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Old October 12th, 2015, 01:35 PM   #2001
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BTW, many of those dioceses mentioned in previous post have existed since Congress of Gniezno in 1000 AD.

"Chronicon Thietmari" (written between 1012 and 1018)...
"Bolizlavus [Bolesław I of Poland] (...) Nec mora, fecit ibi archiepiscopatum [Gnesin; Gniezno], ut spero legitime, sine consensu tamen prefati presulis, cuius diocesi omnis haec regio subiecta est; committens eundem predicti martyris fratri Radimo eidemque subiciens Reinbernum, Salsae Cholbergiensis [Kołobrzeg] aecclesiae episcopum, Popponem Cracuaensem [Kraków], Iohannem Wrotizlaensem [Wrocław], Vungero Posnaniensi [Poznań] excepto; factoque ibi altari sanctas in eo honorifice condidit reliquias."

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Old October 27th, 2015, 11:50 AM   #2002
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Węgry - the settlement in the Pomeranian-Prussian borderland (the conference took place at Malbork/Marienburg Castle on 16th October)












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Old October 27th, 2015, 01:22 PM   #2003
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Weklice/Wöcklitz (grave of "Gothic princess")





Source

Facial reconstruction of the skull found in Wielbark culture burial-ground in Weklice/Wöcklitz


Bogaczewo, Wielbark and Eastern Przeworsk culture sites in Masovia and Prussia (1st century AD)


Hypothetical expansion of the Goths (1st-3rd century AD)


Gothic raids (3rd century AD)


Some of the Venedi settled along the Danube river before the early 400s (see Tabula Peutingeriana). It is questionable whether they migrated with the Goths, or before/after the Goths.


"Getica"
Quote:
Now from this island of Scandza [Scandinavia], as from a hive of races or a womb of nations, the Goths are said to have come forth long ago under their king, Berig by name [sailing in only three ships]. As soon as they disembarked from their ships and set foot on the land, they straightway gave their name to the place. And even to-day it is said to be called Gothiscandza. Soon they moved from here to the abodes of the Ulmerugi, who then dwelt on the shores of Ocean, where they pitched camp, joined battle with them and drove them from their homes. Then they subdued their neighbors, the Vandals, and thus added to their victories. But when the number of the people increased greatly and Filimer, son of Gadaric, reigned as king--about the fifth since Berig--he decided that the army of the Goths with their families should move from that region. In search of suitable homes and pleasant places they came to the land of Scythia, called Oium in that tongue. Here they were delighted with the great richness of the country, and it is said that when half the army had been brought over, the bridge whereby they had crossed the river fell in utter ruin, nor could anyone thereafter pass to or fro. For the place is said to be surrounded by quaking bogs and an encircling abyss, so that by this double obstacle nature has made it inaccessible. And even to-day one may hear in that neighborhood the lowing of cattle and may find traces of men, if we are to believe the stories of travellers, although we must grant that they hear these things from afar.
Quote:
After the slaughter of the Heruli, Hermanaric [Gothic king] also took arms against the Venethi. This people, though despised in war, was strong in numbers and tried to resist him. But a multitude of cowards is of no avail, particularly when God permits an armed multitude to attack them. These people, as we started to say at the beginning of our account or catalogue of nations, though off-shoots from one stock, have now three names, that is, Venethi, Antes and Sclaveni. Though they now rage in war far and wide, in punishment for our sins, yet at that time they were all obedient to Hermanaric's commands. This ruler also subdued by his wisdom and might the race of the Aesti, who dwell on the farthest shore of the German Ocean, and ruled all the nations of Scythia and Germany by his own prowess alone.
Quote:
Now the Gothic race gained great fame in the region where they were then dwelling, that is in the Scythian land on the shore of Pontus [Black Sea], holding undisputed sway over great stretches of country, many arms of the sea and many river courses.
Quote:
I must now return to those ancient Scythian abodes and set forth in like manner the ancestry and deeds of the Ostrogoths. It appears that at the death of their king, Hermanaric, they were made a separate people by the departure of the Visigoths, and remained in their country subject to the sway of the Huns; yet Vinitharius of the Amali retained the insignia of his rule. He rivalled the valor of his grandfather Vultuulf, although he had not the good fortune of Hermanaric. But disliking to remain under the rule of the Huns, he withdrew a little from them and strove to show his courage by moving his forces against the country of the Antes. When he attacked them, he was beaten in the first encounter. Thereafter he did valiantly and, as a terrible example, crucified their king, named Boz, together with his sons and seventy nobles, and left their bodies hanging there to double the fear of those who had surrendered.
Quote:
Near their left ridge, which inclines toward the north, and beginning at the source of the Vistula, the populous race of the Venethi dwell, occupying a great expanse of land. Though their names are now dispersed amid various clans and places, yet they are chiefly called Sclaveni and Antes. The abode of the Sclaveni extends from the city of Noviodunum and the lake called Mursianus to the Danaster, and northward as far as the Vistula. They have swamps and forests for their cities. The Antes, who are the bravest of these peoples dwelling in the curve of the sea of Pontus, spread from the Danaster to the Danaper, rivers that are many days' journey apart. But on the shore of Ocean, where the floods of the river Vistula empty from three mouths, the Vidivarii dwell, a people gathered out of various tribes. Beyond them the Aesti, a subject race, likewise hold the shore of Ocean.
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Old November 8th, 2015, 02:47 AM   #2004
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The progress of Germanization in Masuria throughout the 19th century:

1) Kreis Angerburg (Węgorzewo):



2) Kreis Goldap (Gołdap):



3) Kreis Johannisburg (Pisz):



4) Kreis Lötzen (Łuczany / Giżycko):



5) Kreis Lyck (Łek / Ełk):



6) Kreis Mohrungen (Morąg):



7) Kreis Neidenburg (Nibork / Nidzica):



8) Kreis Oletzko (Olecko):



9) Kreis Ortelsburg (Szczytno):



10) Kreis Osterode (Ostróda):



11) Kreis Rastenburg (Rastembork / Kętrzyn):



12) Kreis Rosenberg (Susz):



13) Kreis Sensburg (Ządzbork / Mrągowo):



14) Summary for Pisz, Lötzen, Lyck, Neidenburg, Oletzko, Ortelsburg, Osterode & Sensburg:



Source

Also Lithuanians declined in the 19th century from being over 12,13% of the population of East Prussia, to being 6,19% of the population of East Prussia.

Lithuanophone population of East Prussia mostly succumbed to Germanization policies.

Lithuanian-speakers as % of the total population of East Prussia according to official census data (they were a minority in East Prussia as a whole, but in north-eastern parts of East Prussia - known as Kleinlitauen - they were the most numerous ethnic group around year 1800):

Year - percent of Lithuanian speakers among the total population:

1825 - 12,13%
1837 - 11,49%
1848 - 10,26%
1871 - 7,65%
1878 - 6,91%
1890 - 6,19%

In 65 years the relative proportion of ethnic Lithuanians among the total population of East Prussia declined by half. The absolute number of Lithuanian-speakers in East Prussia did not decline much (from 139,268 in 1825 to 121,345 in 1890), but the total population of East Prussia almost doubled during the same period (from 1,148,016 in 1825 to 1,958,663 in 1890) - so the proportion of Lithuanians among the population declined by 1/2.

Map showing the ethnic situation in the 19th century (most numerous ethnicity by county):

http://s29.postimg.org/ip1yx936v/Pru...nic_1800_B.png

Masurians = Protestant Poles
Ermland = Warmia

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Old November 8th, 2015, 05:40 AM   #2005
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Let's compare the % of German-speakers in some of Masurian counties listed above, in 1825 and in 1905/1910:

Johannisburg - 7,0% in 1825 vs. 31,9% plus 3,2% bilinguals in 1910
Neidenburg - 7,3% in 1825 vs. 35,1% plus 4,9% bilinguals in 1910
Ortelsburg - 8,2% in 1825 vs. 29,0% plus 3,5% bilinguals in 1910
Lyck - 11,2% in 1825 vs. 48,8% plus 4,7% bilinguals in 1910
Lötzen - 13,8% in 1825 vs. 63,9% plus 4,4% bilinguals in 1910
Sensburg - 14,4% in 1825 vs. 48,9% plus 4,7% bilinguals in 1910
Oletzko - 20,1% in 1825 vs. 63,8% plus 3,9% bilinguals in 1905
Osterode - 28,6% in 1825 vs. 58,3% plus 3,1% bilinguals in 1910
Angerburg - 48,4% in 1825 vs. 95,3% plus 0,3% bilinguals in 1905
Goldap - 70,1% in 1825 vs. 97,9% plus 0,7% bilinguals in 1905

So by the time of the plebiscite in July of 1920, most of them were Germanized.

I wonder what would have been the result of the plebiscite in year 1810.

In 1810 the political situation was also much better, since Poland (the Duchy of Warsaw) had just won a war against Austria (in 1809), regaining most of Galicia; while in July of 1920, during the plebiscite, the Bolsheviks were just approaching Lwow and Warsaw - Poland was on the brink of collapse.

The Polish-Austrian war of 1809 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish...93Austrian_War

And the treaty ending it - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Sch%C3%B6nbrunn

Quote:
Austria ceded Salzburg to Bavaria, West Galicia to the Duchy of Warsaw (...)
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Old November 8th, 2015, 05:42 PM   #2006
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Map of the Duchy of Warsaw from 1812 - http://polona.pl/item/25422475/0/

Castle in Olsztynek/Hohenstein










WW1 memorial plaque and Heinz von Stwolinski's tombstone


Quote:
KARL BASEL
OTTO BASEL
KARL BEDNARSKI
AUGUST BIENDARA
HERMANN BURDENSKI
ARTUR BUTTKUS
HANS CZUDNOCHOWSKI
KARL DOMBROWSKI
EMIL DUCAR
ERICH DUSCHA
AUGUST EBERT
OTTO FREITAG
OTTO FREYTAG
WILLY GABRIEL
ARTHUR GOTTSCHALK
OTTO GOTTSCHEWSKI
ERNST GRÜNKE
PAUL GUNIA
WILHELM HAHN
KARL HALLMANN
ERNST HERRENDORFER
ERNST HOFFMANN
HERMANN HOLZEL
FRANZ KAHLER
FRITZ KAYSER
ALEX KONDRITZ
WILLY KRAUSE
ERNST KRÜGER
ERNST KUCHARSKI
EMIL KURZINNA
OTTO KURZINNA
FRIEDRICH LAWRENZ
FRANZ LORTZER
ERNST LUCAS
RICHARD LUCAS
JOHANNES NAROSKA
KURT NICKEL
HANS BEIKER

ERICH NICLAS
HANS OGRCZEWALLA
EMIL PAKUSCH
GUSTAV PANNEK
PAUL POLENZ
WALTER POLENZ
EMIL POSNY
ALFRED PREUSS
EMIL PRZYSWITT
ERNST RADE
RUDOLF REINBACHER
WILHELM RESIMIUS
EMIL RIEMANN
ALFRED ROGALLA
HEINRICH SAALMANN
KURT SAKOWSKI
GOTTLIEB SALOGA
ARTUR SCHINDOWSKI
EMIL SCHULZ
ROBERT SCHULZ
FRITZ SCHUSDZIARA
HERMANN SCHWESIG
ERICH SCIIWIDDER
ERICH SDRENKA
OTTO SENCZEK
ERICH SKOWRONSKI
JOHANNES STIELAU
EMIL STOSEK
WALTER STROMER
KARL SUCHOWSKI
HANS SYCHOLD
WALTER SYMANCZYK
FRITZ SZIELASKO
ERNST UYMOWSKI
ALFRED WADEPOHL
PAUL ZANDER
GOTTLIEB KOWALSKI
HERMANN RUTTKOWSKI
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Old November 8th, 2015, 09:59 PM   #2007
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Wow, it looks like Germanization was quite aggressive and therefore quite effective. Just a personal anecdote, we were recently looking for my grandfather's grave in the Czestochowa region of Poland which was once near the border of then Nazi Germany. He was killed/died in the 30's on the German side where he worked on a folwark. My grandmother was not allowed to cross the border to claim him because the landowner did not want to pay compensation to his family for the wrongful death even though my grandfather had three children and a wife. For all these years we searched for him. Finally last summer, we went to a monastery near the old folwark where he worked once again and a very kind monk indulged our many queries and looked and looked through archives for this lost soul. We were about to leave and we looked at him and a light bulb appeared to turn in his eyes and he checked one more time and found my grandfather after over 70years. He was given a Germanized version of his first (Franz - Franciszek in Polish) and last name - that's why we couldn't find him - and dumped into a mass grave. In addition he was listed as single with no dependents. My father and his family nearly died of starvation as a result of this action because they had no breadwinner in the family. I wonder how many other Poles are having problems finding relatives lost this way. We are now in the process of doing DNA testing on numerous corpses so we can exhume him and have him properly buried. We are living in different times today but we Poles especially are still paying for the evils of the last century.
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Warsaw Post-War Reconstruction to Present

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Old November 10th, 2015, 05:07 PM   #2008
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Archcathedral Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint Andrew in Frombork/Frauenburg (currently undergoing renovation works), Warmia







Source

See also post #1816.
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Old November 18th, 2015, 10:46 AM   #2009
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Reszel/Rößel, Warmia (also here)














































Post-war and now







Source
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Old November 18th, 2015, 03:55 PM   #2010
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Elbląg/Elbing















Source
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Old November 18th, 2015, 06:28 PM   #2011
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Olsztyn/Allenstein, Warmia - blog.tripsoverpoland.pl

Masurian epitaphs (now displayed in Museum of Warmia and Masuria in Olsztyn)...


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Old November 20th, 2015, 01:37 PM   #2012
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Quote:
Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post
The historical document, known as the Gdansk Treaty, was concluded on 4 August 1677 between Poland’s King John III Sobieski and the Swedish monarch Charles XI. The Gdansk Treaty played a key role in the foreign policy of the Polish sovereign during the first years of his reign. The Treaty targeted the Elector of Brandenburg, with whom the King of Sweden Charles XI fought a war for control over Western Pomerania. Under the Treaty, in exchange for Polish consent for Charles’ army to march from Livonia through Royal Prussia, Sweden agreed to grant the Duchy of Prussia to King Sobieski for his son Jakub.


"Regni Poloniae Jus Publicum ex Statutis ac Constitutionibus depromptum" (published in Królewiec/Königsberg, 1676)

Source
At that time, Jerzy Skrodzki was a pastor at Steindamm Church.






"Nowo wydany kancyonal" by Jerzy Skrodzki (published in Królewiec/Königsberg, 1684)


Just a few years earlier, in 1634 Krzyszto Liebruder (his Latin-German-Polish grammar below) opened Polish municipal school in Królewiec/Königsberg.




In 1653 Catholic school has been founded near Sackheim Church. Roman Catholic church in the Sackheim quarter was built between 1614 and 1616 with Sigismund III and Szymon Rudnicki's help, the first Sackheim Church rector was Jan Bylina.
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Old November 20th, 2015, 04:21 PM   #2013
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Was the treaty actually titled Treaty of Gdansk or Treaty of Danzig?
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Old November 20th, 2015, 04:30 PM   #2014
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Quote:
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Was the treaty actually titled Treaty of Gdansk or Treaty of Danzig?
Rather something like "pactus Gedanum", because it was written in Latin (Gdańsk names) The name is probably of Slavic origin (meaning wetlands, a swampy place), like hundreds of place names in East Germany.

-itz ist eine Ortsnamenendung mit slawischen Ursprung.

Source

-ow [-oː] (mit stummem w) sind Ortsnamen- und Familiennamenendungen meist slawischen Ursprungs, die vor allem in Nordostdeutschland zu finden sind. Ortsnamen auf -ow finden sich auch in Polen.

Source

Luckily enough, Turks stay away from the former Slavic lands

Staatsangehörigkeit Türkei in Deutschland

Source
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Old November 22nd, 2015, 01:49 PM   #2015
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Church in Glotowo/Glottau, Warmia
More recent photos...

* Wayside shrine is being renovated?





Choir stall with plaque commemorating consecration by Krzysztof Andrzej Jan Szembek in 1726


A plaque commemorating consecration of the main altar by Michał Benign Łoszewski in 1741



Source: adelamak.blogspot.co.uk

Quote:
Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post
Baroque church in Franknowo/Frankenau (built in 1751, founded by Adam Stanislaw Grabowski)


Foundation plaque with Grabowski's Zbiświcz coat of arms





Source: adelamak.blogspot.co.uk
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Old November 23rd, 2015, 12:52 PM   #2016
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Orneta/Wormditt, Warmia



Source
Renovation works carried out by Budokar





Source: http://www.budokar.pl

...and by Cezary Smycz

Source: cezarysmycz.pl
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Old November 24th, 2015, 04:42 AM   #2017
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Quote:
Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post
More recent photos...



Source: adelamak.blogspot.co.uk
This church is absolutely beautiful - I don't know if it somehow survived the war without damage or has been restored. Even if it was not damaged it has been kept in outstanding condition.
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Old November 26th, 2015, 11:32 AM   #2018
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Rulers of Poland (according to Italian genealogist Antonio Albizzi, ca.1601)

Source
And ruling family trees of Poland's neighbours (Western Pomerania and Bohemia) from "Principum Christianorum Stemmata"...



Source

Please see the following .pdf document which lists coins minted in Bohemia (some quite awesome): http://www.numismatas.com/Forum/Pdf/David%20Ruckser/Coins%20of%20Bohemia.pdf
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Old November 26th, 2015, 12:53 PM   #2019
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Cześć!

(Przepraszam za mój zły polski, tylko zaczęłam go studiować

2 tygodni temu byłam w Małborku i chodziłam do kościóła Matki Boskiej Malborskiej. Czy ktokolwiek zna znaczenie ikony, co ona oznacza, oprócz Opiekunki Miasta? Ne mogę znaleźć informację w internecie.
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Тем, кто родился на берегу моря, всегда дует ветер странствий. От него деревья не колышутся, зато души трепещут...
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Old November 26th, 2015, 02:33 PM   #2020
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Quote:
Obraz Matki Boskiej Malborskiej stał przez wiele lat na jednym z bocznych ołtarzy w kościele św. Jana Chrzciciela. Z pewnością wiele osób przeszło obok niego obojętnie, lecz teraz obraz ukazuje nam się na nowo. Po pierwsze dlatego, że wrócił z renowacji i jest w oryginalnych ramach, a po drugie - nie jest zwykłym obiektem sakralnym i warto o tym pamiętać.
Historia obrazu Matki Boskiej Malborskiej nie jest w pełni znana.
- Kiedy krzyżacy przybyli do Malborka, zastali już kult Matki Boskiej. W obecnej Bramie Mariackiej znajdował się pierwowzór obrazu, ale nie wiemy jak wyglądał – opowiada ks. Krzysztof Gołębiewski, proboszcz parafii św. Jana. - Na przełomie XIII i XIV w. Krzyżacy doszli do wniosku, że poprawią wizerunek Matki Boskiej, jednak nie wiadomo ile w tym nowym wizerunku zostało z oryginału. Obraz został umieszczony w tym samym obiekcie- w Bramie Mariackiej, jako chroniący miasto. Sam kult Matki Bożej był bardzo żywy. Pod koniec XV w. obraz został przeniesiony do głównej bramy tam, gdzie kiedyś był drewniany most i zachował się do 1945 r.
Na szczęście powstała kopia obrazu.
- W XVII w. został namalowany fereton, który nosiło się na procesji. Był przechowywany w kościele zamkowym – mówi ks. Krzysztof. - Kiedy w 1945 r. Niemcy wycofywali się z Malborka, Rosjanie ostrzelali zamek. W tym niszczycielskim ogniu został zniszczony obraz, który był w bramie. Wtedy ks. Feliks Sawicki z wraz z mieszkańcami miasta ratował z zamku to, co się dało, a fereton został przeniesiony do kościoła św. Jana.

Pierwszy proboszcz orionista był prekursorem renowacji obrazu.
- Obraz został przewieziony do Torunia, gdzie został wykonana jego renowacja. Po czym wrócił do Malborka, ale bez ram. Przez kilkanaście lat wisiał na korytarzu na plebani. Ksiądz Krzysztof Miś (poprzedni proboszcz parafii – przyp. red.) pochylił się nad obrazem i dał go do odnowienia, a następnie wrócił na swoje miejsce do kościoła – dodaje ks. proboszcz.
O obrazie dowiadujemy się coraz więcej. Wiemy, że jest napisana i zaakceptowana modlitwa do Matki Boskiej Malborskiej.
Ostatnia renowacja obrazu nie byłaby możliwa, gdyby nie pieniądze od darczyńcy.
- Kiedy pracownicy kancelarii zmarłego prezydenta Lecha Kaczyńskiego przygotowywali wizytę w Malborku, to jednym z jej punktów miało być odwiedzenie kościoła św. Jana. Renowacja obrazu to dar dla parafii – kontynuuje ks. Krzysztof. - Okazało się wówczas, że w Toruniu nadal są ramy od obrazu i 22 lipca XVII-wieczny obraz powrócił w XVII-wiecznych ramach. Jest to Matka Boska Malborska Opiekunka Miasta. Ks. Prowincjał naszego zgromadzenia poświęcił obraz, co było konieczne po tak gruntownych pracach.

Na tym jednak historia Matki Boskiej się nie kończy. Można powiedzieć, że tu otwierają się karty jej nowej historii, bo jest duża szansa, że wizerunek przemówi do wiernych w naszym mieście i kult Matki Bożej Malborskiej ożyje.
- Obraz powinien znaleźć miejsce stacjonarne w świątyni, bo na razie jest na mensie ołtarza św. Józefa. Później najlepiej kopia obrazu mogłaby wędrować po domach – uważa ks. proboszcz i przekonuje, że również inne, bardzo znane i czczone wizerunki Maryi na początku były po prostu malowidłami. - Kiedyś obraz Matki Boskiej Częstochowskiej był obrazem namalowanym na desce, teraz pielgrzymują do niego ludzie. Wszystko zależy od naszego podejścia. Mamy swoją Matkę Boską w Malborku, mamy pośrednictwo duchowe, możemy pielgrzymować w obrębie miasta z ulicy obok do obrazu i to też będzie pielgrzymka. Na początku trzeciego tysiąclecia można by było znaleźć coś wspólnego dla wszystkich mieszkańców Malborka, którzy często przyjechali tu i tworzą bardzo zróżnicowany konglomerat. Myślę, że możemy mieć coś wspólnego i może to być właśnie Matka Boska Malborska. Tak naprawdę wszystko jest zmienne. Zmieniają się księża w parafii, zmieniają się władze, ludzie wyjeżdżają z miasta, a obraz tu był i będzie.
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