, 09:17 PM   #101
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Credits: Zohaib Ahmed‎




University of Lahore

Credits: Hassan Photography




Path to Dai Anga

Credits: Bilal Shah




Grand Jamia masjid

Credits: Adeel Chishti‎

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Old March 25th, 2016, 09:22 AM   #102
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Lahore photo journal: "Anderooni Shehr" Inner City by Inam Photography, on Flickr

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Lahore photo journal: Lahore Fort by Inam Photography, on Flickr

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Lahore photo journal: Lahore Fort by Inam Photography, on Flickr

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Lahore photo journal: Lahore Fort by Inam Photography, on Flickr

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Lahore photo journal: Lahore Fort by Inam Photography, on Flickr

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Lahore photo journal: Lahore Fort by Inam Photography, on Flickr

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Lahore photo journal: Lahore Fort by Inam Photography, on Flickr

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Lahore photo journal: Badshah Mosque by Inam Photography, on Flickr

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Lahore photo journal: Badshah Mosque by Inam Photography, on Flickr

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Lahore photo journal: Badshah Mosque by Inam Photography, on Flickr

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Lahore photo journal: Badshah Mosque by Inam Photography, on Flickr

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Lahore photo journal: Badshah Mosque by Inam Photography, on Flickr

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Lahore photo journal: Badshah Mosque by Inam Photography, on Flickr

]
A night view of Jahangir Tomb, Shahdra
by Khalil-ur-Rehman Waleed, on Flickr

[QUOTE=Usman ali;129637577]Credits: Sara Sheikh






Masjid Gateway by Muhammad Waqas, on Flickr
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Old March 25th, 2016, 09:25 AM   #103
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Define Elegance (Explored) by alikami, on Flickr

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Evening Time by Max Loxton, on Flickr

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Lahore Fort, Lahore, Pakistan by Max Loxton, on Flickr
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Lahore Fort by Aawara, on Flickr

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Lahore by Shubh M Singh, on Flickr

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Lahore Fort - Lahore - Pakistan by Faisal Rafiq, on Flickr

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Blessings... by M Atif Saeed, on Flickr

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Beginning of New Era.. by M Atif Saeed, on Flickr

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lahore by Aun Raza, on Flickr

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Super Moon 2012 by saadalvi_13, on Flickr
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Old March 29th, 2016, 09:40 PM   #104
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Tomb of Asif Khan



The Tomb of Asif Khan is a mausoleum located in Shahdara Bagh in Lahore, Punjab. It was constructed for the Mughal statesman Abul-Hasan ibn Mirza Ghiyas Beg, who was titled Asif Khan.

The tomb is built entirely of brick. The main chamber is of octagonal plan, with a large central double-layered bulbous dome. It stands in the centre of a large Mughal garden, which is divided into four squares. Octagonal tombs were never used for emperors but they were commonly employed for burial of high-ranking noblemen such as Asaf Khan. The bulbous dome that crowns the tomb is an innovation of Shah Jahan's era that was used to great effect at other sites such as the Taj Mahal.


The inner dome ceiling is decorated in a high plaster relief of interlacing patterns, but much of it has fallen off. The tomb contains the marble cenotaph, carved with inscriptions from the Qur'an, similar to that in Emperor Jahangir's adjacent tomb.

Historian Harold Hargreaves says about the tomb, "Despite its simplicity, there is a sense of restful quietude at this site (Asif Khan's Tomb) which renders it one of the most fascinating monuments in the neighborhood of Lahore."









































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Old March 29th, 2016, 09:54 PM   #105
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Anarkali's Tomb

The tomb of 'Anarkali' traditionally belongs to Nadira Begum, the lover of Prince Salim (the later Emperor Jahangir). According to legend Anarkali (Pomegranate Bud) was a member of Akbar's harem. She was accused of having an illicit love affair with Prince Salim and was executed in 1599. When Jahangir assumed the throne six years later he ordered the construction of her tomb which was finished in 1615.
The tomb originally stood at the center of a large garden in the manner of the Asaf Khan Tomb. In the early 1800s it was occupied by Kharak Singh, the son of Ranjit Singh, and was later converted to a residence for General Ventura, a French officer in the Sikh army. In 1851 it was converted to a Christian church and substantially remodeled with the arched openings largely blocked off. At the present time it is used as a library for the Punjab Records Office.






Chauburji

The Chauburji gate is the only remnant of a large garden that has all but disappeared. It now stands alone in a grassy roundabout at the intersection of Multan Road and Bhawalpur Road. There is considerable uncertainty regarding who constructed it. An inscription on the monument gives the date 1056 AH (1646) and attributes it to "Sahib-e-Zebinda Begam-e-Dauran". According to the 19th century historian Syad Muhammad Latif, the full inscription reads:
"This garden, in the pattern of the garden of paradise, has been founded...
(the second line has been effaced)
The garden has been bestowed on Mian Bai
By the bounty of Zebinda Begam, the lady of the age".














Nau Nihal Singh Haveli (built mid-19th century)


The word "Haveli" is used to refer to mansions in India and Pakistan. The word is derived from the Persian word "hawli", meaning "an enclosed place". Havelis typically were built by wealthy aristocrats to house themselves and their extended families, and were often constructed several stories high with one or more courtyards in the interior.
The haveli of Nau Nihal Singh is perhaps the grandest of the surviving havelis in Lahore. It is rectangular in plan and comprises two levels wrapped around a central courtyard. A tower at the northwest corner rises two additional stories and provides a panoramic view of Lahore from its roof. As the west side of the building includes the main entrance from the street, the tower is architecturally integrated with the first and second levels to present an eye-catching facade repleat with projecting fenestration and colorful surface detail.







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Old March 29th, 2016, 10:05 PM   #106
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Nur Jahan Tomb (built 1640s)


Nur Jahan was the daughter of I'timad-ud-Daula, Jahangir's prime minister. Meaning "Light of the World", she was born in 1577 to Persian parents and was given the name Mehr-un-Nisaa. At the age of 17 she married Sher Afghan, a Mughal courtier. The marriage lasted thirteen years and resulted in the birth of one daughter, the only child Mehr-un-Nisaa was to ever have. After her husbands's death in 1607, Mehr-un-Nisaa entered Emperor Jahangir's harem as a lady-in-waiting to one of his stepmothers. She remained in the harem for four years until Jahangir happened to notice her during the Nowruz spring festival in March 1611. Infatuated by her beauty, he immediately proposed to her. She wedded in May of that year, becoming Jahangir's twentieth wife.














Khan-e-Jahan Bahadur Kokaltash Tomb (built ~1697)


Khan-e-Jahan Bahadur Zafar Jhan Kokaltash was a high-ranking officer during the reign of Emperor Aurangzeb Alamigir. He served as subahdar (governor) of the Panjab from April 11th, 1691, but was dismissed from office in 1693. He died four years later on November 23, 1697, and was presumably interred here shortly thereafter.
His octagonal tomb is composed primarily of cut brick work without any use of red sandstone, in contrast to many other buildings of that period. The current appearance of the tomb is much denuded: the numerous holes in the fa´┐Żade and dome attest to marblework that was stripped away as late as the 19th century. Despite this, traces of the tomb's original elegance are still evidenced in the beautifully carved stucco muqarnas (stalactite squinches) that embellish the tops of the outer alcoves. The design overall is similar to Ali Mardan Khan's tomb, which is located just a few kilometers to the north.











Shahi Hammam Bathhouse (built 1634)


The Shahi Hammam bathhouse, also known as Hammam Wazir Khan, is the only remaining bathhouse of its type in Lahore. During the Mughal era, hammams (public baths) were introduced based on Persian models and flourished for a time, though their popularity never reached the level maintained in Persia as public baths were not an established cultural institution in the Punjab. Today, the Shahi Hammam is no longer in use and has been converted into a tourist information center.
The hammam was first established in 1634 by Sheikh Ilmuddin Ansari who built it just inside the Delhi Gate along the path to Wazir Khan mosque, under construction at the time. It contained separate facilities for men and women to bathe and also included amenities such as a reception chamber and a small prayer room. In keeping with Persian precident, virtually the entire hammam was illuminated from above with small openings on the roof which also aided ventilation by allowing hot air to flow out from the facility. Since the walls had relatively few windows, merchants were able to set up shops directly abutting the hammam. Although the hammam is no longer in operation, the merchant shops have remained open and even today make it difficult to discern the facades of the hammam.
The interior of the hammam is mostly intact and preserves frescos dating from the Mughal era. Unfortunately, the actual bathing facilities were filled in and tiled over in the mid 1990s when the building was briefly converted to another purpose by its private owners. In recent years the site has been acquired by the Tourist Information Center of Lahore and is being conserved. About 75% of the interior area is now open to the public.









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Old March 30th, 2016, 09:03 AM   #107
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Dai Anga Tomb (built 1671)

Dai Anga's tomb is located at the site of Bulabi Bagh, an earlier garden of which the only the gateway, Gulabi Bagh, survives. The tomb was built for Dai Anga, the wet nurse of Shah Jahan and the wife of Murad Khan, a magistrate of Bikaner under Emperor Jahangir. The tomb is rectangular in plan with eight perimeter rooms and a central chamber, surmounted by a low dome on a tall base. The space inside is empty, as the actual tomb of Dai Anga lies below in a subterranean chamber. Interior decoration includes inscriptions from the Q'uran. The exterior of the tomb was originally covered with mosaics, but in the manner of many tombs in Lahore, most of these have been worn or stripped away over the centuries. However, the tomb does retain its original four chattris (kiosks) at each of its corners, which contribute a certain lightness to the otherwise weighty structure.



















Maryam Zamani Mosque (built 1614)

The Maryam Zamani Mosque is named after Queen Maryam Zamani, the wife of Emperor Akbar. It is the earliest surviving Mughal mosque in Lahore and is the first to exhibit the five-bay facade that would become typical of nearly all future mosques built by the Mughals. It is a comparatively small structure, measuring just 50 meters east-west and 50 meters north-south. Often called Begum Shahi Masjid, the mosque stands just opposite the Masjidi Gate of the Lahore fort.

















Kamran's Baradari (built 1520s or mid 17th-century)



Kamran's Baradari is the ostensibly the earliest known Mughal monument in Lahore, said to have been built by Prince Kamran in the 1520s. However, the pavilion more likely dates to the reign of Shah Jahan (1627-58) as certain architectural features such as the use of cusped arches were not employed until Shah Jahan's reign. The attribution of the structure to Prince Kamran likely derived from local oral traditions which were picked up by Latif when he collected material for his comprehensive book on Lahore's architectural heritage in 1892.
The baradari originally stood at the edge of the Ravi river, but over time the course of the river changed and the site became an island. Sometime over the course of the centuries the river flooded, taking half the baradari along with it. As Mughal buildings are generally symmetrical, it was possible for historians to infer the design of the lost portion and it was rebuilt in 1989 at a cost of 19.6 million rupees (about $1 million USD at the time).





















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Old March 30th, 2016, 09:16 AM   #108
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Shalamar Gardens (built 1633-42)


Lahore is often described as the "city of gardens". Although deserving of this title, few of its historic gardens survive to the present day and even fewer are preserved in something close to their original state. Shalamar is a grand exception to this trend. Comprising nearly forty acres on three broad terraces, its majesty brings to life the Mughal genius for landscape architecture like no other monument in Lahore.

Sometime in the 1620s or 1630s, a large flood swept through Lahore and exposed a low bluff at the edge of the Ravi river. Although the bluff averaged only a few meters higher than the surrounding floodplain, it presented the best opportunity in the Lahore area to create a garden in the Kashmiri variety. The site was relatively remote--about a day's ride to the east of Lahore fort--but it was chosen as the site of the future Shalamar garden by Kalil Ullah Khan, an imperial nobleman who had been ordered by Shah Jahan to find an appropriate site for a garden. At this point, in 1641, the narrative of the site becomes entangled with the life of Ali Mardan Khan, the former governor of Kandahar who had surrendered the city to the Mughals in exchange for riches and safe conduct. Ali Mardan Khan claimed to have expertise in the construction of qanats (underground canals) and Shah Jahan tasked him with constructing a canal from Rajpur, at the foot of the Himalayas, all the way to Lahore. Such a canal would span over 160 kilometers and provide ample water to encourage settlement in the Punjab northeast of Lahore (a relatively underpopulated area at the time). The terminus of the canal would reach the upper terrace of Shalamar garden and its remaining water would provide sufficient flow to animate hundreds of fountains.





























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Old March 30th, 2016, 09:24 AM   #109
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Nadira Begum Tomb (built 17th century)

Nadira Begum was the wife of Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of Shah Jahan and heir-apparent to his throne. In 1657 a power struggle broke out between Dara Shikoh and his three brothers over succession to the throne after Shah Jahan fell ill. Initially, fate seemed to favor Dara Shikoh. He prevailed in battle against his brother Shah Shuja and gained signifiant support from his father, who recovered enough to assist Dara Shikoh in his bid for power. However, father and son could not overcome the combined strength of his two other brothers, Aurangzeb and Murad.
Dara Shikoh and his wife attempted to flee to the west and south, but they were betrayed by Malik Jiwan, a Baluch cheiftain, who turned them over to Aurangzeb's army in June, 1659. Nadira died several months later prior to the assassination of her husband on August 30, 1659.
The tomb stands on a raised platform at the center of what used to be a vast water tank. The tank was dismantled during the British period.

















Wazir Khan Baradari (built 1635)

This baradari (literally, 12-door pavilion) originally served as the centerpiece of the Nakhlia Garden built by Wazir Khan, a benefactor of numerous buildings throughout Lahore including the mosque and hammam (bath house) which bear his name. It is among the finest of such monuments in the city, having been incorporated into the grounds of the Punjab Public Library as early as 1860, where it serves as a reading room. During the 19th and early 20th centuries it also served as a museum and as the Settlement and Telegraph Office under the British.













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Old April 3rd, 2016, 06:53 PM   #110
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Akbari Serai (built 1640s)

The so-called Akbari Serai is an 470 by 365 meter courtyard situated between Jahangir's Tomb to the east and Asaf Khan's tomb to the west. Although commonly referred to as a Serai, or caravan market, the courtyard was intended both as a staging area for official visits to the tomb and as a place of residence for the huffaz (caretakers) who worked at the mausoleums. The 180 hujra, or cells, around the courtyard were used as living areas and storage spaces for luggage, weapons, and other gear carried by visitors to the tombs. Its function and general design is similar to the jilaukhana (literally, 'front of the house') found at the Taj Mahal built by Jahangir's son, Shah Jehan.
The most impressive feature of the courtyard is the gateway on its east side leading to Jahangir's mausoleum. Opposite the gateway is a small mosque. The north and south ends of the courtyard are punctuated with gateways providing access to the whole ensemble.





















Mian Khan Tomb (built 1670s)


This is the tomb of Nawab Mian Khan, the son of Nawab Saadullah Khan who served as Prime Minister during the reign of Shah Jahan. It is built in the form of a baradari (literally, 'twelve doors') with a tripartite facade on four sides.









Buddu Tomb (built mid 17th-century)
Traditionally, this tomb is attributed to Buddu, a brick manufacturer during the reign of Emperor Shah Jahan (r. 1628-58). However, it may in fact be the tomb of the wife of Khan-i-dauran Bahadur Nusrat Jang, a high-ranking nobleman in the court of Shah Jahan. The domed tomb likely once stood amidst a garden, but all traces of landscaping have vanished.







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Old April 7th, 2016, 11:23 AM   #111
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Ali Mardan Khan Tomb (built 1657)

Ali Mardan Khan was a high official in the Mughal Empire under Shah Jahan. Born into a Kurdish family, he served as governor of Kandahar under Persia's Safavid dynasty, becoming a close confidant of Shah Abbas. After the Shah's death in 1629, he became fearful for his life as the Shah's successor Shah Safi (Sam Mirza) purged courtiers that had been loyal to his grandfather. In 1637, Ali Mardan Khan offered to surrender Kandahar to the Mughal Empire in exchange for his safety. Shah Jahan agreed to the offer, probably with some enthusiam as Kandahar had been under the control of the Mughals during the reign of Jahangir, Shah Jahan's father.
As a Mughal officer, Ali Mardan Khan provided guidance on canal instruction, especially in regard to the Shah Nahar canal of Shalimar Gardens. When he died in 1657, he was buried adjacent to his mother in the tomb prepared for her next to the canal at Mughalpura. Originally, the tomb sat amidst a large garden, but today only the large gateway survives.
As the tomb sits within the confines of a modern-day rail yard, the authorities have built a kilometer long passageway from the street to the tomb in an effort to prevent visitors from trespassing on the rail yard grounds.









Nusrat Khan Tomb (built 1660s)
Nusrat Khan was a courtier who lived in the era of Shah Jahan. His tomb stands near the center of a large tract of land owned by Pakistan Railways and is impossible to access without security clearance. The overall design is very similar to the Khan-e-Jahan Bahadur Kokaltash Tomb which stands less than a kilometer to the south.
Among the earliest references to the tomb in the post-Mughal era may be found in the book "Tarikh-e-Lahore" (The History of Lahore) written by Rai Bahadur Kanhaiya Lal, an engineer who served in Lahore from 1850-85. In that work he records that the tomb had been surrounded by a vast garden with subsidiary buildings, much of which was already derelict or demolished by Lal's own era. He also records that the tomb was appropriated during Maharaja Singh's reign by General Auguste Court, a French soldier who provided technical assistance and training to the Sikh army. Court occupied the tomb as his principle residence and removed its grave, paving over the floor to create living space. Court continued to occupy the tomb until the assassination of Maharaja Sher Singh in September 1843, whereupon he fled to Firozpur in British territory. In 1844 he returned to France with his Punjabi wife and children, living out the rest of his days in Paris until his death in 1880.
At present the tomb has been repurposed as a place of veneration for Khwaja Hassan. Although the tomb has no historical connection to that individual (Nusrat Khan was also known as Khwaja Sabir, not Khwaja Hassan), the tomb is used in that capacity.









Gul Begum Bagh Garden (built 1850s)

Gul Begum was the wife of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, whom she married in 1831 when he was 51 years old. Gul Begum had first attracted the Maharaja's attention when he saw her performing a dance for a number of his guests. When learning she was from Amritsar, the Maharaja rode there personally and requested that the girl appear before him, which she did. Even when learning that she was a Muslim (the Maharaja was a Sikh), he was so captivated by her that he chose to defy social convention by marrying her. He first went to the Golden Temple at Amritsar to pray forgiveness for his actions then proceeded with his plan. He announced that Gul Begum would be his queen but that her faith would be respected. For the next few years after their marriage Gul Begum--who was henceforth known as Maharani Gulbahar Begum--collaborated closely with the Maharaja and even rode on the same elephant as him when appearing in public.
While living in Lahore Gul Begum was provided with a detached palace between the Rang Mahal and Haveli Mian Khan, not far from the site of the garden shown here which she had built in 1856 (17 years after the Maharaja's death). She spent the remainder of her life in this area (known as Mozang) and built a tomb-like building on the south side in which she was interred in 1865or 1866. Although she had no children she was survived by her adopted son Sardar Khan who cared for the gardens and is also buried here.
Curiously, although the garden was relatively small by Lahore standards, nearly a square kilometer of present-day Lahore is known as the Bagh Bul Begum neighborhood. One hopes that this now-dilapidated garden may one day be refurbished to make it an integral part of the neighborhood that has taken its name.









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Old April 7th, 2016, 11:28 AM   #112
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Gulabi Bagh Gateway (built 1655)

The Gulabi Bagh Gateway is the last remnant of a pleasure garden built by the Persian noble Mirza Sultan Baig in 1655. In its heyday the garden measured 250 gaz on a side (according to the scholar Ebba Koch, 1 gaz is likely equal to 0.81 or 0.82 meters). The site could not have functioned as a garden for long, as it was converted in 1671 into a tomb for Dai Anga with her mausoleum occupying the center of the property. Gradually over the centuries the garden was encroached upon by urban development so that the only remaining portion of the garden is the narrow yard running from Gulabi Bagh to Dai Anga's Mausoleum.














Dai Anga Mosque (built 1635)

Dai Anga served as Shah Jahan's wet nurse and remained an influential force in the dynasty until her death in 1672. She is responsible for several monuments in Lahore that still survive, including her tomb near the Gulabi Bagh garden gate. Her mosque, seen here, was constructed in 1635. Although a relatively small structure, it is notable for its refined use of decoration and its stately three-bay facade. It remains in an excellent state of preservation since Dai Anga took care to donate a substantial waqf (endowment) to ensure its maintenance after her death. However, in spite of this, it was briefly converted into the residence of Henry Cope, a newspaper editor, during the rule of the British. It was restored to its original function in 1903 and has served as an active mosque ever since.



















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Old April 12th, 2016, 12:12 AM   #113
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Nightlife of Lahore - Food Streets and other places






















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Old April 17th, 2016, 08:14 AM   #114
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Lovely stuff.
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"We're all victims of the architect. Architecture is the only art that you can't help but feel. You can avoid paintings, you can avoid music, and you can even avoid history. But good luck getting away from architecture." - Humans of New York

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Old June 11th, 2016, 10:51 AM   #115
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Lahore, Pakistan

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Old June 11th, 2016, 10:53 AM   #116
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Old June 11th, 2016, 10:58 AM   #117
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Old June 11th, 2016, 10:58 AM   #118
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Old June 11th, 2016, 10:59 AM   #119
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Old September 28th, 2016, 11:24 PM   #120
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