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Old February 3rd, 2011, 02:16 PM   #1
Cyrus
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European Classic Architecture in Iran

Other than the fact that Iranians themselves were an Indo-European people and there were certainly several migrations from Europe to Iran in the ancient times, but by considering the recorded history and known European people, let's first talk about some Iranian peoples who lived in the Eastern Europe (Modern Poland, Ukraine, Russia, ...)

Cimmerians and Scythians

According to the Greek historian Herodotus, Cimmerians and Scythians were among the first European peoples who invaded through the Caucasus and conquered some northwestern parts of Iran in the eighth and seventh century BC, Scythians built the city of Sakkez, as their capital, there are the ruins of some ancient buildings from this period near the modern city of Sakkez, one of them is a large Scythian palace on the top of a natural hill.

Ancient staircase:





Walls and column bases of the palace:



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Old February 3rd, 2011, 02:49 PM   #2
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Macedonians and Greeks

Another famous invasion was by Alexander with his Macedonian and Greek armies, they could conquer the whole Iran and ruled for at least 60 years, the western part of the country was in their hand for about two centuries, after them Parthians also mostly used the Greek architecture, it can be said this architecture has more than 500 years of continuing history in Iran.

Khorheh:





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Old February 3rd, 2011, 04:55 PM   #3
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Romans

However Romans could never conquer Iran, but many ancient buildings in this country are attributed to the Romans, the fact is that a large number of Roman architectures were employed or captured during the Perso-Roman wars, it is even said that some cities were built by them, the most famous one is the city of Bishapur: http://www.livius.org/be-bm/bishapur/bishapur.html

Temple of Anahita (Roman thermae) in Bishapur:











Some other pics from Bishapur:





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Old February 4th, 2011, 10:43 PM   #4
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Byzantines

Byzantines also couldn't conquer Iran but there were certainly some influences from the Byzantine architecture, especially in the construction of churches in the northwest of Iran, in fact you can see a mixture of architectural styles in those churches, as you read here: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1262 They bear testimony to very important interchanges with the other regional cultures, in particular the Byzantine, Orthodox and Persian.

Church of Saint Stepanos:













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Old February 5th, 2011, 02:49 AM   #5
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This is Armenian style (It evolved from Byzantine architecture) and as I see most of writings are in armenian too.

This is Armenian:



While this is Byzantine:



Is there true Byzantine style churches in Iran?
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Old February 5th, 2011, 04:53 PM   #6
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I also talked about a Byzantine architectural influence, not a a pure Byzantine style, there are the ruins of some old simple churches around the church of Saint Stepanos, they can probably show more influences from the early Byzantine architecture.

Church of Chopan:







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Old February 6th, 2011, 10:07 PM   #7
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The Portuguese

From the ninth century some other European peoples came to Iran, such as Vikings and the Rus through the Caspian sea and Normans/Franks from Anatolia but they really didn't build any specific thing, in fact they just destroyed and plundered!

But in the early sixteenth century the Portuguese invaded and captured the Hormuz island and then some other islands, cities and ports of the Persian Gulf, they ruled there for about 120 years and built several castles, fortresses, churches and other buildings, the ruins of some of them still exist in Hormuz and Qeshm islands and Tis, Kong and other ports and cities in modern Hormozgan and Baluchistan provinces of Iran.

The large Portuguese Fortress in Hormoz Island:























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Old March 29th, 2011, 11:48 PM   #8
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Very ancient, nice photo!
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Old May 8th, 2011, 02:40 PM   #9
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Cyrus, Kurus of Kambujiya, Sir.
Your photos of Sakkez palace are very interesting, as Scythian architecture is rare. Does the palace have a square floor-plan, or cross-shape design? Hreodotus wrote about the square shape of Scythian tribal temples, and it seems that this was copied in Armenian-Ukrainian rekigious buildings, and maybe in Norse tradition. Sassanian arches and towers may have influenced Scythians in India, and then the great square city of Angkor Wat in the land named after youself - Kampuchea /Cambodia.
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Old May 11th, 2011, 03:07 PM   #10
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The square shape is seen here:
Qaḷʿa-ye Sīj-e Dokkān (Kleiss, 1974, pp. 215ff.; Figure 4b), 152 x 151 m in area, overlooks a crossroads southeast of Sar(-e) Pol-e Ḏohāb; it belongs to the transition between the Sasanian empire and the early Islamic period. The rock-cut tomb of Dokkān-e Dāwūd stands at the point where the road from Qaṣr-e Šīrīn to Kermānšāh (part of the Silk Route) intersects the road from Qaṣr-e Šīrīn and Qaḷʿa-ye Yazdegerd to the Saymara valley and on to Ḵūzestān; the latter road was important in Sasanian and early Islamic times, as is attested by remains of large bridge constructions in the Saymara valley. The construction methods and vault types at Qaḷʿa-ye Sīj-e Dokkān conform to Sasanian building practices, but the almost square plan with its single entrance portal corresponds to that of an early Islamic robāṭ (fortified hospice), exemplifying adaptation of the robāṭ system to military architecture.
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Old August 26th, 2011, 09:15 PM   #11
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Cyrus View Post
Other than the fact that Iranians themselves were an Indo-European people and there were certainly several migrations from Europe to Iran in the ancient times, but by considering the recorded history and known European people, let's first talk about some Iranian peoples who lived in the Eastern Europe (Modern Poland, Ukraine, Russia, ...)

Cimmerians and Scythians

According to the Greek historian Herodotus, Cimmerians and Scythians were among the first European peoples who invaded through the Caucasus and conquered some northwestern parts of Iran in the eighth and seventh century BC, Scythians built the city of Sakkez, as their capital, there are the ruins of some ancient buildings from this period near the modern city of Sakkez, one of them is a large Scythian palace on the top of a natural hill.

Ancient staircase:





Walls and column bases of the palace:



scythians are iranian peoples
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Old October 8th, 2011, 08:39 AM   #12
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Macedonians and Greeks Another famous invasion was by Alexander with his Macedonian and Greek armies, they could conquer the whole Iran and ruled for at least 60 years, the western part of the country was in their hand for about two centuries, after them Parthians also mostly used the Greek architecture, it can be said this architecture has more than 500 years of continuing history in Iran. ...
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Old October 21st, 2011, 09:50 AM   #13
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Really cool post, highly informative and professionally written..Good Job
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Old December 12th, 2011, 05:25 AM   #14
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they can probably show more influences from the early Byzantine architecture.

Last edited by erbse; December 12th, 2011 at 11:37 AM.
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Old December 12th, 2011, 09:55 PM   #15
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This is very interesting, but does it really belong in this section?
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Old December 13th, 2011, 04:14 AM   #16
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Does the palace have a square floor-plan, or cross-shape design? Hreodotus wrote about the square shape of Scythian tribal temples.

Last edited by erbse; December 13th, 2011 at 10:53 AM.
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Old December 13th, 2011, 05:53 AM   #17
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sythians were iranian peoples, so their contributions cant be classified as "european"
even greeks and almost all other europeans are cousins of iranians, however this is when geography and evolution come into play, as iran became asian and greece rome etc became european


anyhow, idoit, are you referring to a specific palace?
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Old December 13th, 2011, 05:54 AM   #18
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interesting report, sadly there isnt anymore news

Excavations underway to locate ancient Greek temple in western Iran
TEHRAN, June 25 (MNA) -- A team of Iranian archaeologists recently began searching for the location of the ancient Greek Laodicea Temple in Nahavand, Hamedan Province, the director of the team announced on Thursday.
“On June 15, the team began excavations, which will probably last until late July,” Mehdi Rahbar added.

In 1943, archaeologists discovered an ancient inscription written in Greek in Nahavand, indicating the existence of a temple named Laodicea in the area, which dated back to the reign of Antiochus III the Great (223-187 BC), the Seleucid king who ruled Asia Minor.

He was the most distinguished of the Seleucids. Having made vassal states out of Parthia in present-day northeastern Iran and Bactria (an ancient country in Central Asia), he warred successfully against the Egyptian king Ptolemy V and in 198 BC obtained possession of all of Palestine and Lebanon.

He later became involved in a conflict with the Romans, who defeated him at Thermopylae in 191 BC and at Magnesia (now Manisa, Turkey) in 190 BC. As the price of peace, he was forced to surrender all his dominions west of the Taurus Mountains and to pay costly tribute. Antiochus, who early in his reign had restored the Seleucid Empire, finally forfeited its influence in the eastern Mediterranean by his failure to recognize the rising power of Rome.

MMS/HG
End

MNA

http://www.mehrnews.com/en/NewsDetai...?NewsID=199514
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