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Old August 7th, 2012, 09:54 PM   #121
Şölen
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Thanks.

Turkey,

Red Basilica of Pergamon,



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Elaiussa Sebaste



Mamure Castle



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Old August 8th, 2012, 05:38 PM   #122
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Pompeii by wahooie_stuie, on Flickr
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Old August 8th, 2012, 05:40 PM   #123
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Old August 8th, 2012, 05:42 PM   #124
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Old August 8th, 2012, 05:44 PM   #125
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Old August 8th, 2012, 05:46 PM   #126
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Eumachia by lacrus, on Flickr
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Old August 8th, 2012, 07:00 PM   #127
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From what i saw here, i'm almost embarrassed to show the Roman heritage in Portugal...

But there here go, some examples.

Conimbriga







Évora


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Chaves


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It's a GRUNGE thing...

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Old August 8th, 2012, 09:49 PM   #128
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Eumachia building, Pompeii

Massive (the largest on the Forum in fact) with an ornate door and opening straight onto the Forum. She seriously worked on the 'women can be just as rich and powerful as men' thing, only hampered by minor things like a prohibition on women holding public office. So she became a priestess instead.

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the forum 3.14.10 - 88 by laura padgett, on Flickr
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Old August 8th, 2012, 09:52 PM   #129
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Forum, Pompeii

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the forum 3.14.10 - 84 by laura padgett, on Flickr
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Old August 8th, 2012, 09:53 PM   #130
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anfiteatro [amphitheater] 3.14.10 - 68 by laura padgett, on Flickr
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Old August 8th, 2012, 09:55 PM   #131
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The macellum in the foro at pompeii

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the forum 3.14.10 - 92 by laura padgett, on Flickr
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Old August 8th, 2012, 10:02 PM   #132
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The Macellum of Pompeii was located on the Forum and as the provision market (or macellum) of Pompeii was one of the focal points of the ancient city. The building was constructed in several phases. When the earthquake of 62 CE destroyed large parts of Pompeii, the Macellum was also damaged. Archeological excavations in the modern era have revealed a building that had still not been fully repaired by the time of the eruption of 79 CE.

Of particular interest to researchers is the section of the Macellum located on the west side that is thought to have been dedicated to the imperial cult. It makes manifest how central a role the Emperors played in the lives of Romans as early as the 1st century. The other rooms on the west side are also interesting as examples of the link between economic and public life. Additionally, the market is an eloquent testimony to the everyday culture of the Romans, which is illustrated by archeological finds such as food remains, items of daily use and necessity, up to examples of Roman wall paintings.


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Macellum centre by ancienthistory, on Flickr

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Macellum interior by ancienthistory, on Flickr
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Old August 8th, 2012, 10:06 PM   #133
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Pompeii Forum east side by ancienthistory, on Flickr

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Old August 8th, 2012, 10:34 PM   #134
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Western Civilization, when understood as a polycultural world system, has it's roots in Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, the Levant and Egypt.

Greece, however, represented a cultural breaking point in the history of the broader western civilization. With the developments of science, philosophy, aesthetics, ethics, freedom, democracy, theater and individualism that occurred in the 5th and 4th centuries BC.

Here is a graph detailing the temporal evolution of Western civilization, here relabeled as "central civilization":



So, it had it's Near eastern phase, then it's Greco-Roman phase, then it's medieval phase and finally it's modern phase. It gradually absorbed other civilizations as it expanded around the world. Today Western Civilization has assimilated all other existing cultures into a single integrated global civilization.

So we can understand the culture that began in Classical Greece as a restricted definition of western civilization inside a broader evolving world system. This culture managed to dominate completely the broader central civilization in two periods: the Roman Empire, when Europe and the Middle East were all dominated by Greco-Roman culture, and in the modern period, when Western Europe expanded it's area of cultural influence to encompass the entire world.

Last edited by Guaporense; August 8th, 2012 at 10:42 PM.
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Old August 8th, 2012, 10:43 PM   #135
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Old August 8th, 2012, 10:48 PM   #136
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Old August 8th, 2012, 11:09 PM   #137
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Old August 8th, 2012, 11:18 PM   #138
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Old August 9th, 2012, 10:16 AM   #139
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Guaporense View Post
Western Civilization, when understood as a polycultural world system, has it's roots in Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, the Levant and Egypt.

Greece, however, represented a cultural breaking point in the history of the broader western civilization. With the developments of science, philosophy, aesthetics, ethics, freedom, democracy, theater and individualism that occurred in the 5th and 4th centuries BC.

Here is a graph detailing the temporal evolution of Western civilization, here relabeled as "central civilization":



So, it had it's Near eastern phase, then it's Greco-Roman phase, then it's medieval phase and finally it's modern phase. It gradually absorbed other civilizations as it expanded around the world. Today Western Civilization has assimilated all other existing cultures into a single integrated global civilization.

So we can understand the culture that began in Classical Greece as a restricted definition of western civilization inside a broader evolving world system. This culture managed to dominate completely the broader central civilization in two periods: the Roman Empire, when Europe and the Middle East were all dominated by Greco-Roman culture, and in the modern period, when Western Europe expanded it's area of cultural influence to encompass the entire world.
I find this theory completely wrong.

Western civilization hasn't absorbed China, or India, or the muslim world.

Western civilization is basically what it has always bee: western europe, plus the colonies in the new world with a predominantly european heritage.

Western Europe, USA, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, the majority of south America

That's it.

the rest of the world has not been absorbed at all, nor shall be.

Western civiliazion, in its form, is the civilization of western europe that developed out of the disaster of the fall of the roman empire, more or less around the year 1000.

Of course it did not spring from nowhere. The original "father" of this civilization is the civilization of classical antiquity, ie the Greek-Roman world (Roman part being at least as important as the greek)

Also classical antiquity did not spring from nowhere, itself is a byproduct of earlier civilization, but in a much less relevant way. Classical antiquity was born in the mediterranean sea, while the older civilization were in levant and Egypt. Most of the characteristics of classical antiquity are completely absent or very limited from the older civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt (notably the importance of the individual person over the collective, the repubblican organization of the state, the importance of city-state over large monarchical kingdoms, literature, theatre liberal arts as form of individual expression, the rule of law through courthouse etc etc)

So to simplyify, the West is the son of the greek-roman world, which itself is a distant cousin of the ancient mesopotamic and egyp[tian civilizations. This makes us very, very distant relatives with the old civilization of the near and middle east.

Last edited by Eddard Stark; August 9th, 2012 at 10:23 AM.
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Old August 9th, 2012, 03:08 PM   #140
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Villa Jovis, the villa built by emperor Tiberius on Capri and the effective "capital" of the roman empire during much of Tiberius reign

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Villa Jovis - Capri Island di Goldenpixel, su Flickr
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