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Old April 7th, 2013, 10:38 AM   #641
RS_UK-PL
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Lötzen/Lec



The Teutonic Knights built a castle in Prussia named Lötzen (Lec in Polish) in 1340, located at the isthmus between two lakes in Masuria. Lötzen was administered within the Komturei of Balga. The settlement near the castle received town privileges, with a coat of arms and seal, in 1612 while part of the Duchy of Prussia.
Lötzen became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701 and was made part of the province of East Prussia in 1773. In 1709/10 the plague claimed 800 victims, only 119 inhabitants survived. In the 19th century, a Lutheran church designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel was erected in the centre of the town. The official Prussian census of 1827 showed 74% Polish-speakers in the Lötzen region.
1844–1848 the “Feste Boyen“, a fortress named after the Prussian war-minister Hermann von Boyen, was built on a small landtongue between lake Mamry (Mauersee) and lake Niegocin (Löwentinsee). This fortress is one of the largest and best conditioned fortresses of the 19th century.

Lec Castle (recently rebuilt)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...ycko_Zamek.jpg


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...runo%29_01.JPG

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Old April 7th, 2013, 11:14 AM   #642
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Quote:
Originally Posted by TimothyR View Post
Yes, it will be wonderful to have that church restored again.

200 fresco paintings! That would be beautiful.
Guys, sorry for misleading - 119 fresco paintings have been found by this moment.
Someone wrote 200 in some source but i decided to re-check it..)
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Old April 7th, 2013, 03:28 PM   #643
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Oletzko/Olecko



Marggrabowa was founded as a town by Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Duke of the Duchy of Prussia, on January 1, 1560. The town's Masurian Slavic-sounding name is derived from the German word Markgraf, the duke's title as the margraviate of Brandenburg's prince. The city coats of arms still reflect the Brandenburg red eagle and the Hohenzollern black and white going back to Albert of Brandenburg Prussia. The populace became Lutheran-Protestant within the Duchy of Prussia in 1525.
At the same location as the town there has been since 1544 a hunting lodge called Oletzko. At a peninsula towards the lake, across the Lega river, in 1619 the Castle of Oletzko (Schloss Oletzko) was established as a regional administrative seat for the Dukes of Prussia. Until the late 19th century, the Oletzko region was inhabited by Polish speaking majority.

Olecko Castle

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...cko_Castle.jpg
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Old April 7th, 2013, 03:32 PM   #644
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You're doing some great job posting all the info and pics.
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Old April 7th, 2013, 03:46 PM   #645
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By the way, Lötzen is German pronunciation of old baltic name - Lėcius. I don't know why Poles changed city name to Giżycko
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Old April 7th, 2013, 04:43 PM   #646
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Heilsberg/Lidzbark Warminski



The town was originally an Old Prussian settlement known as Lecbarg until being conquered in 1240 by the Teutonic Knights, who named it Heilsberg. In 1306 it became the seat for the Bishopric of Warmia, then known by its German name Ermland, and remained the Prince-Bishop's seat for 500 years. In 1309 the settlement received town privileges. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466) the town was integrated into the Polish province of Royal Prussia. Nicolaus Copernicus lived at the castle for several years, and it is believed he wrote part of his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium there. Heilsberg was annexed with the rest of Warmia / Ermland by the Kingdom of Prussia in the First Partition of Poland in 1772.

Adam Stanislaw Grabowski's palace in Lidzbark Warminski












Hopefully, Jan Stefan Wydzga's palace (demolished in 1839-1840) will be rebuilt some day.


Ignacy Krasicki's palace in Lidzbark Warminski


Adam Stanislaw Grabowski's palace in Smolajny
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Old April 7th, 2013, 05:33 PM   #647
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Depeched View Post
I don't know why Poles changed city name to Giżycko
The town was renamed Giżycko in 1946 in honor of the Masurian folklorist Gustaw Gizewiusz, a 19th century Evangelical-Lutheran pastor in southern East Prussia, who had greatly supported Polish language and Polish culture.

Decision was made by Commission for the Determination of Place Names in agreement (rather rarity in that time), with local Masurians and Poles expelled mostly from northeastern territories annexed by the Soviet Union.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustaw_Gizewiusz

Ps. From 1835 Gizewiusz was also an Evangelical-Lutheran pastor in Ostróda/Osterode.

Church (rebuilt in 1858)


Rectory


Entrance


"Der Herr segne dich" - "The Lord bless you."

http://stolicaiokolica.blogspot.com/...#axzz2PmzknZHJ
Author: stolica i okolica
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Old April 7th, 2013, 11:37 PM   #648
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Quote:
Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post
Until the late 19th century, the Lidzbark Warminski region was inhabited by Polish speaking majority.
Absolutely not. The borderline between German-speaking and Polish-speaking areas of settlement was approx. 35 km to the south from Lidzbark and, btw, it didn't change much from late XV century.

Throughout 1466-1772 the 30-40% of Warmia/Ermland citizens were Polish speakers (in the south) and 60-70% were German speakers (in the north). Lidzbark always was in this German "zone".

The following cities were of German majority: Licbark/Heilsberg (Lidzbark Warmiński), Dobre Miasto/Guttstadt, Reszel/Rossel, Bisztynek/Bischofstein, Jeziorany/Seeburg, Orneta/Wormditt, Melzak/Melsack (Pieniężno), Frombork/Frauenburg and Braniewo/Brunsberga.

The following cities were of Polish majority and remained so up to mid. XIX cent.: Olsztyn/Allenstein, Biskupiec/Bischofsburg, Barczewo/Wartemburg.
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Old April 8th, 2013, 04:16 AM   #649
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There are many beautiful small towns that have been restored. That is very encouraging to see.

Thanks to RS_UK-PL and veresk and Puritan for the posts.
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Old April 8th, 2013, 06:19 AM   #650
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Puritan View Post
The town was renamed Giżycko in 1946 in honor of the Masurian folklorist Gustaw Gizewiusz, a 19th century Evangelical-Lutheran pastor in southern East Prussia, who had greatly supported Polish language and Polish culture.

Decision was made by Commission for the Determination of Place Names in agreement (rather rarity in that time), with local Masurians and Poles expelled mostly from northeastern territories annexed by the Soviet Union.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustaw_Gizewiusz

Ps. From 1835 Gizewiusz was also an Evangelical-Lutheran pastor in Ostróda/Osterode.

Church (rebuilt in 1858)


Rectory


Entrance


"Der Herr segne dich" - "The Lord bless you."

http://stolicaiokolica.blogspot.com/...#axzz2PmzknZHJ
Author: stolica i okolica

It's very nice seeing the church and the rectory in such excellent condition - and the entrance with the welcoming greeting.
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“In keeping silent about evil, in burying it so deep within us that no sign of it appears on the surface, we are implanting it, and it will rise up a thousand fold in the future. When we neither punish nor reproach evildoers we are thereby ripping the foundations of justice from beneath new generations.”

“The meaning of earthly existence lies not, as we have grown used to thinking, in prospering but in the development of the soul.”
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"We are more closely connected to the invisible than to the visible"

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Old April 8th, 2013, 12:52 PM   #651
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Springborn/Stoczek Klasztorny (built by Mikolaj Szyszkowski)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...ymkowy_019.jpg


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...99trze_023.jpg


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...Cganki_012.jpg


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...C3%B3d_004.jpg
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Old April 8th, 2013, 11:48 PM   #652
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Depeched View Post
By the way, Lötzen is German pronunciation of old baltic name - Lėcius. I don't know why Poles changed city name to Giżycko
Political reasons, many Polish names in the former German territories sounded too German at the time and as a part of the "de-germanization" process many places were renamed, sometimes it was a litteral translation, sometimes it were names borrowed from Czech, but often those places were renamed after a communist or local pre-war Polish activist, in this case Gustaw Gizewiusz, Polish-lutheran priest and political figure from the 19th century. There are thousands of twons and villages whose names were more or less polonized shortly after the war. Some of the notable examples are:
Münsterberg - Minsterberga - Ziębice
Ziegenhals - Cygenhals - Głuchołazy
Schömberg - Szomberk - Chełmsko
Obviously, many bigger and well-known cities couldn't be renamed that way as it'd cause too much controversy, e.g. Elbing - Elbląg or Allenstein - Olsztyn.
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Old April 9th, 2013, 12:16 AM   #653
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Dzwonsson View Post
Political reasons, many Polish names in the former German territories sounded too German at the time and as a part of the "de-germanization" process many places were renamed, sometimes it was a litteral translation, sometimes it were names borrowed from Czech, but often those places were renamed after a communist or local pre-war Polish activist, in this case Gustaw Gizewiusz, Polish-lutheran priest and political figure from the 19th century. There are thousands of twons and villages whose names were more or less polonized shortly after the war.
I doubt you'll find thousand of such renamings, I even doubt you'll find a hundred. And, contrary to what you've said, most of the names weren't changed at all. Unless you expect anyone to keep German names in their original spelling

Most of the "changes" were simple transliterations: Wardommen - Wardomy, Oletzko - Olecko, Lauenburg - Lębork, Eylau - Iława, Osterode - Ostróda, Mohrungen - Morąg, and so on.
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Old April 9th, 2013, 01:22 AM   #654
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Yeah, maybe I was exaggerating. But there are many small towns and villages that have been renamed that way, especially in Eastern Pommerania or East Brandenburg, but also in Lower Silesia or East Prussia, e.g. the village where my grandmother was born: Konradswalde > Konradzwałd > Podlasek or a former health resort in Grafschaft Glatz where I used to spend my holidays: Wölfelsgrund > Międzygórze (and many other places in that area e.g. Habelschwerdt > Bystrzyca from Czech Bystřice, Bad Altheide - Polanica Zdrój (translation) or Bad Reinerz > Duszniki from Czech Dušníky). Damn, I already named 9 examples and could count at least another 20 in Grafschaft Glatz only.
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Old April 9th, 2013, 03:12 AM   #655
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Originally Posted by Dzwonsson View Post
Yeah, maybe I was exaggerating. But there are many small towns and villages that have been renamed that way, especially in Eastern Pommerania or East Brandenburg, but also in Lower Silesia or East Prussia, e.g. the village where my grandmother was born: Konradswalde > Konradzwałd > Podlasek or a former health resort in Grafschaft Glatz where I used to spend my holidays: Wölfelsgrund > Międzygórze (and many other places in that area e.g. Habelschwerdt > Bystrzyca from Czech Bystřice, Bad Altheide - Polanica Zdrój (translation) or Bad Reinerz > Duszniki from Czech Dušníky). Damn, I already named 9 examples and could count at least another 20 in Grafschaft Glatz only.
I don't think you were exaggerating at all and I also don't agree that most of the "renaming" of German cities to Polish was a simple matter of transliteration. That would be more believeable for directly translateable terms such as berg, burg, stadt, stein, king, etc and proper names, but not for most of the city names, it seems. Marienwerder to Kwizyn? Marienburg to Malbork? Koningsberg to Kaliningrad? Nope, the Germanness was wiped out of the area with a dedicated zeal that did not leave much connection to its being German for hundreds of years behind.
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Old April 9th, 2013, 05:27 AM   #656
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Originally Posted by Mruczek View Post
I doubt you'll find thousand of such renamings, I even doubt you'll find a hundred. And, contrary to what you've said, most of the names weren't changed at all. Unless you expect anyone to keep German names in their original spelling

Most of the "changes" were simple transliterations: Wardommen - Wardomy, Oletzko - Olecko, Lauenburg - Lębork, Eylau - Iława, Osterode - Ostróda, Mohrungen - Morąg, and so on.
I think the important thing is that the actual German spelling was changed to Polish. Only made sense at that point.
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Old April 9th, 2013, 09:41 AM   #657
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Silesian city names in 1750...

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...ka_II_1750.jpg
In Silesia, we've seen rather Germanisation of names over the centuries. After 1945 most of the Slavic names have been restored.

On the other hand, many cities in eastern parts of Prussia were renamed by Polish settlers after Second Peace of Thorn/Torun (1466). Some cities/towns were founded by them, e.g. Polska Wieś, Pieski, Diwidiszki, Gudwaly, Dąbrówka, Karpowo Duże i Małe, Kleszego, Mieduniszki Małe i Wielkie, Rogale, Żabin, Żabinek, Balety, Tatary, Maciejowa Wola, Piątki, Sikory, Błędowo, Dąbrowa, Klonówka, Gniadkowo, Kurkowo, Kurkówko, Łączki, Polesie, Popówko, Kozłówko, Sokoły, Suczki, Trocin, Wesołowo, Wesołówko, Wola, Miczuły, Muldzie, Zawady, Różanna.

Title page of the Gospel of St. Matthew published by Jan Seklucjan in Królewiec Pruski (Königsberg) in 1551...

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...jan_gospel.gif
In the 15th century Poles were using name Krolowgrod and by the 16th century became the standard Polish name Królewiec.
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Old April 9th, 2013, 10:19 AM   #658
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Koningsberg to Kaliningrad?



Why mentioning this? It's not Poland, it's another story (very sad one). Alas, in Soviet part of East Prussia all of the names of cities, towns and villages (and even of many rivers) were changed at once in a rush into completely artificial and sometimes stupid substitutes which mostly have nothing in common with the history of the land (at least they might bear names of soldiers and officers who fought there in WW2 but still not many). This was despite of the fact that many of these settlements actually had Baltic or Slavic names (or versions of German names) which could have been restored. But it's not the way they did things in the Soviet Union.
If I'm not mistaken there are only two settlements in Kaliningrad oblast which more or less kept their names (in a changed form, but it's OK): Domnovo (formerly Domnau) and Talpaki (formerly Taplacken). Podlipovo can also be mentioned because its present name is at least partial translation of the previous one (Hochlindenberg), though it sounds awkward in Russian. In fact those who renamed Prussian cities were not great specialists in Russian toponymy and invented some ridiculous names like, for example, Zelenogradsk (according to Russian tradition it might be Zelenograd or Zelenogorsk but not such a mixture). The current map of the region (its Russian part, I mean) almost makes me throw up even though I'm Russian and I like my country.
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Old April 9th, 2013, 12:26 PM   #659
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invented some ridiculous names like, for example, Zelenogradsk (according to Russian tradition it might be Zelenograd or Zelenogorsk but not such a mixture).
What's ridiculous in the word "Zelenogradsk"? It means "green town" and nothing else. And can you tell more about that strange Russian tradition- tradition of what?!
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Old April 9th, 2013, 12:38 PM   #660
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What's ridiculous in the word "Zelenogradsk"? It means "green town" and nothing else. And can you tell more about that strange Russian tradition- tradition of what?!
No. "Green town" would be "Zelenograd", without "sk".
Tradition of city naming, of course. There are no other cities with part "gradsk" because it's absurd.
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