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Old August 29th, 2013, 08:10 PM   #1221
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Kiermas in Bałdy/Balden (2013), Warmia






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Old August 29th, 2013, 10:56 PM   #1222
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Color photos from Nida/Nidden by German tourist-photographer W. Streitz in 1933. Nida was part of Lithuania Republic from 1923.












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Old August 30th, 2013, 08:03 PM   #1223
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Marian sanctuary in Stoczek Klasztorny/Springborn (founded by Mikołaj Szyszkowski), Warmia








A garden in Stoczek Klasztorny/Springborn (founded by Teodor Andrzej Potocki), Warmia






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Old August 31st, 2013, 01:50 PM   #1224
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Guys, could you show all crusaders castles in Poland? I would like to visit. I have been only in Marienburg/Malbork
check this thread - you can see some crusaders castles there :

http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=890484

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Old September 1st, 2013, 02:49 PM   #1225
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Mingė (Lithuania) village, not so far from Nemunas delta, main street of this village is Mingė river


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Old September 1st, 2013, 03:06 PM   #1226
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Lively idea to rebuild city centre, part of Konigsberg oldtown

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Old September 1st, 2013, 03:49 PM   #1227
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Krutyń/Kruttinnen, Masuria




Kadzidłowo/Kadzidlowo, Masuria








* The village was founded by Old Believers in 1830.
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Old September 1st, 2013, 04:29 PM   #1228
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Methodist Church in Kraplewo/Kraplau, Oberland














Epitaphs (portrait paintings) from the 18th century
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Old September 1st, 2013, 05:11 PM   #1229
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About 30-35% of the former East Prussian territory annexed by Poland after WW2 was once part of Kingdom of Poland (1466-1772), and lost during partitions of Poland.
I'm curious because I can't find it online yet, what percentage of the people in Prussia spoke German during the period when Prussia was a part of Poland?

Thanks.
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Old September 1st, 2013, 05:14 PM   #1230
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Lively idea to rebuild city centre, part of Konigsberg oldtown

it's nice, but are the Russians interested in paying for it?
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Old September 1st, 2013, 05:49 PM   #1231
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Yeaah, anyway nice KopenKonigsber
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Old September 1st, 2013, 06:55 PM   #1232
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I'm curious because I can't find it online yet, what percentage of the people in Prussia spoke German during the period when Prussia was a part of Poland?

Thanks.
It's hard to say. I'm afraid that you'll not find any language census published before 1772. The earliest one that I know of is from 1825.

Some facts...
- prior to the partitions of Poland, official language of General Prussian Sejmik (local parliament) was Polish in Gdańsk/Danzig since 1661 and Elbląg/Elbing since 1671;
- before 1772, Catholics were majority in the area held by Poles (however, major cities including Gdańsk/Danzig and Elbląg/Elbing were inhabited mostly by Protestants);
- all Malbork/Marienburg voivodes and Warmian bishops between the 17th and late 18th century were Poles.
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Old September 1st, 2013, 07:11 PM   #1233
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Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post
It's hard to say. I'm afraid that you'll not find any language census published before 1772. The earliest one that I know of is from 1825.

Some facts...
- prior to the partitions of Poland, official language of General Prussian Sejmik (local parliament) was Polish in Gdańsk/Danzig since 1661 and Elbląg/Elbing since 1671;
- before 1772, Catholics were majority in the area held by Poles (however, major cities including Gdańsk/Danzig and Elbląg/Elbing were inhabited mostly by Protestants);
- all Malbork/Marienburg voivodes and Warmian bishops between the 17th and late 18th century were Poles.
The facts seem like a refection of the political situation. One would expect that Sejmik wa Polish jn this period since it was controlled by Poland, yes?

It appears that the same imposition of culture and language was in place during the Polish Prussia era as it was before and after in areas outside this territory throughout the world?
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Old September 1st, 2013, 10:49 PM   #1234
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Quote:
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I'm curious because I can't find it online yet, what percentage of the people in Prussia spoke German during the period when Prussia was a part of Poland?

Thanks.
You can't find it, because first censuses based on linguistic identity were conducted in 1850 (in Prussia) while West Prussia (Pomorze, Pomerania) was lost in 1772.

But it was something ranging from 10-30% in West Prussia (west of Vistula River, mostly in Toruń and Gdańsk), 40-80% in West Prussia (east of Vistula river, especially in Elbląg) and 60-70% in Warmia.

It is also worth mentioning, that so called West Prussia east of Vistula river (especially lowlands of Żuławy) was colonised in 17 th and 18th cc. by so called Olędrzy, who were Dutch and North German people - they usually spoke Dutch/Flemish or Plattdeutsch, and throughout 19th century were swiftly absorbed to German culture (because of similarity of languages).

The rest of East Prussia actually never belonged to Poland itself, it was merely a fiefdom (1466-1657). According to estimates, people living in East Prussia (excl. Warmia) in approx. 1700 were: 50% German-speaking, 30% Polish speaking, 20% Lithuanian speaking. From 1709 onwards there is steady increase of German speakers, in 18th century mostly by settlement (for example, Salzburg exulants in 1732), and in 19th century also by germanisation.

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The facts seem like a refection of the political situation. One would expect that Sejmik wa Polish jn this period since it was controlled by Poland, yes?
No, it wasn't. The incorporation of so called West Prussia to Kingdom of Poland in 1454 effectively meant granting authonomy of power (which meant self-governance of people in West Prussia), including cultural authonomy for elites of West Prussia (which were predominantly German-speaking at the time, but were polonised throughout centuries).

Reformation increased the national awareness, so Lutherans were less prone to changing of their identity than Catholics. That's why Polish speaking Lutherans survived for so long in Masuria and Cieszyn Silesia and, on the other hand, German speaking Lutherans in royal cities of Toruń and Gdańsk.

Of course creation of the image: Pole-Catholic, German-Lutheran is based on contrreformation myths and later fight of Poles agains germanisation during the Partitions. As a self-fulfilling prophecy it started to work and finally, especially on the areas in Germany, Lutheranism started to be associated with German national awareness (in Austrian and Russian partition it was different though).
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Old September 2nd, 2013, 02:14 PM   #1235
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It is also worth mentioning, that so called West Prussia east of Vistula river (especially lowlands of Żuławy) was colonised in 17 th and 18th cc. by so called Olędrzy, who were Dutch and North German people - they usually spoke Dutch/Flemish or Plattdeutsch, and throughout 19th century were swiftly absorbed to German culture (because of similarity of languages).
A letter to Olędrzy during Kościuszko Uprising (1794)






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Old September 2nd, 2013, 03:19 PM   #1236
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I have one question which came to my mind while sitting in our own city archive last week. How is the situation in the former german cities of Poland (not only in east prussia)? Do you still have most of the documents or were they destroyed during or after the war? And if so I guess most of the things are written in german which makes it necessary for employes to be able to read german, right? I'm just curious about the daily practice with this "problem".
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Old September 2nd, 2013, 04:53 PM   #1237
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With regards to Szczecin (Stettin) I recommend this site of Książnica Pomorska (Pommersche Bibliothek):

http://www.ksiaznica.szczecin.pl/www/

It's in polish, english und deutsch. No problems with translators here .
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Old September 2nd, 2013, 07:00 PM   #1238
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Warmia i Mazury















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Old September 2nd, 2013, 07:27 PM   #1239
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Quote:
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I have one question which came to my mind while sitting in our own city archive last week. How is the situation in the former german cities of Poland (not only in east prussia)? Do you still have most of the documents or were they destroyed during or after the war? And if so I guess most of the things are written in german which makes it necessary for employes to be able to read german, right? I'm just curious about the daily practice with this "problem".
Some were destroyed (burnt), some were moved to Germany, some were fought back by Prawin's mission (archives from 19 cities, incl.: Gdańsk, Szczecin, Elbląg, Pelplin and Malbork) and of course are written in German.
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Old September 3rd, 2013, 02:31 AM   #1240
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you're so incredibly knowledgeable on these subjects. nice to have such a resource on this forum.
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Warsaw Post-War Reconstruction to Present

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