daily menu » rate the banner | guess the city | one on oneforums map | privacy policy (aug.2, 2013) | DMCA policy | flipboard magazine

Go Back   SkyscraperCity > Infrastructure and Mobility Forums > Subways and Urban Transport

Subways and Urban Transport Metros, subways, light rail, trams, buses and other local transport systems



Reply

 
Thread Tools
Old January 29th, 2012, 11:08 PM   #381
AlekseyVT
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: Moscow City
Posts: 8,263
Likes (Received): 6732

45) June 26, 1916 - Arkhangelsk:

Arkhangelsk Tramway was the last tram system, which was opened in Russian Empire. During the all period of own existence, it was also the most northern tram system in the world (64°32′N). Before 1916, this record belonged to the tram system in Trondheim, Norway (63°25′N), which was opened on December 2, 1901. Currently this status again belong to Trondheim Tramway.

Early history

Arkhangelsk, formerly known as Archangel in English, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Region. It lies on both banks of the Northern Dvina River near its exit into the White Sea in the north of European Russia. The city spreads for over 40 kilometers (25 miles) along the banks of the river and numerous islands of its delta. Arkhangelsk was the chief seaport of medieval Russia, until 1703. The city is located at the northern end of a 1133 km (704 miles) long railroad, connecting it to Moscow via Vologda and Yaroslavl.

The area where Arkhangelsk is situated was known to the Vikings as Bjarmaland. Viking adventurer Ohthere from Hålogaland told from his travels circa 870 of an area by a river and the White Sea with many buildings. This was probably the place later known as Arkhangelsk. According to Icelandic historian Snorri Sturluson there was a Viking raid on this area in 1027, led by Tore Hund.

In 1989, an unusually rich silver treasure was found by the mouth of Dvina, right next to present-day Arkhangelsk. It was probably buried in the beginning of the 12th century, and contained articles that may have been up to 200 years old at that time. Most of the findings are made up by a total of 1.6 kg (3.53 lb) of silver, mostly coins. Jewelry and pieces of jewelry hail from Russia or neighbouring areas. Most coins were German, but there was also a smaller number of Kufan, English, Bohemian, Hungarian, Danish, Swedish and Norwegian coins. It is hard to place this find historically until further research is completed. There are at least two possible interpretations. It may be a treasure belonging to the society outlined by the Norse source material. Generally such finds, whether from Scandinavia, the Baltic area or Russia, are closely tied to well-established agricultural societies with considerable trade activity. Alternatively, like the Russian scientists who published the find in 1992, one may see it as an evidence of a stronger force of Russian colonisation than previously thought.

In the 12th century, the Novgorodians established the Archangel Michael Monastery in the estuary of the Northern Dvina. The main trade center of the area at that time was Kholmogory, located 75 km (46.60 miles) southeast of Arkhangelsk, up the Dvina River, about 10 km (6.21 miles) downstream from where the Pinega River flows into the Dvina. Written sources indicate that Kholmogory existed early in the 12th century, but there is no archeological material to illuminate the early history of the town. It is not known whether this settlement was originally Russian, or if it goes back to pre-Russian times. In the center of the small town (or Gorodok) that is there today is a large mound of building remains and river sand, but it has not been archeologically excavated.

Arkhangelsk came to be important in the rivalry between Norwegian and Russian interests in the northern areas. From Novgorod Republic, the Russian interest sphere was extended far north to the Kola Peninsula in the 12th century. However, here Norway enforced taxes and rights to the fur trade. A compromise agreement entered in 1251 was soon broken. In 1411, Yakov Stepanovitch from Novogorod went to attack Northern Norway. This was the beginning of a series of clashes, and in 1419 Norwegian ships with 500 soldiers entered the White Sea. The "Murmaners", as the Norwegians were called, plundered many Russian settlements along the coast, among them the Archangel Michael Monastery. Novgorod managed to drive the Norwegians back. However, in 1478 the area was taken over by Grand Prince of Moscow Ivan III and passed to Muscovy with the rest of Novgorod Republic.

Three English ships set out to find the Northeast passage to China in 1553; two disappeared, and one ended up in the White Sea, eventually coming across Arkhangelsk. Ivan the Terrible found out about this, and brokered a trade agreement with the ship's captain Richard Chancellor. It led to the establishment of the first diplomatic relations between Russia and England. Trade privileges were officially granted to English merchants in 1555, leading to the founding of the "Company of Merchant Adventurers", which began sending ships annually into the estuary of the Northern Dvina. Dutch merchants also started bringing their ships into the White Sea from the 1560s. Scottish and English merchants also traded in the 16th century; however, by the 17th century it was mainly the Dutch that sailed to the White Sea area. In 1584, Ivan the Terrible ordered to found town of New Kholmogory (on August 1, 1613 it was officially renamed into Arkhangelsk after the nearby Archangel Michael Monastery). At the time access to the Baltic Sea was still mostly controlled by Sweden, so while Arkhangelsk was icebound in winter, it remained Moscow's almost sole link to the sea-trade. Since late-1580s, Arkhangelsk become centre of Russian foreign trade, which brought 60% of profit into state treasury. Local inhabitants, called Pomors, were the first to explore trade routes to Northern Siberia as far as the trans-Urals city of Mangazeya and beyond.

In 1693, Russian Emperor Peter I ordered the creation of a state shipyard in Arkhangelsk. A year later the ships "Svyatoye Prorochestvo" ("Holy Prophecy"), "Apostol Pavel" ("Apostle Paul") and the yacht "Svyatoy Pyotr" ("Saint Peter") were sailing in the White Sea. Peter I visited Arkhangelsk three times - in 1693, 1694 and 1702. In 1708 Arkhangelsk become centre of newly-founded Arkhangelsk Governorate. However Peter I also realized that Arkhangelsk would always be limited as a port due to the five months of ice cover, and after a successful campaign against Swedish armies in the Baltic area, he founded Saint Petersburg in 1703. In 1722, one year after victory in the Great Northern War against Sweden, Peter I decreed that Arkhangelsk should no longer accept goods more than it was sufficient for the town itself (for the so-called domestic consumption). It was due to the Emperor's will to shift all international marine trade to Saint Petersburg. This factor contributed a lot to the deterioration of Arkhangelsk that continued up to 1762 when this decree was canceled.

On November 19, 1711 in the village Denisovka, Arkhangelsk Governorate, on an island not far from Kholmogory, was born great Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov. In 1730, at nineteen, Lomonosov joined a caravan traveling to Moscow, where he obtained admission into the Slavic Greek Latin Academy. Mikhail Lomonosov was the founder of Russian native science. He made important contributions to literature, education, and science. Among his discoveries was the atmosphere of Venus (1761). His spheres of science were natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, art, philology, optical devices and others. Lomonosov was also a poet, who created the basis of the modern Russian literary language. Eager to improve Russia’s educational system, in 1755, Lomonosov joined his patron Count Ivan Shuvalov in founding the Moscow State University. He is most famous native of Arkhangelsk Region.

Arkhangelsk declined in the 18th century as the Baltic trade became ever more important. However, during Napoleonic Wars and Continental Blockade of Great Britain (1807-1813), Arkhangelsk was only Russian port, opened for colonial goods. In the early years of the 19th century, the arrest and prolonged detention by the Russian authorities of John Bellingham, an English export representative based at Arkhangelsk, was the indirect cause of Bellingham later assassinating British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval (in 1812). The first city newspaper was published in 1838, the first theatre was opened in 1846, the City Public Museum - in 1859.

In 1897 population of Arkhangelsk was 21 thousand people. Arkhangelsk's economy revived at the end of the 19th century when a railway to Moscow was completed and timber became a major export. On November 3, 1898 was opened railway between Arkhangelsk and Moscow via Vologda and Yaroslavl. Construction of the Northern Railway between Arkhangelsk and Moscow was been completed on June 3, 1913, after opening of rail bridge across Volga River in Yaroslavl. In 1914, in Arkhangelsk were 26 sawmills, at which worked 11.000 people. The city served as an important base for Arctic exploration and the establishment of shipping along the Northern Sea Route. More than 200 polar research expeditions went from Arkhangelsk port, including expeditions of Vasily Chichagov (in 1765-1766), Fyodor Litke (1821-1824), Pyotr Pakhtusov (1832-1835), Vladimir Rusanov (1908-1913) and Georgy Sedov (1912-1914). In 1915 was opened Icebreaking Bureau, which provided shipping during winter period. Originally there were 13 icebreakers in Arkhangelsk.

In 1894 at Solombala Island (district of Arkhangelsk) was opened first public library. In 1897 in Arkhangelsk began to operate the first telephone station. By the end of 1915, there were 780 telephone subscribers in the city. In 1903 was put into operation first urban water-conduit. In 1907 was opened first bus route - from Bishop street (now Uritsky street) to the end of Trinity Avenue; along the Northern Dvina Embankment. Therefore, Arkhangelsk became first Russian city, where bus became to be used as kind of public transport. The first electric lighting was installed in 1909 at Trinity Avenue and Northern Dvina Embankment. In 1911 at Solombala Island was opened shipyard for construction and repairment of the ships. On September 28, 1913 in Arkhangelsk was put into operation radio station, the first in the Northern Russia.

End of 19th century. View from the Northern Dvina River. Archangel Michael Church (left), Trinity Cathedral (centre) and Nativity Church (right):

АНфиса

End of 19th century. Loading of a cod:

Black&white
__________________

geometarkv liked this post
AlekseyVT no está en línea   Reply With Quote

Sponsored Links
 
Old January 29th, 2012, 11:09 PM   #382
AlekseyVT
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: Moscow City
Posts: 8,263
Likes (Received): 6732

Electric tram network

The idea of construction of tram system in Arkhangelsk began to discussed in 1898. By 1913, after completion of construction of Northern Railway between Moscow and Arkhangelsk, city economy began to increase. For this reason, in 1913 was decided to build urban tram network. At those times there were many wooden houses in Arkhangelsk. For the safety of wooden houses, it was decided to build electric system. The supervisors of construction of electric tram were Yakov Leizinger (Head of Arkhangelsk) and engineer Konstantin Repin, who was author of the project of electrification of horse-drawn tramline in Pskov (in 1911-1912). Repin supervised all construction works as well as purchasing of equipment.

The construction works started in 1914. On September 15, 1914 Yakov Leizinger died. Despite of Leizinger's death and beginning of WWI, Konstantin Repin brought the case to the end. Within three years, there were laid tramlines, installed overhead lines, and were built tram depot and traction substation. There were laid two-track tramlines (gauge - 1524 mm). The traction substation was built in 1914 at #13 Perm street (now Suvorov street). Tram depot was built at the crossing of Post Highway (now Leningrad street) and Northern Dvina Embankment (now Chapayev street). During WWI, Arkhangelsk was a major port of entry for Allied aid. Cargo tonnage of Arkhangelsk seaport increased in 20 times.

The tramcars were made at Mytishchi Plant near Moscow. The tram system was opened on June 25, 1916. The first tram trip was made from depot to the building of City Council (now Northern State Medical University) at the crossing of Trinity Avenue and Police street (now Freedom street). The first passengers were city officials and merchants. Next day it was opened for all passengers. Originally there operated 8 tramcars in opening day. In general, by the end of 1916 there were 17 passenger tramcars in Arkhangelsk. Ten of those tramcars (№№ 11-20) were made at Mytishchi Plant in 1915, another seven (№№ 21-27) - in 1916. In addition, there were service tramcars like snowplow.

There were two routes: 1) Bishop street (now Uritsky street) - Trinity Avenue - Police street (now Freedom street); 2) Police street (now Freedom street) - Trinity Avenue - Perm street (now Suvorov street). The exploitation of tram system was very profitable - daily profit was more than 1000 rubles. Travel prices were 7 kopecks or 0.07 rubles at the route from Bishop street (now Uritsky street) to the City Council building and 10 kopecks or 0.10 rubles for the trip to the Perm street (now Suvorov street). Very soon, wanting to have more profit, city officials decided to increase those prices to 10 and 15 kopecks respectively. It was introduced since July 2, 1916. As result, for first day daily profit increased to 1949 rubles (July 2), but very soon decreased to 1248 rubles (July 5). The annual passenger traffic was 3.107.600 people.

The first disastrous accident happened on November 3, 1916 at the crossing of Trinity Avenue and Cathedral street (now Karl Liebknecht street). As result, pedestrian Pyotr Savinov lost own leg and died on the way to the city hospital. Fortunately, similar incidents were very rare.

On February 2, 1917 was opened tramline at the Solombala Island, the historical district of Arkhangelsk. This district is located at the other bank of small Kuznechikha River. This river divide city into two parts. Before Revolution, during summer period Solombala Island was connected by the temporary wooden bridge with the central part of the city. There was no permanent communication across Kuznechikha River. For this reason, during winter seasons tram tracks were laid directly on the temporary wooden supports on the ice (similar method was used in St. Petersburg during 1895-1910 and in Nizhny Novgorod during 1896-1910s). Later was built tramline to the 6th Versta (now 3rd Sawmill). In general, there were 14.84 km of tramlines.

After October Revolution of 1917, Bolsheviks took power in Arkhangelsk. The city resisted Bolshevik rule from 1918 to 1920 and was a stronghold of the anti-Bolshevik White Army supported by the military intervention of British-led Entente forces along an Allied expedition, including a North American contingent known as the "Polar Bear Expedition". During the Russian Civil War, on August 2, 1918 Arkhangelsk was occupied by the Western powers who had been allied in the First World War. It became administrative centre of Northern Region, which was established on the day of beginning of Western occupation. On January 15, 1919 Lieutenant-General Yevgeny Miller, authoritarian commander of White Army, became General-Governor of Northern Region. As result, there was established military dictatorship.

British and American aggressors have established a colonial regime at the occupied territories of Russian Arctic. They declared martial law, imposed military courts, and plundered northern towns (43 million kg. of different goods to the amount of 950 million gold rubles). American troops have served like chasteners. According to the order of Yevgeny Miller, in the uncompleted Naval base in Murmansk Region was organized concentration camp. The supervisors of the concentration camp were British officers, who invented similar brutal methods of isolation of prisoners and oppositionists during Second Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902. Near 50 thousands of Russians (about 10% of population of occupied territories) were imprisoned. Only in Arkhangelsk were executed 8000 prisoners and 1020 prisoners died from hunger, cold and disease.

Western aggressors tried to capture more Russian territories. However, due to large number of prisons and camps, this regime became unpopular in the region. With time, defence of Red Army became stronger and carried successful counterattacks. The Battle of Tulgas was fought between Allied and Soviet Bolshevik troops on the Northern Dvina River. It took place on the day the armistice ending World War I was signed, November 11, 1918, and is sometimes referred to as the "Peace Day's Bloody Battle". It ended with the fall of Tulgas to Communist forces, who then proceeded on with another offensive action in January of 1919, which ended with the capture of Shenkursk.

In January 1919, after end of WWI, Western aggression became very unpopular in British society. British citizens demanded that the government stop intervention and return the troops home. The discipline in the Western occupation troops has fallen, there were many cases of desertion and sabotage. Military tribunals of Allied forces sentenced the own countrymen to the death penalty. After an unsuccessful advance against the Red Army along the Northern Dvina in the summer of 1919, British forces withdrew from the region. Western occupiers were forced to leave Arkhangelsk and whole Russian Arctic, and Miller's men faced the enemy alone. In February 1920, Yevgeny Miller was evacuated from Arkhangelsk for Norway. On February 20, 1920 Red Army took power in Arkhangelsk.

However, despite of all political changes, tram operation in Arkhangelsk was not suspended during First World War, February and October Revolutions and Russian Civil War. Each power tried to save tram network for the normal exploitation. As result, in 1920 Arkhangelsk Tramway became one of the busiest tram system in relative terms, according to ratio "annual traffic / urban population". It was highly regarded at the First All-Russian Tram Conference, which was held in Moscow during December 1922.

Approximate scheme of the earlier tramlines at the old map of Arkhangelsk:
X - site of the location of old tram depot;
Orange line - service line from tram depot to the Bishop street (now Uritsky street);
Red line - tram route "Bishop street (now Uritsky street) - Police street (now Freedom street)";
Green line - tram route "Police street (now Freedom street) - Perm street (now Suvorov street)";
Blue line - tram route "Central part - Solombala Island":

Wikipedia
CLICKABLE
__________________

geometarkv liked this post
AlekseyVT no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 29th, 2012, 11:11 PM   #383
AlekseyVT
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: Moscow City
Posts: 8,263
Likes (Received): 6732

Early-1910s. Yakov Leizinger (left; 1855-1914), who was Head of City and initiator of construction of tram system, near the House of Peter the Great in Arkhangelsk:

martinv

1914-1916, construction of the electric tram network:

АНфиса

Сonstruction of the electric tram network:

emezk
AlekseyVT no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 29th, 2012, 11:12 PM   #384
AlekseyVT
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: Moscow City
Posts: 8,263
Likes (Received): 6732

1916, Mytishchi tramcar in the tram depot:

Моршнев

1916, biaxial snowplow in Arkhangelsk:

Государственный архив Архангельской области

1916-1917, tramcar at Bishop street (now Uritsky street):

А. А. Поплавский

1916, Repin's team near tram depot. Konstantin Repin (supervisor of construction) in the centre of group:

А. А. Поплавский
__________________

geometarkv liked this post
AlekseyVT no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 29th, 2012, 11:14 PM   #385
AlekseyVT
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: Moscow City
Posts: 8,263
Likes (Received): 6732

1916, tramcar near the building of City Council (now Northern State Medical University) at the crossing of Trinity Avenue and Police street (now Freedom street):

АНфиса

1916, city officials near tramcar:

vaga-land

1916. Tramcar at Trinity Avenue between Perm street (now Suvorov street) and Vologda street:

АНфиса

1918, Trinity Avenue. Monument to Mikhail Lomonosov:

Black&white

1918, Trinity Avenue:

martinv

1918, Trinity Avenue:

Black&white

1916-1917, first tram workers. Controller Rautsen (centre) with tram drivers Khristina Andreyeva (left) and Korelskaya (right):

fred-agfest
__________________

geometarkv liked this post
AlekseyVT no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 29th, 2012, 11:16 PM   #386
AlekseyVT
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: Moscow City
Posts: 8,263
Likes (Received): 6732

August 1918. British and American occupiers in Arkhangelsk:

АНфиса

1919, Trinity Avenue:

АНфиса

1919, Sharvin House (now Arkhangelsk Youth Theatre named after Viktor Panov) at the crossing of Trinity Avenue and Assumption street (now Loginov street). Here was located government of Northern Region:

vaga-land

Spring 1919. Crossing of Trinity Avenue and Freedom street:

vaga-land
__________________

geometarkv liked this post

Last edited by AlekseyVT; May 26th, 2012 at 02:31 PM.
AlekseyVT no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 29th, 2012, 11:17 PM   #387
AlekseyVT
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: Moscow City
Posts: 8,263
Likes (Received): 6732

June 25, 1919. The filming of Western occupiers near Archangel Michael Cathedral:

Black&white

1919, tramline near House of Governor at Trinity Avenue. During Western intervention, there were located embassies of three states - France, Italy and United States:

martinv

1919, tramcar near building of City Council:

martinv

1919, tramline near Trinity Cathedral:

martinv
AlekseyVT no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 29th, 2012, 11:18 PM   #388
AlekseyVT
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: Moscow City
Posts: 8,263
Likes (Received): 6732

Historical video, which was made by Western interventionists during 1918-1919 (cadres with Arkhangelsk tramcars: 3:55 - 5:49):


1918, crossing of the Trinity Avenue and Perm street (now Suvorov street). These cadres were made by Western occupiers:

old-arkhangelsk


old-arkhangelsk


old-arkhangelsk


old-arkhangelsk

September 1918. Strikebreakers in Arkhangelsk - due to strike of tram workers, American soldiers worked by tram drivers for short period:

fred-agfest
AlekseyVT no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 29th, 2012, 11:22 PM   #389
AlekseyVT
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: Moscow City
Posts: 8,263
Likes (Received): 6732

Some more historical video made by Western occupiers with description of the places. Cadres with Arkhangelsk tramcars:
02:13 - 02:20. Northern Dvina Embankment, view at the Annunciation Church;
06:19 - 06:29. German Settlement (part of city between Kuznechikha River and building of City Council);
06:30 - 06:34. Trinity Avenue near Police street (now Freedom street);
07:24 - 07:27. German Settlement (part of city between Kuznechikha River and building of City Council);
07:33 - 07:40. Trinity Cathedral;
08:54 - 08:57. Transfiguration Naval Cathedral:



Early-20th century, funeral procession from Solombala Island. Temporary wooden bridge across Kuznechikha River:

martinv

"On-ice" tram on the Kuznechikha River, which was part of Arkhangelsk Tramway - the last tram system, which was opened in Russian Empire. It's interesting that "on-ice" tramline was been part of most earlier Russia's electric tram systems (in Saint Petersburg and Nizhny Novgorod):

АНфиса

Winter 1918/1919. Right way was built for tramline to Solombala Island, wooden bridge (left) - for opposite direction:

Михаил Лощилов

"On-ice" tram on the Kuznechikha River. Remains of the temporary wooden bridge (left):

Виталий В
__________________

geometarkv liked this post
AlekseyVT no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 29th, 2012, 11:22 PM   #390
AlekseyVT
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: Moscow City
Posts: 8,263
Likes (Received): 6732

"On-ice" tram on the Kuznechikha River:

Виталий В

"On-ice" tramline across Kuznechikha River:

vaga-land

"On-ice" tram on the Kuznechikha River:

АНфиса

"On-ice" tram on the route "City centre - Solombala Island":

А. А. Поплавский

Dismantling of "on-ice" tramline due to coming of spring thaw:

АНфиса
__________________

geometarkv, BriedisUnIzlietne liked this post
AlekseyVT no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old February 8th, 2012, 12:42 AM   #391
AlekseyVT
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: Moscow City
Posts: 8,263
Likes (Received): 6732

SUMMARY

GENERAL DEVELOPMENT AND TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS IN RUSSIA BEFORE WWI (short review)

In general, last decades of the existance of Russian Empire were golden times for welfare and rapid growth of Russian industry. There were built many thousand kilometers of railways across all country, which greatly improved communication between cities. The symbol of great development of Russian railways became Trans-Siberian Magistral, which was completed in 1916 and connected European part of Russia with Far Eastern Region. As result, it led to the fast development of the Russian regions. Many local and foreign business people opened own factories, plants and other commercial enterprises. One after another Russian cities lost its patriarchal rural view and turned in the "centres of growth".

Among the most famous foreign entrepreneurs, who worked in Russia in this period, were Nobel brothers - Ludvig, Alfred and Robert. Their father Immanuel Nobel (1801-1872) moved to Russia from Sweden in 1838, to sell his inventions in Saint Petersburg, where he lived for two decades with his family. Among his successful creations was an improved version of an underwater exploding mine that personally interested Emperor Nicholas I of Russia. Immanuel founded a war supplies factory, "Fonderies et Ateliers Mécaniques Nobel Fils", which turned out to be a very profitable business. The partnership of his sons - "Branobel" - carried out oil extraction works at the Apsheron peninsula and exported oil products to Europe. Ludvig Nobel (1831-1888), older brother of Alfred Nobel (founder of the Nobel Prize), is credited with creating the Russian oil industry. He invented oil tankers, and better refineries, pipelines. Before 1880 the United States was Russia's teacher in most aspects of the oil business. The roles were reversed in some respects by Nobel. The oil business lacked technical know-how and scientific methodology. To rectify this, Nobel established technical chemical research labs in Baku. These research centers were very active and when something of commercial interest was found, Nobel was fast in trying the new products out on a large scale. Dozens of scientists were employed, finding ways to treat oil, developing new uses for oil, and developing products derived from oil. Creation of first oil tankers for the Caspian Sea is also connected with the Nobels. Ludvig Nobel successfully developed the idea of the Artemyev brothers, Astrakhan ship owners, who were the first to transport oil and oil products not in tanks, but in cargo holds of their vessels. But unlike them Ludvig Nobel built metal tankers. The world's first successful oil tanker was Nobel's "Zoroaster". Ludvig designed this in Sweden with Sven Almqvist. The contract to build it was signed January 1878, and it made its first run later that year from Baku to Astrakhan. Ludvig Nobel died in 1888 and was buried in the Smolensk Lutheran Cemetery in Saint Petersburg. His son Emanuel (1859-1932) was a Head of "Branobel" partnership until own emigration in 1918.

In 1878 great Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov (1853-1939) invented first world’s cylindric oil depot in Baku. Such form was a more optimal for oil storage as well as more economical and simplier for mounting. Today modern cylindrical depots are being built worldwide according to the basic principles, developed by Vladimir Shukhov. His projects were instrumental in constructing of oil pipeline, the first in the Russian Empire, between Balkhany and Cherny Gorod near Baku (12 km, 1878 complete, used by the "Branobel"). Shukhov designed the first Trans-Caucasian kerosene pipeline between Baku and Batumi (835 km long) and Grozny-Tuapse pipeline (618 km long). A superior design for oil-tanker barges (less than half of the metal previously required), 150-meters long barges were built (mostly for the Volga River) as well as the first Russian seaworthy oil tanker ship. His approach to the ship strength analysis (using the model of a shell on an elastic foundation) was absolutely novel for that time. Shukhov designed inexpensive oil tanks with the bottom calculated as a membrane on elastic foundation. They became very popular among oil-producers of the Imperial Russia. By 1881, 130 such tanks were built in Baku alone. Shukhov made important contributions to the chemical industry. He designed and built an oil cracking plant. His patents (Shukhov cracking process - patent of Russian empire No. 12926 from November, 27th, 1891) on cracking were used to invalidate "Standard Oil"'s patents (Burton process – Patent of USA No. 1,049,667 on January 7, 1913) on oil refineries. He designed an original oil pump. Shukhov's pumps revolutionized Baku's oil industry allowing to increase its oil output. He designed one of the first furnaces that used the residual oil: before his works the residual oil was considered a waste and was discarded, due to his works it became recognized as an important technical product known as a fuel oil. These engineering solutions were revolutionary in oil industry, allowing for a long-distance transportation of oil products, including transportation across the Atlantic Ocean.

The other famous dynasty of the foreign entrepreneurs in Russia was Siemens family. In 1853, Carl Heinrich Siemens traveled to Saint Petersburg where he established the second international branch office of his brothers' company "Siemens & Halske". Siemens had a contract for constructing the Russian telegraph network at the time. In his management of the telegraph installations, Carl soon proved to be a competent entrepreneur who was unafraid to make decisions, and in 1853 he was accorded power of attorney for the Russian side of the business. In 1855 the business was turned into a subsidiary, directed independently by Carl Siemens on the basis of his own capital assets. The four telegraph lines (Moscow-Kyiv-Odessa-Sevastopol, St. Petersburg-Kronstadt, St. Petersburg-Helsinki-Turku and St. Petersburg-Warsaw) were completed in 1855. Its total lenght was more than 9000 km. In 1869 Carl went to London after the death of his wife Mariya (née Kapherr), the daughter of a St. Petersburg banker and merchant, and spent the next ten years helping in his brother Wilhelm’s business. A further reason for his departure was almost certainly the decline in business in Russia, which made staying on there a less attractive proposition. In 1881 Carl Siemens, who was no longer comfortable in London in the shadow of his older brother Wilhelm, returned to St. Petersburg and again improved the performance of the Russian business. The "All-Russian Industrial and Art Exhibition" of 1882 in Moscow provided a good opportunity for repositioning the company: "Siemens" built an electrically powered railroad specifically for this exhibition, which was designed to demonstrate "the use of electricity for operating trains". For this achievement, the company was awarded a high distinction: the right to bear the imperial double eagle in its letterhead. In the 1880s, "Siemens & Halske" manufactured telegraph equipment and railway signal systems as well as accessories for electric lighting. The manufacture of cables was expanded with the company’s own cable factory, which had been planned since 1878 and was built on a plot of land acquired in 1879 on the Neva estuary in St. Petersburg. In addition, the Russian Siemens company increasingly concentrated on lighting. Carl Siemens attempted to gain entry into the Russian market by obtaining concessions, and for this purpose founded the "Company for Electrical Lighting" together with other St. Petersburg firms in 1886. This so-called "Lighting Company", which had substantial headquarters in St. Petersburg, Moscow and Łódź, acquired a monopoly and received the right to lay cables and establish power plants. For his service to Russia, Carl Siemens was ennobled by Emperor Nicholas II in 1895.

In the end of 19th century, Russian scientists made many great fundamental inventions. The heating radiator was invented by Franz San Galli (1842-1908), a Polish-born Russian businessman living in St. Petersburg, between 1855–1857. In 1872 Russian engineer Alexander Lodygin (1847-1923) invented his filament lamp and obtained a Russian patent in 1874. Invented in 1876 by Pavel Yablochkov (1847-1894), the so-called "Yablochkov candle" was the first commercially viable electric carbon arc lamp. In 1900-1901 Russian botanist Mikhail Tsvet (1872-1919) invented adsorption chromatography. In the beginning of 20th century, Russian engineer and chemist Alexander Loran (1849 - after 1911) invented fire fighting foam, which was successfully tested in several experiments in 1902-1903. In 1904 Loran patented his invention, and developed the first foam extinguisher the same year.

The carbon arc welding could not have been created if not for the discovery of the electric arc by Sir Humphry Davy in 1800, later repeated independently by a Russian physicist Vasily Petrov (1761-1834) in 1802. Petrov studied electric arc and proposed its possible ways of usage, including for welding. The first arc welding method was introduced by Russian inventor Nikolay Benardos (1842-1905) in 1881 and later patented in 1887. Nikolay Slavyanov (1854–1897) was a Russian inventor who in 1888 introduced arc welding with consumable metal electrodes, or shielded metal arc welding, the second historical arc welding method after carbon arc welding invented earlier by Nikolay Benardos. The lightning detector was invented in 1894 by great Russian scientist Alexander Popov (1859-1906). It also was the first radio receiver in the world. Alexander Popov was the first person to demonstrate the practical application of electromagnetic radio waves.

In 1877 Russian inventor Fyodor Blinov (1827-1902) created tracked vehicle called "wagon moved on endless rails" (caterpillars). It lacked self-propelling and was horse-drawn. Blinov got a patent for his "wagon" the next year. Later, in 1881-1888 he created steam-powered caterpillar-tractor. This self-propelled crawler was successfully tested and showed at farmer's exhibition in 1896.

The first European steam-powered icebreaker, as well as the first ever metal-hull icebreaker was the Russian "Pilot", built in 1864 on orders of merchant and shipbuilder Mikhail Britnev (1822-1889). It had the bow altered to achieve an ice-clearing capability (20° raise from keel line). This allowed the "Pilot" to push itself on the top of the ice and consequently break it. Britnev fashioned the bow of his ship after the shape of old Pomor boats, which had been navigating icy waters of the White Sea and Barents Sea for centuries. "Pilot" was used between 1864-1890 for navigation in the Gulf of Finland between Kronstadt and Oranienbaum thus extending the summer navigation season by several weeks. The cold winter of 1870-1871 led to the international recognition of Britnev's design. That year the Elbe River and the port of Hamburg froze, which caused a prolonged halt of navigation and huge commercial losses. In such circumstances, Germans purchased the "Pilot"'s design from Britnev for some 300 rubles. Thus the German "Eisbrecher I" appeared in 1871, and other European countries soon followed the suit. Inspired by the success of the "Pilot", Mikhail Britnev built a second similar vessel "Boy" ("Battle" in Russian) in 1875 and a third "Booy" ("Buoy" in Russian) in 1889.

With its rounded shape and strong metal hull, "Pilot" had all the main features present in the modern icebreakers, of which is why it is often considered the first true icebreaker. Another contender for this title is icebreaker "Yermak", built in England between 1897-1898 for Russia according to the design of Vice-Admiral Stepan Makarov (1849-1904) and under his supervision. Russian icebreaker "Yermak" (named after Yermak, the conqueror of Siberia) was the first icebreaker able to ride over and crush pack ice. Makarov borrowed the main principles from "Pilot" and applied them for creation of the first polar icebreaker. Between 1899-1911 "Yermak" sailed in heavy ice conditions for more than 1000 days. At the beginning of the 20th century, several other countries began to operate purpose-built icebreakers. Most were coastal icebreakers, but Russia, and later, the Soviet Union, also built several oceangoing icebreakers of around 10.000 ton displacement, eventually converting to diesel-electric propulsion.

Russian "Vandal" and French "Petite-Pierre", launched in 1903, were the world's first diesel-powered ships (sources disagree over which of the two, "Vandal" or "Petite-Pierre", was the first). "Vandal" was the first equipped with fully functional diesel-electric transmission. "Vandal" was a designed by Karl Hagelin and Johny Johnson for "Branobel" company. It commenced commercial operation in the spring of 1903. "Vandal" was accidentally damaged on its maiden voyage, repaired and served on the Volga route for ten years. The positive experience led to the mass production of motor ships in Russia. By 1914, in Russia operated about 200 motor ships. It was much more than in other states, where motor ships began to produce only since 1911 (in Germany) or since 1912 (in Great Britain and Denmark).

In 1905 Nikolay Korotkov (1874-1920), Russian surgeon and a pioneer of 20th century vascular surgery, invented auscultatory technique for blood pressure measurement. In 1906 Prince Boris Galitzine (1862-1916) invented the first electromagnetic seismograph. The Aerosani, propeller-driven and running on skis, was built in 1909–1910 by the young Russian inventor Igor Sikorsky (1889-1972). There is some dispute over whether Aerosanis should be considered snowmobiles, as they are not propelled by tracks, but if they are, they would be the first snowmobiles developed. Adolphe Kégresse (1879-1943) designed an original caterpillar tracks system, called the Kégresse track, while working for Emperor Nicholas II of Russia between 1906 and 1916. These used a flexible belt rather than interlocking metal segments and could be fitted to a conventional car or truck to turn it into a half-track, suitable for use over soft ground, including snow. Conventional front wheels and steering were used but the wheel could be fitted with skis as seen in the upper right image. He applied it to several cars in the Royal garage including "Rolls-Royce" cars and "Packard" trucks. Although this was not a snowmobile, it could be thought as one of the ancestor of the modern concept.

In early-1910s Russians were made big successes in the developing of world aviation industry. Russian actor Gleb Kotelnikov (1872-1944) invented first world's knapsack parachute in 1911 (first in the hard casing and then in the soft pack) and braking parachute in 1912. It was successfully employed in 1914 during the World War I.

When the Wright brothers made the world’s first sustained heavier-than-air flight, they laid the foundation for what would become a major transport industry. Their flight in 1903 was just 11 years before what is often defined as the world’s first airliner. These airliners would change the world socially, economically, and politically in a way that had never been done before. If an airliner is defined as a plane intended for carrying multiple passengers in commercial service, the Russian "Ilya Muromets" was the first official passenger aircraft. The "Ilya Muromets" (Sikorsky S-22) was designed and constructed at the Russo-Baltic Carriage Factory (RBVZ) in Riga in 1913 by great Russian aircraft designer Igor Sikorsky (he is more known for further invention of helicopter in 1939). It was based on his earlier S-21 "Russky Vityaz" (or "Le Grand") - the first world's four-engine aircraft, which had played an important role in the development of Russian aviation and the multi-engine aircraft industries of the world. The "Ilya Muromets" was a luxurious aircraft with an isolated passenger saloon, wicker chairs, bedroom, lounge and a bathroom. The aircraft also had heating and electrical lighting. The "Ilya Muromets" first flew on December 10, 1913. On February 25, 1914, it took off for its first demonstration flight with 16 passengers aboard. From June 21 – June 23, it made a round-trip from Saint Petersburg to Kyiv in 14 hours and 38 minutes with one intermediate landing. If it had not been for World War I, the "Ilya Muromets" would have probably started passenger flights. Instead of this, it was turned into bomber for the Imperial Russian Air Force and became the first strategic bomber in the world.

The first aerial ramming in the world was committed by Russian pilot Pyotr Nesterov in 1914 during the First World War, and in the early stages of World War II the tactic was employed by Soviet pilots who called it taran for "battering ram"; the same word is used in the Polish, Ukrainian, Russian, and Bulgarian languages. Pyotr Nesterov (1887-1914) was also an aerobatics pioneer. The first effective filtering activated charcoal gas mask in the world was invented in 1915 during WWI by Russian chemist Nikolay Zelinsky (1861-1953).

"Zoroaster", the world's first successful oil tanker (built in 1877-1878):

Wikipedia

Russian cruiser "General-Admiral", which is considered as the first true armored cruiser (launched in 1873):

Wikipedia

"Velikiy Knyaz Konstantin", the first historical torpedo boat tender (1876-1877):

Wikipedia

"Yermak", the first polar icebreaker in the world (built in 1897-1898):

Wikipedia


Wikipedia
__________________

geometarkv liked this post
AlekseyVT no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old February 8th, 2012, 12:43 AM   #392
AlekseyVT
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: Moscow City
Posts: 8,263
Likes (Received): 6732

The aircraft Sikorsky "Russky Vityaz" (1913), or "Russian Knight", also called "Le Grand", the first four-engine aircraft in the world:

Wikipedia

The aircraft Sikorsky "Ilya Muromets" (1913), first official passenger aircraft in the world as well as first strategic bomber:

Wikipedia

Gleb Kotelnikov with his invention, the knapsack parachute (1911):

Wikipedia
__________________

geometarkv liked this post
AlekseyVT no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old February 8th, 2012, 12:50 AM   #393
AlekseyVT
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: Moscow City
Posts: 8,263
Likes (Received): 6732

In 1913 were national celebrations dedicated to the 300-anniversary of the establishment of the Romanov Royal Dynasty. Ironically, it became the last peaceful year for Russian Empire and the starting point for further statistics. Since then, Russia would be to compare itself with this golden year. In 1913, Russia was the world leader of agricultural production, world leader of industrial growth (6% per year) and European leader of population growth (1.5% per year). The population of Russian Empire greatly increased from 125.64 million people in 1897 to 175 million people in 1913. The Russia's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was 5th largest in the world. By nominal GDP, Russian economy was rapidly approaching to the world's fourth largest economy (France).

The unique collection of the color photos of the Russian Empire. The song, which sounds in this videoclip, is named "The River Volga is flowing". This song was performed earlier by various singers. However, now it's associated only with the performance of Lyudmila Zykina, because her signing is like a flow of Volga River - unhurried, stately, calm, with great width and inner strength:



Translation:

From long and far away, the river Volga flows.
The river Volga flows, endless, borderless.
Among fresh grains, among white snows
My Volga flows, and I’m 17 years old.

Mother said, "Everything happens, my son.
Maybe you’ll tire from the roads.
When you return home at the end of way,
Dip your hands into the Volga".

From long and far away, the river Volga flows.
The river Volga flows, endless, borderless.
Among fresh grains, among white snows
My Volga flows, and now I’m 30 years old.

Your first glance and first splash of oar -
Everything that used to be was carried away by the river.
But I won’t grieve for that long-past spring -
In its place is your love for me.

From long and far away, the river Volga flows.
The river Volga flows, endless, borderless.
Among fresh grains, among white snows
I gaze into you, Volga, in my 7th decade.

Here is my dock, and here are my best friends -
Everything I can’t live without.
From the far reaches in starry silence,
The child I was is echoing me.

From long and far away, the river Volga flows.
The river Volga flows, endless, borderless.
Among fresh grains, among white snows
My Volga flows, and I’m 17 years old.

My Volga, it still flows,
And I’m 17 years old
My Volga, it still flows,
And I’m 17 years old.












1912, Korolistskali River in Georgia:

Link

Self-portrait of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky (1863-1944), great Russian chemist and photographer, who left a legacy unique collection of the thousand color photos of Russian Empire:

Link
__________________

geometarkv liked this post

Last edited by AlekseyVT; May 19th, 2012 at 04:21 PM.
AlekseyVT no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old February 8th, 2012, 12:54 AM   #394
AlekseyVT
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: Moscow City
Posts: 8,263
Likes (Received): 6732

APPEARANCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELECTRIC TRAM

The period from invention of electric tram till beginning of WWI can be consider of "golden age" of this kind of transport as in Russia, as in the all world. During this historical period, personal cars were a luxury rather than a means of transportation. The other kinds of public transport (like bus or Metro) were only in the early stage of own development. Therefore, electric tram was most popular kind of public transport in all world. By 1910, horse-drawn kinds of transport almost disappeared from the urban streets of Europe and North America.

The first world's model of electric tram was made in Russia and tested in St. Petersburg on September 3, 1880. Despite this, the development of this kind of transport in Russian Empire started only in late-1890s, when the electric tram systems already existed in many cities around the world.

There were several reasons for this lag. One of them had a monopoly of owners of horse-drawn tram. It was not surprising, that first electric horse-drawn systems in Russian Empire were built in the three most populated cities - St. Petersburg (1863), Warsaw (1872) and Moscow (1875). In contrast; the permanent electric tram system in Moscow was put into operation in 1899, in St. Petersburg (the capital of Russian Empire) - only in 1907, in Warsaw (the capital of Polish province within Russian Empire) - only in 1908. In some cities competition between new and old kind of transport was very strong. For this reason, electric tram system in Samara was opened only in 1915.

It was much easier to build a tram system in the cities, where were two necessary conditions for this. The first condition was the lack of horse-drawn tram network. In this case, it was possible to build electric tram without any resistance from competitors. The second condition was a hilly terrain (like Kyiv, Nizhny Novgorod, Kursk, Smolensk, etc). With this condition, the advantages of electric tram were too obvious and it was not smart to ignore this. Due to those two conditions, early electric tram systems in Russian Empire were mostly built in medium-sized cities and towns.

Tram systems were not common in Russian Empire as it was in United States. Its appearance was connected with the economic status of cities, the availability of effective demand of its residents and the activity of local authorities. In general, there were built more than 1000 km of tramlines in 45 cities and towns of Russian Empire, including 21 in present-day Russia. But the early history of the another 24 tram systems (in Finland, Poland, Ukraine, etc) were also part of history of Russian Tram - in accordance with Russian Imperial laws and regulations, many questions of construction and exploitation of tram systems were solved in the Ministry of Internal Affairs in St. Petersburg. The half of 21 Russian tram systems was built in the large cities (St. Petersburg and Moscow) as well as in "Group of Eight" commercial and industrial cities of Volga Region. But the first electric tram system in the Asian part of country was opened only in 1912 (Vladivostok). Few months later was opened electric tram system in Toshkent, Uzbekistan (Central Asia). However, there were no electric tram systems in the large industrial cities of Siberia and Ural Region like Perm, Yekaterinburg, Omsk, Tomsk, Irkutsk, etc.

In many medium-sized cities, the construction of electric tram system was accompanied by general improvement of city infrastructure. For example, were built few city power stations, which generated energy not only for tram networks, but also for electric illumination of city streets as well as for other purposes. In particular, in Yessentuki resort was built "White Coal" (1903) - the first industrial hydro power station of the Russian Empire. This station generated electric energy for the four resort towns of Caucasian Mineral Waters Region and, in particular, for tramlines in Pyatigorsk and Kislovodsk. Before construction of tram system, in such cities were only low-capacity power stations at some enterprises. Also, in some cities were built new bridges for tramlines and pedestrians (or were reconstructed old bridges) and were reconstructed city streets.

Pre-revolutionary tram in Russian Empire had many differences from the present-day tram. In majority of cities, the owners of the tram systems were private companies. City authorities had no enough money for construction of electric tram systems. For this reason, they were forced to sign contracts with foreign joint-stock companies (mostly - Belgian). As a result, foreign entrepreneurs received big profit from the exploitation of tram systems, while city officials received only a small percentage from these money.

The main purpose of tram owners was to have big profit from tram exploitation. For this reason, tramlines were built only along the major urban streets, where lived or worked many potential passengers. In some cities were built so-called "cottage lines", which operated only during summer period. Also there were built few tramlines along the embankments, which operated only during the period of river navigation. Many tramlines were built in the central and most picturesque parts of the cities like Moscow's Red Square, Kremlins in Nizhny Novgorod and Smolensk, St. Petersburg bridges, Volga Embankments, etc. Some tramlines were unique in the world. For example, the first electric tram system in St. Petersburg was built on the ice of Neva River and worked only during winter seasons. "On-ice" tramlines were part of tram systems in Nizhny Novgorod and Arkhangelsk. In our times, when winters became more warmer and tramcars became more heavier, it's impossible to imagine this picture. Arkhangelsk Tramway was also most northern tram system in the world. Also it's need to mention tram system in Kislovodsk, which was built and worked during all period of existance only for transportation of "Narzan" mineral water.

The other symbol of this period was division of tramlines into zones (segments). The cost of tram ticket depended from the distance of journey. Tramcars were also divided into two classes - "first class" for respectable persons (in the middle of tramcar) and "second-class" for poorer people (at the front and back sides). The cost of tickets depended from the class. The difference was few kopecks, what was no cheap at these times.

Tramcars and other equipment were mostly built abroad - in Belgium, Germany and Great Britain. The Russian producers of tramcars were Mytishchi Plant near Moscow, Kolomna Plant, Putilov Plant (now Kirov Plant) in St. Petersburg and Sormovo Plant in Nizhny Novgorod. However, these Russian plants were not fully independent from foreign capital, because they had many foreign shareholders and they used many foreign technologies and equipment in the production. In big cities former horsecars were used as trailers for electric tram. Kazan was only city in Russia, where two-floor trailers (former horsecars) were used at the electric tramlines. The such two-floor trailers were used in some other cities (for example, in St. Petersburg). However, upper floors in those systems were closed for pedestrians due to safety reasons.

The tram systems in Russian Empire had either "broad gauge" (1524 mm) or "narrow gauge" (1000 mm). However, there were few exceptions. For example, Kyiv Tramway (first electric tram system in Russian Empire) had 1511-mm gauge. Due to the small difference with the "broad gauge" (1524 mm) there was a compatibility of rolling stock in Kyiv. In 1896, at the territory All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod, was opened temporary circular tramline with 750-mm gauge. This line operated during few months and was dismantled soon after closing of exhibition. In Rostov-on-Don and neighboring Nakhichevan-on-Don was built tram system with "standart European gauge" (1435 mm), which has been preserved till current times. It was also the first electric tram system, which was built in two towns of Russian Empire. Also it's need to mentioned "Oranela" - the first Russia's suburban electric tramline, which was built in 1910s between St. Petersburg and Strelna (later it became part of tram system of St. Petersburg). In general, "narrow-gauge" tram systems were mostly built in the small towns and medium-sized cities while "broad-gauge" tram systems were mostly built in the large cities of Russian Empire. The number of "narrow-gauge" tram systems was a little more than number of "broad-gauge" tram systems. However, majority of tramcars were exploited in the large Russian cities (like St. Petersburg and Moscow). For this reason, number of "broad-gauge" tramcars in Russian Empire was much more than "narrow-gauge" tramcars.

Working conditions at those times were also different, and not for the better. Tram drivers were forced to work standing on the opened front side during several hours in row, with short breaks. This work was especially difficult in winter period. The working conditions of controllers were not much better. According to rules, controllers should to stay on the opened back side (for better control of passengers) and to give signal to tram drivers about possibility of moving. In many cities it was extremely difficult (severe and prolonged work at open air, absence of conditions for the lunch and short rest between trips, bad hostel, rigid system of penalties, frequent accidents and disease). For this reason, tram owners in all cities hired only men for this work. And only after beginning of WWI, when men workers were mobilized on front, they were forced to hire women.

Fighting for own human rights, tram workers periodically organized strikes. They demanded to improve working conditions - to introduce eight-hour working day, to increase the salaries and living conditions, to reduce the fines, to give warm clothing for the work during winter periods, etc. The majority of strikes were finished without positive result for tram workers. For this reason, those strikes as well as strikes of workers at the other enterprises led to the Russian Revolutions of 1905-1907 and 1917. The tram workers were active participants of the all Russian Revolutions in early-20th century.

After beginning of WWI tram enterprises faced with many problems. There were problems with the supply of fuel for tram power stations, with replacement of parts during repairs of tramcars (European plants could not to supply necessary equipment), with increasing of passenger traffic (it led to big load on tram network), with insufficient number of men workers (many of them were mobilized on front). In addition, WWI led to big inflation, and the salaries of tram workers became not enough. During this period were built additional branch lines to the military plants and railways for cargo transportation. Nevertheless, even during this difficult period were launched tram systems in Samara and Arkhangelsk. Due to problems of wartime, those systems were built by own efforts, without participation of foreign capital.

By 1916, the total length of passenger tramlines in the large cities was:
1) Moscow - 301 km;
2) Odessa - 213 km;
3) Kyiv - 203 km;
4) St. Petersburg - 139 km.

Annual passenger traffic of the Russian tram systems in 1916:
1) Moscow - 395 mln. people;
2) St. Petersburg - 383 mln. people;
3) Kyiv - 108 mln. people;
4) Warsaw - 86 mln. people;
5) Odessa - 55 mln. people;
6-7) Samara - 38 mln. people;
6-7) Rostov-on-Don - 38 mln. people;
8) Kharkiv - 35 mln. people;
9) Yekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk) - 27 mln. people.

But the biggest damage to tram enterprises was made not during WWI, but during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. After Russian Revolution of 1917, all tram enterprises, which belonged to foreign companies, were municipalized. Many tram systems were seriously damaged as result of military actions, urban battles and interruptions in electricity supply. In addition, the problems with fuel for power supply and lack of materials for repairs of tram system became more actual. There were introduced free tickets for the soldiers, workers and Soviet authorities. For this reason, tram enterprises lost sources of funding. They lost ability to pay specialists, who could to do repairs and to serve tramcars and tracks. As result, tram operation almost in all small and medium-sized cities was suspended. In the large cities (like St. Petersburg and Moscow) tram systems continued to operate. However, this operation was limited due to reduced working time and insufficient number of working tramcars.

Eight continuous years (1914-1922), which included First World War, Russian Revolutions, Russian Civil War and Western interventions caused enormous damage to Russia's infrastructure. By early-1920s, 42% of the Russian tram enterprises completely stopped working and 22% worked sporadically, mainly during the summer period, when many potential passengers preferred to walk. For this reason, revenue of tram exploitation was no high. After eight years, the life in the country was completely changed.

Well-known final episode in the tramcar from the Soviet movie "A Slave of Love" (1976, director - Nikita Mikhalkov). Set in Autumn 1918, it followed the efforts of a film crew to make a silent melodrama in a resort Crimean town while the Revolution rages around them. The film is based upon the last days of Vera Kholodnaya (1893-1919) - the first star of Russian silent cinema, who died under mysterious circumstances. It was highly acclaimed upon its release in the United States. Its final episode was filmed in Odessa. The song "Where is you, My Dream?" performed by Yelena Kamburova (composer - Eduard Artemyev):

__________________

geometarkv liked this post

Last edited by AlekseyVT; November 3rd, 2013 at 10:15 PM.
AlekseyVT no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old February 8th, 2012, 12:55 AM   #395
AlekseyVT
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: Moscow City
Posts: 8,263
Likes (Received): 6732

POST SCRIPTUM

Well, now I must to take a long break to prepare the material for the next chapter. I plan to finish it this spring.

Of course, I'm realize that this topic is very specific. I want to give a wide retrospective analysis of the history of tram transport in Russia (in the context of the general Russian history). And I was glad to know that some members of this forum support this idea.

I want to apologize that my knowledge of English is not excellent. I hope some of you were able to understand a few my sentences at the 19 pages I'm also want apologize to the residents of cities, about which I wrote, if I wrote something wrong about history of their native cities. I really tried to use different sources of information about different Russian cities. In any case, I welcome any clarifications and questions.

Next chapter will be about interwar period of the Russian history - about very difficult, but interesting times from a historical point of view. I will write about development of the pre-Revolutionary tram systems as well as about the opening of the new tram systems in other cities. After this, I will write next chapter. In general, it will take about one year for the writing of the full history of Russian tram transport. After this, I will write about actual news.

I want to ask everyone to ask questions about the actual development of tram transport in the general thread about Russian Urban Transport. I'm hope that next year I will finish my historical material and we will be able to discuss actual news in current thread.

Thanks for understanding and bye for now.

Let me choose another melody from the same film for the final chord to this chapter. Requiem for a deceased epoch:
AlekseyVT no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 16th, 2012, 06:54 AM   #396
bud44750
Registered User
 
bud44750's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2012
Location: portland , oregon
Posts: 4
Likes (Received): 0

Dear AlekseyVT,
I hope you can answer some questions about a Russian Tram # 106 single axle trucks currently in the San Francisco USA Municipal railway collection. It hasn't been used in quite awhile as it tracks very poorly on the rails and I was hoping to find out some technical information so as to solve the problem. the one thing I noticed was that the tires had virtually no taper to them which didn't seem correct. also it has a very unique truck style, using single axle trucks with the pivot point or king pin set behind the wheel instead of directly in the center of the truck as with most tram trucks. this gives a caster wheel action for the trailing truck but as the front truck has it's pivot point behind the axle ,it seems it would result in pushing the truck to side.I'd like to post some pictures of but so far haven't figured out how.
I hope you can help on this unique car ( actually given to the city by the people of Russia (I think back in the 1980's) bud44750
bud44750 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 16th, 2012, 08:30 AM   #397
Woonsocket54
PC LOAD LETTER
 
Woonsocket54's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2005
Location: East Millinocket, Maine
Posts: 2,879
Likes (Received): 526

Quote:
Originally Posted by bud44750 View Post
Dear AlekseyVT,
I hope you can answer some questions about a Russian Tram # 106 single axle trucks currently in the San Francisco USA Municipal railway collection. It hasn't been used in quite awhile as it tracks very poorly on the rails and I was hoping to find out some technical information so as to solve the problem. the one thing I noticed was that the tires had virtually no taper to them which didn't seem correct. also it has a very unique truck style, using single axle trucks with the pivot point or king pin set behind the wheel instead of directly in the center of the truck as with most tram trucks. this gives a caster wheel action for the trailing truck but as the front truck has it's pivot point behind the axle ,it seems it would result in pushing the truck to side.I'd like to post some pictures of but so far haven't figured out how.
I hope you can help on this unique car ( actually given to the city by the people of Russia (I think back in the 1980's) bud44750
There's a lot of info here: http://transphoto.ru/vehicle/67740/#n66072
__________________
Maine, the Pine Tree State
Woonsocket54 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 16th, 2012, 09:10 AM   #398
AlekseyVT
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: Moscow City
Posts: 8,263
Likes (Received): 6732

Woonsocket54, thanks for the link! It's possible to switch into English at this website.

bud44750, I'm not technical specialist. I have already sent your request at the link which was posted above. May be, there are English-speaking technical specialists among the users of this website.

You can to register on this site http://transphoto.ru/ (this is site about Russia's electric kinds of transport) for direct communication with Russian tram fans.

As you can see, I posted here prerevolutionary history of Tram in the city of Oryol (where tramcar #106 operated before moving into United States) and already prepared material about interwar period in the history of Oryol Tram. During my work, I read few forums about the local history of Oryol.

Local residents of the Oryol city very much regretted about the decision to send this tramcar into United States (it was happened in 1986 as a result of Gorbachev's policy). They would like this tramcar to operate in their own city instead of standing in the San Francisco without operation. So, they will glad to see this tramcar in the work at American streets again.
__________________

geometarkv liked this post
AlekseyVT no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 17th, 2012, 07:13 AM   #399
bud44750
Registered User
 
bud44750's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2012
Location: portland , oregon
Posts: 4
Likes (Received): 0

tram # 106

Thanks for the link, I'll pursue it further. I too would love to see it run again
bud44750 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 18th, 2012, 05:41 AM   #400
bud44750
Registered User
 
bud44750's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2012
Location: portland , oregon
Posts: 4
Likes (Received): 0

3 single truck OPORTO trams

Hi all, I just learned from a good friend that there may be 3 vintage single truck, clerestory roof trams, originally from OPORTO ? available in Portland Oregon, USA , if a city or individual was looking for a vintage tram. I believe they are in running condition.
bud44750 no está en línea   Reply With Quote


Reply

Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off



All times are GMT +2. The time now is 06:06 PM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.8 Beta 1
Copyright ©2000 - 2014, vBulletin Solutions, Inc.
Feedback Buttons provided by Advanced Post Thanks / Like v3.2.5 (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2014 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

vBulletin Optimisation provided by vB Optimise (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2014 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

SkyscraperCity ☆ In Urbanity We trust ☆ about us | privacy policy | DMCA policy

Hosted by Blacksun, dedicated to this site too!
Forum server management by DaiTengu