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Old September 15th, 2004, 07:24 AM   #1
SinCity
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European Cemeteries

OK, time for something different. Cemeteries ..... every city and town has them.

Post some pics and facts about cemeteries in your country city or town.

I'll start with Mirogoj Cemetery - Zagreb Croatia .....

Described as one of the most beautiful of all cemeteries in Europe, Zagreb's Mirogoj cemetary has more than a century in history and is still currently used as the city's main cemetery. Perched high on a hill that overlooks the city of Zagreb beneath it, Mirogoj is a landscaped masterpiece filled with trees, gardens and statues and is one of Zagreb's major tourist attraction.

Background .....

The Monumental Cemetery Mirogoj was founded in 1876 on the property of Ljudevit Gaj, leader of the Croatian national revival.
The new cemetery substituted eight cemeteries active at that time. It was projected by Herman Bollé (1845-1926), a Friedrich von Schmidt's student.

Herman Bollé had a French origin and descended from a family of German architects. He lived in Croatia for half a century and with his works had a big impact in Zagreb (especially with the reconstruction of the Cathedral) and in the whole country.

In 1879 started in Mirogoj the construction of the magnificent arcades, with cupolas, central portals and the church. The arcades were finished in 1917 while the central part in 1929.

The Neo-Renaissance style of the cemetery is characterized by symmetry, balance, clear perspectives, a right division of lights and shadows and almost modern expression.

According with the first statute all confessions were equal, so catholic and orthodox crosses and jewish stars equally form the cupolas’ sky-line.

Mirogoj can therefore be considered is a very significant cemetery as a landscape realisation, as a art gallery and as a book of Croatian history.




















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Old September 15th, 2004, 07:35 AM   #2
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Old September 16th, 2004, 03:11 AM   #3
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The First Cemetery of Athens

The First Cemetery of Athens was founded around 1837, when Athens was also established as the capital city of the modern Greek state (1834). It spreads on the slope of the Ardittos hill, close to the Panathinaiko Stadium.

The style of the cemetery can be traced to the Romantic period.
Major Greek figures are buried in the First Cemetery: heroes of the Greek Revolution, politicians, poets, artists.

The collection of sculptures hosted in the cemetery can be considered as a most significant and genuine example of the quality attained in marble carving in Greece between 1850 and 1920.

Memorial art flourished during the 19th century and marked the rebirth of the new Greek state.

All kinds of monuments and ornamental patterns appeared which conveyed the influence of ancient times (stelae, columns, reliefs, sarcophagi, small neoclassical temples).

Apart from funerary artworks based on ancient models, some samples can be found of Byzantine and Egyptian patterns, as well as a remarkable number of copper masterpieces.

Grave of German archaelogist Heinrich Schliemann (1822 - 1890) Doric amphiprostyle temple:frieze with scenes of the mythical Troyan war and of Schliemann's excavations at the site of Troy and related finds (architect:
Ernest Ziller, 1892)


Kassimatis' grave, with statuettes of Faith Charity Hope and Justice 1890


Bust on Th. Komninos' grave 1883


Statue on G. Averof's grave (sculptor: D. Filippotis, 1904)
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Old September 16th, 2004, 03:24 AM   #4
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Cemeteries of Barcelona

COLLSEROLA
It is placed at the town of “Montcada i Reixac”. The most up to date for its inauguration date and because of its conception. The most extensive regarding the occupied area.

MONTJUÏC
Previously known as the South-West cemetery, Montjuïc was inaugurated on March the 17th 1883, following a project by the architect Leandro Albareda. The biggest regarding the number of graves and works of art.

LES CORTS
Located in the Avinguda Joan XXIII, between the University Schools and the “Barça” football stadium, it stands out for the underground funerary monument dedicated to 728 soldiers repatriated from overseas, Cuba and Philippine.

SANT GERVASI
Some historians cite the year 1853 as the inauguration date even though the official date is July the 1st of 1897.
Maybe this is the one with the best scenery, with Barcelona at its foot and the Mediterranean Sea in the back.

SARRIÀ
The first date of burials come from 1922, when Sarrià, a small village till then, becomes part of Barcelona.

SANTS
It was built according to the designs of Jaime Gustà Bondia, an architect who co-operated in the 1888 World Fair (Universal Exhibition).

SANT ANDREU
One of the more surprising things is the disparity between the old neo-classic part and the modern one.
Here is the outstanding sculpture dedicated in 1940 to the soldiers of the Spanish Civil War.

HORTA
With a neo-classic style, it is the city’s smallest.
Here is buried Francesc Mirò Sants, president of the F.C. Barcelona, during whose term the “Camp Nou” was inaugurated.

POBLENOU
Known as “Cementiri Vell” or “de l’Est”, it is the most ancient cemetery of the city (May 1818). Its construction started in 1773, thanks to Bishop Josè Climent, who wanted to change the custom of Barcelona’s inhabitants of burying in parish and convent graveyards.





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Old September 16th, 2004, 03:31 AM   #5
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Cemeteries of Lituania

Antakalnis’ cemetery
Antakalnis’ cemetery in Vilnius Established at the beginning of the 19th century. Soldiers of the World War I and the World War II had been buried in this cemetery.
Recently, the place of the eternal rest for the artists, writers, scientists and the victims of the Soviet terror in 1991-1992 either.

Bernardines and Rasos cemeteries in Vilnius
The two oldest cemeteries of the city, with remaining characteristic monuments of the edge of the 19th and 20th century. Recently the restoration of some monuments has taken place with the purpose to get more attention from the tourists and local society.

The Old Caraites cemetery of Trakai
The Old Caraites cemetery of Trakai, 30 km from Vilnius Established in the 15th century.
Tombstones with carved words of the prayer in Hebrew remained in the oldest part of the cemetery.
The monuments of the 19th century are with both – Hebrew and Russian - inscriptions.

Tartar cemetery
Tartar cemetery of the Village of the 40 Tartars, 25 km from Vilnius
Established in the 15th c. Inscriptions of the monuments remained from the 17th century.

Rasos Cemetery in Vilnius. - Central Chapel of the cemetery.


Bernardines Cemetery in Vilnius.


Antakalnis Cemetery in Vilnius. The Memorial to the Victims of the 13th of January (the monument to the victims of Soviet terror of 1991)


The Old Cemetery of Village of 40 Tartars.


Stone tombstone of the 16th century in oldest part of the Karaites Cemetery in Trakai.
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Old September 16th, 2004, 06:47 AM   #6
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Ljubljana Slovenia - Zale Cemetery

Zale, which is an old Slavic word for a cemetery, is the main cemetery of the city of Ljubljana. It was founded in 1906 and is still in use today. In the years 1938/40 its design was made by architect Joze Plecnik (1872-1957), who was undoubtedly the most important figure in the history of Slovene architecture.

Behind a symmetrical entry building, which is a combination of two wings joined by a peristyle, is a park with individual chapels and signs. The central alley ends with the funeral room. Beside this exceptional complex of Plecnik, the importance of the cemetery lies also in the tombs and tombstones of notable Slovenian personalities, which are works of the most important Slovenian artists.

Through the cemetery runs the Pathway of Memory and Companionship, in memory of a barbed wire fence, which surrounded the city from 1942 until 1945. After the war it was developed into the 30 km track around the city with the aim to provide a green recreational facility.

The new part of the cemetery was designed in 1988 by architect Marko Music. Design for this city of the dead shows his respect for Plecnik's work and his orientation towards classical tradition of antiquity and ancient Egypt.

Cemetery Zale is of great significance to Slovenian culture. At the same time its high artistic quality presents it also as unique among European cemeteries.

Entry triumphal arch (By Jože Plečnik 1938/40)


Fountain of life (By Zdenko Kalin 1965)


Tomb of Blumauer (By Jože Plečnik 1942)




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Old September 16th, 2004, 06:57 AM   #7
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Cemetery "Liberators of Belgrade"

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Old September 17th, 2004, 12:10 PM   #8
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beautiful, I especially like the Zagreb one.
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Old September 17th, 2004, 04:38 PM   #9
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Riga, Latvia has some valuable ones, my pictures (have lost one album ):
Mikela kapi - full with sculptures


Bralu kapi - large Art Deco monument for decesaed WW I soldiers:




Meza kapi - enormous
Chapel
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Old May 7th, 2005, 04:20 PM   #10
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Powazki Cemetery, Warsaw

Powązki Cemetery (Polish Cmentarz powązkowski) is the oldest and most famous cemetery in Warsaw, Poland, which is situated in the western part of the city. It contains a mausoleum with memorials to many of the greats in Polish history including many interred since 1925 along the "Avenue of the Meritorious" (Aleja Zasłużonych). It has also a very large military section for the graves of those who fought and died for their country in the past 200 years including the large number of those involved in the ill-fated Warsaw Uprising against the Nazis during World War II, the Battle of Warsaw and the September Campaign.

Like many of the old European cemeteries, Powązki's tombstones were created by some of the most renowned Polish sculptors that depict the different styles of architecture and sculpture at various times in history.

On Zaduszki (November 1) in Warsaw, vigils are held not only in the Roman Catholic cemeteries, but in the Protestant, Muslim, Jewish and Orthodox cemeteries as well. At Powązki cemetery, all the graves are decorated with candles.

A large part of the Powązki Cemetery is occupied by graves of Polish soldiers who fell in the Warsaw Uprising. Most of the graves were exhumated between 1945 and 1953 from the streets of Warsaw. In many cases the name of the soldiers remains unknown and the graves are marked only by the number of the Polish Red Cross identification number.

Until the early 1950s, brothers in arms of many fallen soldiers organised exhumation of their colleagues on their own and there are many quarters where soldiers of specific units are buried. There are also several mass graves of (mostly unknown) civilian victims of German terror during World War II and the Warsaw Uprising located in the cemetery.



Graves of Polish soldiers who fell in the Polish Defence War of 1939



Graves of Polish soldiers who fell in the Warsaw Uprising







Grave of Władysław Szpilman, known from "the pianist"



Graves of polish soldiers died in WW2



Kieslowski's grave

Do you remember "rosemary's baby" film? And mia farrow singing "lalalalalala..."
It's a grave of composer of this music theme, great jazz composer, also for
films, f.e. Polanski's films. His album "Astigmatic" is considered milestone for european jazz and generally is in the first 100 on the lists of all time greatest jazz albums.
Krzysztof Komeda



















Powazki on 1st November has wonderful atmosphere

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Old May 7th, 2005, 07:34 PM   #11
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The Northern Cemetery was inaugurated in 1827 and the oldest part is a Memorial Park in French classical style. The Crematoria Chapel interior is inspired by Brunelleschi's Old Sacristy in San Lorenzo Basilica (Florence).
The numerous mausoleums are formidable grave super-structures. Many of the memorial monuments are exquisite pieces of sculpture in marble, granite or bronze. The cemetery has much to offer in cultural, society and personal history.
The memorials tell their story of upper class people, scientists, artists and others who have left their prints in Swedish history. Several Nobel prizemen are buried here and also the donor himself, Alfred Nobel.

Skogskyrkogården (The Woodland Cemetery) constructed in 1917-40 is the result of an international architecture competition with the victors Gunnar Asplund and Sigurd Lewerentz.
In 1994 Skogskyrkogården was inscribed on UNESCO¡s World Heritage List motivated as follows: "Skogskyrkogården is an outstandingly successful example of a designed cultural landscape that is ideally suited to its purpose as a cemetery. The creation of Asplund and Lewerentz at Skogskyrkogården established a new form of cemetery that has exerted a profound influence on cemetery design throughout the world".
The Fondazione Benetton Studi Ricerche dedicated the 1995 Premio Internazionale Carlo Scarpa per il Giardino to Skogskyrkogïrden.





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Old May 8th, 2005, 01:30 AM   #12
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Milano: Cimitero Monumentale



The Milan Monumental Cemetery is located in an area of 250,000 mq. Inaugurated in 1866, it was designed by the architect Carlo Maciachini (1818-1899).
The construction first met the hygienic and town-planning needs linked to the presence of a high number of burial places inside the town. Moreover, the Municipality wanted to give the community a representative place by joining the cult of the dead. Within its walls, Monumentale gives hospitality to graves of different cults an religions, including the sections for non-Catholics and Jews.
The work of Maciachini includes different stylists suggestions according to the eclectic taste of the age and it joins together the Pisano Gothic and the Lumbard Romanesque style with some inserts imitating the Byzantine style.
The entrance square is dominated by the Memorial Chapel Famedio, a successful neologism indicating the temple dedicated to fame and giving hospitality to famous and well-deserving men.
The sculptures and building of the Monumental Cemetery show the town historical events and its artistic history from Realism and Eclecticism, to Liberty and Symbolism until the contemporary age, as if it were a real museum in the open air where the main Italian artists are represented.







































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Old May 8th, 2005, 11:37 AM   #13
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Any photos from Vienna?
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