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Old August 19th, 2011, 06:41 PM   #1
ajithv
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Trivandrum | Water Supply , Sewerage & Irrigation Systems

Thread to discuss about the Water Supply ,Sewerage and Irrigation systems in Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum), the evergreen Capital City of Kerala.

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Old August 19th, 2011, 06:52 PM   #2
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Water Supply System

A protected pipe piped-water supply system for Trivandrum (Wellington Water Works) was launched in 1933 by the erstwhile Travancore State.The scheme was designed to serve a population of 1.35 lakh (the prospective population of 1961 as envisaged in 1930) and an area of 11.22 square miles.The capital cost came to Rs.57 lakhs.The quality of water supplied was monitored continuously at supply points and quality standards were comparable with those of water supplied in the best schemes of the world.

Protected water was supplied free of cost through street fountains and charges were levied on water supplied through metered house connections.The charge levied on water for domestic use was about half of that for water supplied for non-domestic purposes. Production and purification costs as well as maintenance cost were continuously on increase; but the pricing pattern and water tax levied at the rate of three percent of annual rental value of all buildings located within the limits of Trivandrum Corporation kept the system profitable.

After Independence, Trivandrum Water Supply Scheme was augmented a few times to meet the rising requirements caused by increase in population and expansion of the city.At present,against a demand of 217 MLD,actual supply is estimated at 203 MLD.The JICA assisted Kerala Water Supply Project (KWSP) is expected to create an additional capacity of 42 MLD so as to tide over the shortage and equipping the system to meet future requirements for some period.

The water supply schemes cover 100% within the city limits. It is 84% of the urban and 69% of the rural population, when the district is considered. Peppara and Aruvikkara dams are the main sources of water for distribution in the capital city.

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Old August 19th, 2011, 06:59 PM   #3
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Sewerage System

The sewerage system in the city was implemented at the time of the Travancore Kingdom, and modernised in 1938. This scheme for the disposal of sullage and sewage is an underground system. The whole system is controlled by Kerala Water Authority now.In 1938, action was taken for investigation of a "Comprehensive Sewerage Scheme" on modern lines. The Thiruvananthapuram Corporation area has been divided into 7 Sewerage Blocks viz. A to G for the execution of the sewerage scheme.Sewerage facilities existing in A,B,C,D (Medical College-Kannammoola Zone and Medical College Campus only) and E ( part of Peroorkada Zone only) Blocks.

The scheme for the disposal of sullage and sewage is an underground system based on principle of separate system. All the sewerage blocks had been considered to be provided with sewerage network draining into a main pumping station, where sewage would be pumped through pumping mains to Treatment and Disposal works situated at Valiyathura.The disposal system adopted is land treatment.

Block A

This system covers an area of 13.84 sq.km comprising most important portions of the city such as Kowdiar, Vellayambalam, Vazhuthacaud, Thycaud,Thampanoor, Pazhavangadi, Puthenchantha and Palayam. The main pumping station for this block is located at Kuriathy, where sewage from this entire area is collected and pumped out to the disposal works at Valiyathura. Three sub-pumping stations were also proposed in this block to lift the sewage from Mudavanmugal, Arannoor and Thaliyal areas.The scheme was comissioned in 1945.For effective disposal of sewage from this block the system comprises of five intercepting sewers.

Block B

Covers an area of 5.51 sq.km. It comprises areas of the city such as Sreekanteswaram, Pettah, Kaithamukku, Pattom Valley, Nanthencode etc. with pump house at Pattoor.The system comprises three intercepting sewers.

Block C


Covers an area of 2.43 sq.km Commissioned in 1970. All the sewage from this block is collected at the main pumping station at Eenchackkal. The system comprises two intercepting sewers.

Block D

Covers Medical College and Kannammoola areas. Partially commissioned during 1994. There are two pumping stations viz. the Medical College lift up pumping station catering the needs of Medical College Complex and the Kannammoola main pumping station which discharges to the sewage farm at Valiyathura.

Block E

Only a small portion of the Peroorkada-Ambalammukku and Jawahar Nagar area is commissioned in this block during 1990. There is one lifting pumping station in this block at Sasthamangalam near Pippinmoodu which discharges sewer into the main sewer (IS-1) in block A which ultimately reach the Kuriathy main pump house.

The proposed Trivandrum Sewerage scheme comprises of 7 blocks. The first 5 blocks covering a total area around 30% of the city area of 75 sq km. This covers only 40% of the total households. The remaining two blocks has no drainage facilities at present. The urban growth has been very rapid and about 80-85% of the water supplied is returned to public drainage.The sewage from the pumping stations at Kuriathy, Pattoor, Eenchakkal and Kannammoola is pumped to the stilling chamber at Valiyathura and is disposed through sewage farming. The sewage farm is maintained by the Diary Development Department and fodder cultivation is done there.There is no revenue generation from this scheme, and the sewerage system in the city is a service provided to the residents.
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Old August 19th, 2011, 07:14 PM   #4
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Irrigation System

The main Irrigation System in Thiruvananthapuram is the Neyyar Irrigation Project.The Neyyar Irrigation Project, commissioned in 1959, is one of the Major Irrigation Project taken up in Kerala under the first five year plan.This project envisages construction of a dam across Neyyar River near Kattakkada in Thiruvananthapuram district. The Project was completed in 1973 and the project envisages irrigating an ayacut of 11740 Ha.The Project has now become an integral part of the lives of the people of Neyyatinkara Taluk and its surroundings, since it is the main source of water for agricultural and drinking purpose. Neyyar is the source of water for the reservoir. The length of the dam is 294.13meters and the height is 50.6 meters. The catchment draining into the reservoir, covering an area of 140 sq kms. of forest land, receives an annual average rainfall of about 226 cms. from two monsoons. The total length of the main canal and its branches is 266 kms.

The Neyyar Dam area is a main Tourist centre in Thiruvananthapuram District and there is a garden, swimming pool, boat service in reservoir, crocodile farm and lion safari park.

Another Irrigation Project is still under implementaion is the Vamanapuram Irrigation Project.
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Old September 13th, 2011, 09:04 AM   #5
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A tunnel in the heart of city

THIRUVANANTHAPURAM: You need some time to come to terms with the fact that you are standing at a depth of 4.25 m from the road surface. We were in the trench made at Museum Junction through which pipelines will be laid across the Junction, using the jack and push method, as part of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)-assisted water supply project for the Kerala Water Authority (KWA).

Pipes would be lowered into the trench and laid across the road, without cutting open the road. In fact, the pipes would be pushed inside, thus posing no trouble to vehicular or pedestrian movement.

While Electrosteel is the contractor, the labourers are from Elmico Engineering Pvt Ltd. The work is being carried out by 14 labourers, who hail from West Bengal- Haren, Dileep, Lakshman, Bablu, Santhosh, Tapan, Vikas, Sushant, Sunil, Nimay, Dinesh, Dulal, Pradip and Indrajit.

Haren, the senior hand, says, “I have been doing similar work for seven years now. It was not easy in the beginning. Now, there is no fear.” They would be working at the site for the next 40 to 45 days, taking one branch to the other side of the road - to the Museum premises - where it would be connected to a pipeline already laid there. Another branch will go to the Observatory, thus covering a total of 60 m.

The team has already done similar work at Stationkadavu, Kuzhuvila, Kulathur, Venpalavattom, two spots at Ambalamukku and Killippalam. “This is the toughest, because the soil is very hard here,” says K M John, safety officer with Electrosteel.

The open trench is made for the machines and labourers to get down and work. The basement is concreted, at 4 inch thickness, using 8 mm thick iron rods in this case. A rail with four beams is then constructed and fixed using 2- inch-thick concrete.

Casing pipes are laid first, inside which the distribution pipeline would be laid. Fifty 1,250 mm-long, 1,200 mm-diameter Mild Steel (MS) pipes of 12 mm thickness will be laid to form the casing pipe, inside which the 1,016-mm MS pipes will be placed.

The pipes are pushed using the jack, which has a 70-tonne capacity. “We have four such jacks. In a single push, the pipe can be pushed up to 500 mm,” says Raja Nag, site supervisor with Elmico. R H Ghosh is the other supervisor of Elmico.

One casing pipe has been laid now. Initially, it is the natural lighting using a mirror that provides lighting inside the pipe so that a labourer can sit inside and cut through the earth.

“As the work progresses, they will be provided with lights, oxygen mask, exhaust fan, safety belts, a trolley for removing the soil and a bell will be tied on their hands so that in case of any emergency they can ring it,” the officials explain.

Risks are umpteen. “The soil might collapse. Or, there might be some old trenches in the passage. Lack of air can always be dangerous. In fact, after laying four casing pipes, the labourers always get inside the passage burning a piece of paper so as to ward off foul air. The going has been smooth so far here,” John says.

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Old September 15th, 2011, 09:56 AM   #6
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Pipe-laying under railway tracks begins

THIRUVANANTHAPURAM: An auspicious start was given to the pipeline-laying work as part of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)-aided water supply project under the railway tracks on Wednesday at the starting point - near Kripa theatre.

A ‘pooja’ was held in the presence of the officials of JICA, Kerala Water Authority and L&T, the contractor of the particular work.
In a highly devotional atmosphere, lamps were lit, coconut was broken and camphor was burnt so as to ensure that the work goes ahead without any hindrance, a JICA official said.
The pipes are being laid under the tracks using the horizontal jack pushing method, ie without cutting open the surface. The pipeline would pass under 11 tracks. The work is expected to take at least two months to complete.
The real work would start on Thursday, when the pipe would be lowered into the open trench made near Kripa theatre, through which it will be pushed inside after scooping out the earth.
Meanwhile, Railway sources said that the work wouldn’t affect the running of trains. Speed restriction has to be in place when a work goes under the tracks. But since this work is taking place at the railway station itself, the trains would be moving at a minimum speed of 15 to 20 km per hour. So, an additional speed restriction needn’t be enforced.

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Old September 22nd, 2011, 07:56 PM   #7
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Height of Pepara dam to be increased



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Old October 28th, 2011, 08:14 PM   #8
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From Google Maps

Quote:
Originally Posted by ajithv View Post
Aruvikkara dams are the main sources of water for distribution in the capital city.

Last edited by ajithv; October 28th, 2011 at 08:54 PM.
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Old October 28th, 2011, 08:17 PM   #9
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From Google Maps

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Originally Posted by ajithv View Post
The sewage from the pumping stations at Kuriathy, Pattoor, Eenchakkal and Kannammoola is pumped to the stilling chamber at Valiyathura and is disposed through sewage farming. The sewage farm is maintained by the Diary Development Department and fodder cultivation is done there.There is no revenue generation from this scheme, and the sewerage system in the city is a service provided to the residents.

Last edited by ajithv; October 28th, 2011 at 08:56 PM.
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Old October 28th, 2011, 09:07 PM   #10
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The plant to the left of the Dam is the original facility while the one on the right is the brand new, JICA-funded treatment complex.

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Old October 28th, 2011, 09:14 PM   #11
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Exactly
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Old November 1st, 2011, 04:32 PM   #12
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Old November 4th, 2011, 12:37 PM   #13
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Old November 6th, 2011, 11:30 AM   #14
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Work on Waste Treatment Plant enters its final phase

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The installation of machinery at the Sewage Treatment Plant being built at Muttathara, under the Kerala Sustainable Urban Development Project (KSUDP) has commenced. The first phase of the project has been completed to the extent of 70 per cent, a press note issued here by the KSUDP Project Director said.

Though a 215-mld treatment plant has been planned for Thiruvananthapuram under the KSUDP scheme, the plant that is being built now has capacity of 107 mld.

The second phase of the project would focus mainly on modernising the existing sewerage system of the capital city and on laying new sewerage lines. For this, Rs. 121 crore has been sanctioned under the JNNURM, the press note said. The process of issuing tenders for laying new lines in the F-1, G-1, F-2 and G-2 drainage blocks, which include the coastal areas of the city, has commenced. A project document aimed at securing foreign aid has been readied. Tenders have been issued for the work of modernising the existing sewerage pump houses. The empowered committee chaired by Minister for Urban Affairs P.K. Kunhalikkutty on October 24 cleared the inclusion of G-1 and C drainage blocks in the second phase of the KSUDP scheme.

Activities associated with the installation of a 40 mld STP for the Medical College Hospital have already commenced. The micro-scrutiny of tenders is going on at the Kerala Water Authority.

A new sewerage network would be laid for Attukal, Kalady, Kalippankulam, Nemom, Thiruvallam, Attippra, Ulloor and Kadakampally. The network would be laid as and when land is made available, the press note said.

Steps have also been initiated for the purchase of machines to clean the existing sewerage lines, the press note added.
Source

It's a crying shame that the Government took 50 years to upgrade the sewage system of the only city in Kerala to have one! That said, it's better late than never I guess, although the remaining capacity of the plant should be built out immediately, since the capacity of the waste water treatment system is usually calculated as a fraction (say 80%) of the water supply system, which in Trivandrum is nearly 300 MLD.

Areas such as Aakulam, Kazhakkoottam and Menamkulam urgently need to be included in the sewage system since they are witnessing the greatest quantum and density of residential and commercial development at present.

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Old November 6th, 2011, 02:00 PM   #15
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Ajay it needs to be extended beyond the Karamana bridge also
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Old November 6th, 2011, 02:07 PM   #16
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I believe all areas under the pre-2010 expansion of the Corporation will be covered if & when the JNNURM project is completed.
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Old November 6th, 2011, 02:34 PM   #17
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Not 2010, but 2001
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Old November 9th, 2011, 02:44 PM   #18
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RDF Plant to be Installed in the City



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Old November 11th, 2011, 12:58 PM   #19
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Old March 5th, 2012, 12:42 PM   #20
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