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Old June 29th, 2013, 03:29 PM   #1081
Depeched
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Nice photos. Interesting this that after long years of germanization, in XX c. maps some of these places still were shown with not changed baltic names as "Urbo Kalns" and etc. Would be great to compare what was left in Lithuanian side and in Kaliningrad area.
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Old June 30th, 2013, 08:58 PM   #1082
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Collegium Hosianum (Jesuit collegium) in Braniewo/Braunsberg, Warmia




It was founded in 1565-1566 by bishop of Warmia, Stanisław Hozjusz. Maciej Kazimierz Skarbiewski (Europe's most prominent Latin poet of the 17th century, and a renowned theoretician of poetics) studied philosophy here.

Some old books published by Jesuit printing house in Braniewo/Braunsberg ("Uwagi Chrzescianskie" and "Zebranie kazan").


* The original school library (about 2000 volumes) was plundered by Swedish troops throughout the Polish–Swedish War (1626–1629) and is still existing at the University of Upsala.
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Old June 30th, 2013, 09:01 PM   #1083
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Originally Posted by Depeched View Post
Nice photos. Interesting this that after long years of germanization, in XX c. maps some of these places still were shown with not changed baltic names as "Urbo Kalns" and etc. Would be great to compare what was left in Lithuanian side and in Kaliningrad area.
In Kaliningrad, almost no Lithuanian (Prussian) titles.
All renamed after the war. Russian names, with a large part of the Soviet.
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Old June 30th, 2013, 09:06 PM   #1084
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Ost Preussen Friedland\Правдинск









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Old June 30th, 2013, 11:27 PM   #1085
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Johannes Bielauk (lit. Jonas Bylaukis, ca. 1540 - 1603)

http://www.hab.de/ausstellungen/postille/expo-6.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Klein_(grammarian)
Quote:
Daniel Klein (Lithuanian: Danielius Kleinas) (1609–1666) was a Lutheran pastor and scholar from Tilsit, Duchy of Prussia, who is best known for writing the first grammar book of the Lithuanian language.
Klein studied philosophy, theology, Greek and Hebrew in the University of Königsberg. In 1637 he became a Lutheran pastor.
In 1653 Klein published the first grammar book of the Lithuanian language (Grammatica Litvanica), written in Latin. Klein coined the distinctive Lithuanian letter Ė. He also wrote a Lithuanian dictionary, but it was left unpublished.
Klein published collections of Lithuanian hymns (Lit. giesmes), some of which he wrote himself.

http://www.hab.de/ausstellungen/postille/expo-25.htm

Johann Jacob Quandt (lit. Jonas Jokubas Kvantas, 1686 - 1772).
Philipp Ruhig (lit. Pilypas Ruigys, 1675 - 1749).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pilypas_Ruigys

http://www.hab.de/ausstellungen/postille/expo-32.htm

Daniel Klein (lit. Danielius Kleinas, 1609 - 1666)
Lazarus Sengstock (lit. Lozorius Zengstokas, 1562 - 1621)

http://www.hab.de/ausstellungen/postille/expo-34.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraomas_Kulvietis

http://www.hab.de/ausstellungen/postille/expo-35.htm
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Old June 30th, 2013, 11:50 PM   #1086
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonas_Bretkūnas
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Jonas Bretkūnas, Johann(es) Bretke, also known as Bretkus (born 1536 in Bammeln near Friedland – 1602 Königsberg) was a Lutheran pastor and was one of the best known developers of the written Lithuanian language. He translated the Bible into Lithuanian, was the author of twelve Lithuanian books, and a historian as well.


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Old July 1st, 2013, 12:11 AM   #1087
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Bible translations into Lithuanian

The first small fragments of Bible and few Bible terms were probably translated as early as in 14th century, together with the baptism of Lithuania. The first texts of the Holy Scriptures in the Lithuanian language appeared in the middle of the 16th century following the spread of the Reformation. The first book in Lithuanian, "The Catechism" by Martynas Mažvydas, published in 1547, contained ten commandments of God, two psalms, extracts from the Gospels and the epistles of apostles. In 1579-1580 Jonas Bretkūnas completed translation of the Bible, but it was not published. Samuelis Boguslavas Chilinskis (Samuel Bogusław Chyliński) printed a Bible in Oxford in 1659. Prepared by a great number of Protestant translators (Johann Jakob Quandt, Jonas Berentas, Petras Gotlybas Milkus, Pilypas Ruigys, Adomas Fridrichas Simelpenigis and others), the Lithuanian Bible was first published in 1735 in Königsberg (in Lithuanian, Karaliaučius).
http://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonas_Berentas

Biblia, tai esti Wissas Szwentas rasztas Seno ir Naujo Testamento, pagal wokiszką perstattimą D. Mertino Luteraus. – 2-asis leidimas./ [parengė Adomas Fridrikas Šimelpenigis (1699–1763)]. – Karaliauczuje : randamas pas Pilippą Kristupą Kanterį, 1755. – [24], 888 p. : inic., vinj.; 8° (18,5 cm).
Išleista kartu su Prarakai.

http://www.mab.lt/evangeliku/03.html

Naujas Testamentas Wieszpaties musu Jėzaus Kristaus / [vertė Samuelis Bitneris (apie 1632–1710)]. – Karalaučiuj : spaustuwoj Reisnero, 1701. – [12], 445, [3] p. : vinj.; 4° (20 cm).
http://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuelis_Bitneris

http://www.mab.lt/evangeliku/03.html
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Old July 1st, 2013, 12:20 PM   #1088
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Nice to see "w", "sz", etc. in those books.
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Old July 1st, 2013, 12:21 PM   #1089
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Co-cathedral of Mater Ecclesiae in Gołdap/Goldap (originally built as Protestant church in 1560, destroyed in 1944, reconstructed in the 1980s)






Goldap is one of a very few towns in today's Poland that lies in historic region of Nadruvia. This territory for centuries was trilingual, inhabited by mixed, German, Polish and also Lithuanian (Balts) population.
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Old July 1st, 2013, 08:39 PM   #1090
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Ost Preussen, Gerdauen/ Железнодорожный











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Old July 1st, 2013, 09:04 PM   #1091
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Quote:
Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post
Co-cathedral of Mater Ecclesiae in Gołdap/Goldap (originally built as Protestant church in 1560, destroyed in 1944, reconstructed in the 1980s)


Goldap is one of a very few towns in today's Poland that lies in historic region of Nadruvia. This territory for centuries was trilingual, inhabited by mixed, German, Polish and also Lithuanian (Balts) population.
Beautiful reconstruction.

That looks like panels with altar screens between the windows. Or perhaps bas relief? I would like to see it in detail.
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Old July 1st, 2013, 09:28 PM   #1092
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Quote:
Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post
Nice to see "w", "sz", etc. in those books.
What so nice about them?
We were more smart to change that misunderstanding. Now we save ink, our eyes relax and so on:
szczecin vs ščecin, brzenczyszczykiewicz VS bženčyščikievič, vvvvilnius VS vilnius. Second version - always more cool (less letters, more easy to read, etc.).
I am glad, some progress Lithuanian writing system made, comaring to the middle ages.
I believe, You too could try.

By the way, as usual, I was visiting another exposition of 18-19 century paintings in Vilnius. Liked the surname of one author.
Chrzczonowicz

P.S. First "Czech" letters were used in Lithuanian already in the 16th century (also, aa was used instead of ą, ee instead of ę, etc. - like in Estonian of Finnish).
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Old July 1st, 2013, 10:04 PM   #1093
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I would like to see it in detail.
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Old July 1st, 2013, 10:58 PM   #1094
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That's interesting
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Old July 1st, 2013, 11:42 PM   #1095
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Quote:
Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post
Nice to see "w", "sz", etc. in those books.
Probably because of that it was the easiest way to express lithuanian language which is difficult when we are talking about pronunciation.Plus, writing tradition was not developed at the time, this is why you can find w/sz, czech, german versions.
w/sz etc was used because there were no equivalents at the time and slavic version was better known. Well, we can also find some scholars from XVI-XIX cent that had used german version, but that is a bit different case. Actually, until XIX cent. were no common notion how to express majority of words rightly. It is hard for us to read and to pronounce sz.
Czech like latvian/estonian/finish versions are much better way. sz is not always š; sz is not very "soft" compared to "š". Thats is why (historically) "au" was changed by "ov""ow"ovg". Writing tradition made a major input. Liths christianity history is quite young so it is understandable that we imported different letter from different languages into our vocabulary. later smart people made a major work generalising language.
I can not imagine how it would sound "prisikiškiakopūsdeliaudavome" with sz. It would be not only difficult to read, but hardly to pronounce.

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Old July 2nd, 2013, 03:01 AM   #1096
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We should mention, that before the 20th century, Prussian Lithuanians were using German orthography. It is seen, as example, in the newspapers, published in Klaipėda/Memel, Tilžė/Tilsit, Königsberg/Karaliaučius (will be shown one day).

As I said, also, alternative letters were used as ę-ee, ą-aa, sz-š, w-v, it was not codified, always, with every new book - pure creative work.
First č, š, ž's were used already in the 16th century.

Also, as is mentioned in my previous messages, letter Ė was invented by Prussian Lithuanian and added to Lithuanian alphabet. This letter is truly nique, not used by any alphabet, except one small German dialect group.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ė
Quote:
Ė ė is the 9th letter in the Lithuanian alphabet, and is also used in the Kölsch dialect of German, and Cheyenne language.

It was coined by Daniel Klein, the author of the first grammar of the Lithuanian language.

This character is also used when transliterating the Cyrillic letter Э э into the Latin alphabet.

Its pronunciation in Lithuanian is [eː], compared to ę, which is pronounced a lower [ɛː] (formerly nasalized [ɛ̃ː]), or e, pronounced [ɛ, ɛː].
Quote:
Daniel Klein (Lithuanian: Danielius Kleinas) (1609–1666) was a Lutheran pastor and scholar from Tilsit, Duchy of Prussia, who is best known for writing the first grammar book of the Lithuanian language.

Klein studied philosophy, theology, Greek and Hebrew in the University of Königsberg. In 1637 he became a Lutheran pastor.

In 1653 Klein published the first grammar book of the Lithuanian language (Grammatica Litvanica), written in Latin. Klein coined the distinctive Lithuanian letter Ė. He also wrote a Lithuanian dictionary, but it was left unpublished.

Klein published collections of Lithuanian hymns (Lit. giesmes), some of which he wrote himself.
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Old July 2nd, 2013, 03:24 AM   #1097
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rūpesčiai = rupescziai
tuščia = tuszczia
mokesčiai = mokescziai
čirškia = czirszkia

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Old July 2nd, 2013, 03:22 PM   #1098
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Co-cathedral of Mater Ecclesiae in Gołdap/Goldap (originally built as Protestant church in 1560, destroyed in 1944, reconstructed in the 1980s)


Nice, although I can't understand how on earth one can cover red bricks with plaster and consider it OK
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Old July 2nd, 2013, 06:50 PM   #1099
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Nice, although I can't understand how on earth one can cover red bricks with plaster and consider it OK
Same mistake was made in Zittau, Germany with the ols storehouse in the city center sometime after 1994.
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Old July 2nd, 2013, 10:29 PM   #1100
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That's interesting
Its very interesting. Especially considering that the city was a German. Name written in Polish. Apparently the factory owner was a Pole. How it managed to survive in power by the National Socialists and then the Communists.
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