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Old April 30th, 2015, 04:27 PM   #1841
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Biała Gora: the forgotten colony in the medieval Pomeranian-Prussian borderlands (LINK)


The lower Vistula region lies at the heart of northern Poland, where the delta of this major European river punctuates a landscape of fens and floodplains (Figure 1). The earliest written sources describe this as the borderland between eastern Pomerania, also known as Pomerelia and inhabited by Slavic groups, and the adjacent territories of Pomesania and Pogesania, inhabited by Prussians. By the end of the tenth century AD, the expanding Polish Christian state was securing its control over this region with strongholds, accompanied by the development of religious infrastructure (Buko 2008: 196–99). The borderland became increasingly dangerous for colonists as tensions between Christian Pomeranians and pagan Prussians escalated. By the thirteenth century, almost all of the Pomeranian settlements east of the River Nogat had been abandoned (Jagodzinski 2004).

Quote:
Originally Posted by Urbanista1 View Post
you can almost see the medieval walls encircling this old towns.
Reszel/Rößel, Warmia




Olsztyn/Allenstein, Warmia




Elbląg/Elbing (under construction)


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Old May 2nd, 2015, 03:36 PM   #1842
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somewhere in Prussia. Bartia

https://img-fotki.yandex.ru/get/3418...9_37f8fa6_orig
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Old May 5th, 2015, 05:11 AM   #1843
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East Prussian Diary, A Journal of Faith 1945-1947, by Hans von Lehndorff, is one of my favorite books. If you have not already read it, I recommend it very highly.

The English translation is by Constantine Fitzgibbon. The translation is of an exceptionally high quality; it has depth and power. If you are looking for the English translation I would suggest that version, published in 1963.

There is another translation by Elizabeth Meyer. It is called Token of a Covenant. It is not quite as good but it is easier to find.

I will post here the opening paragraphs of the book. It starts with the first indications of the Russian advance in the summer of 1944.

Quote:
Once again, before the bulldozer of the war drove over it, my East Prussian homeland unfolded all its mysterious splendour.

Whoever lived through those last months with receptive senses must have felt that never before had the light been so intense, the sky so lofty, the distance so vast. And all that impalpable essence distilled by the landscape, lending wings to the spirit, took shape with an intensity that only the hour of farewell could have given it.

The first harbingers of the catastrophe made themselves felt at the end of June faint shocks, hardly perceptible to the senses, which set the sun-drenched land quivering as if from some distant earthquake. And then all at once the roads were thronged with fugitives from Lithuania, and ownerless cattle went straggling across the harvest fields, following the irresistible urge towards the west. It was difficult to grasp what had happened, no one dared give open expression to his fears. But by the time the storks were getting ready to leave a clearer notion of what lay before us could no longer be blinked.

Everywhere in the villages one saw people standing, staring at the sky where the big, familiar birds were circling, as though this time it was to be the last goodbye. And all those watching them must have had the same feeling : 'Yes, you're flying away ! But what of us? What is to become of us, and our country?' Soon after this, enormous herds of cattle came down along the watercourses and gathered in the flat valley that the Pregel meanders through. They had been driven out of the eastern part of the province, and stood now, an overwhelming sight, by the thousands in the wide meadows.
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“In keeping silent about evil, in burying it so deep within us that no sign of it appears on the surface, we are implanting it, and it will rise up a thousand fold in the future. When we neither punish nor reproach evildoers we are thereby ripping the foundations of justice from beneath new generations.”

“The meaning of earthly existence lies not, as we have grown used to thinking, in prospering but in the development of the soul.”
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

"We are more closely connected to the invisible than to the visible"

-Novalis

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Old May 5th, 2015, 05:13 AM   #1844
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Here is the rest of the excerpt from this beautiful book:

Quote:
For the moment there was food enough for them there; but if you went nearer and looked at the animals, one by one, your heart was wrung. With no tie between them, looking on human beings as enemies, they went blundering through the countryside, treading down the hedges, forcing their way into i paddocks and gardens and eating trees and bushes bare. They seemed to have come from a country where no order reigned. You could still see that many of them were of outstanding breed, but the instinct for mutual protection that had made hem into a herd had died.

In the night, at this time, we saw the eastern frontier towns arrayed before us as if on a map. Memel, Tilsit, Schirwindt, Eydt- kuhnen— those were the brightest points, flaring up again and again under the bombing attacks, on a line of fire that ran in a curve from north to south. And one day we heard that the frontier had been surrendered. The enemy had crossed it to a depth of twelve miles— eighteen miles; then the front came to a standstill again. What things looked like behind it, nobody knew. One could only hope that nobody had survived, for what was reported of a few advanced points which the enemy had abandoned after a brief occupation froze one's blood.

Another few days of immeasurable fugitive misery on all the roads then a sudden quiet, an almost inconceivable quiet. The rumbling of the front died down, the fires went out, even the nightly disturbance flights had ceased. The deserted land, with its farms and villages, lay as if under a spell in the splendour of an incomparable autumn, offering an indefinable experience to the few who came back from places further west, to fetch something from their house or see to the livestock they had left behind.

It was uncannily quiet still after the November gales had swept the land bare and the frost had withered the blades of grass in the meadows. Scattered for miles over the fields, along the roads and the railway lines, we saw the neglected cows standing, singly or in little groups, hardly able to move, with dried-up udders and prominent backbones, threatening and complaining. And when the first snow fell they collapsed, silently, one after another.

Christmas came, and could be celebrated almost as in peace-time by all those who had remained in their own homes. Shooting parties were actually organised, and people gathered to see the Old Year out in traditional fashion. A fortnight later it was all over. The Russians had allowed themselves three months to prepare the final assault— now they broke in in full force”
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“In keeping silent about evil, in burying it so deep within us that no sign of it appears on the surface, we are implanting it, and it will rise up a thousand fold in the future. When we neither punish nor reproach evildoers we are thereby ripping the foundations of justice from beneath new generations.”

“The meaning of earthly existence lies not, as we have grown used to thinking, in prospering but in the development of the soul.”
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

"We are more closely connected to the invisible than to the visible"

-Novalis
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Old May 5th, 2015, 02:04 PM   #1845
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Former Protestant Church in Kurki/Kurken, Masuria (near the Warmian border), founded in 1753


WWI memorial plaque
Quote:
Dembenofen:
Duscha Ludwig
Gornÿ Adam
Gunia Gottlieb
Jedamski Friedrich
Krzÿkowski August
Krzÿkowski Hermann
Pokraka Wilhelm
Stibor Julius
Stibor Karl
Urbanski Friedrich

Gimmendorf:
Bedra Wilhelm
Erwin Gustav
Gardeiski Eduard
Jedamski Friedrich
Koriath Fritz
Koriath Wilhelm
Kuschmierz Gustav
Pilath Karl
Radeck Hermann
Retkowski Gustav
Schupetta Otto

Kurken:
Bachor Gustav
Herrendörfer Emil
Majewski Gottlieb
Rohde Karl

Lindenwalde:
Dietzow Emil
Godlinski Emil
Gunia Gottlieb
Gunia Gustav
Gunia Karl
Kalkstein Robert
Schimankowitz Gustav
Sender Eduard
Tulodzietzki Adolf
Wisotzki Gustav

Kl. Maransen:
Grzella Christian
Grzella Gustav
Olschewski Christian
Saborski Emil
Stensitzki Johann
Truschzinski Karl
Tybussek August

Gr. u. Kl. Nattatsch:
Dembski Johann
Gogol Johann
Gornÿ Gottlieb
Gunia Wilhelm
Kalinowski Johann
Kulik 1 Karl
Kulik 2 Karl
Likuski Friedrich
Lippek Emil
Lippek Ludwig
Olschewski Karl
Stach Karl
Zÿwek Gustav

Sellwa:
Gunia Rudolf

Schwedrich:
Bednarz Gustav
Grzÿbowski Gustav
Jeglinski August
Jeglinski Karl
Skiba Friedrich
Elbląg/Elbing Canal is being renovated



Source

--------------------------------

On a different note, R1a1a from an Early Bronze Age warrior grave in Poland - link

Quote:
Originally Posted by Domen


This is the first Ancient R1a from Poland (previously Bronze Age R1a has been found in what is now East Germany, east of the Elbe).

This is a huge finding because it shows continuity of paternal lineages between Bronze Age inhabitants of Poland and modern Poles. Previously another study confirmed the continuity of maternal lineages between Iron Age inhabitants of the region and modern ones.
Quote:
Originally Posted by Davidski
Ancient DNA tests on a skeleton from an Early Bronze Age warrior grave near Hrubieszow, southeastern Poland, have revealed that the remains belong to Y-haplogroup R1a1a.

Mitochondrial sequences were also obtained from seven other samples from the same burial site, and assigned to mt-haplogroups H1a, H1b (two), H2a (two), H6 and U5b1.

R1a1a is by far the most frequent Y-haplogroup in Poland today (...)
Quote:
Originally Posted by Artmar
Bronze age warrior was estimated to be 1.70 high and his weight was estimated to be 72-76 kg. It's me, for a comparison (~193cm, ~90kg)

He possessed haplogroup R1a1, predicted through his y-STR profile that is clearly R1a and somewhere downstream of M417>Z645, probably Z280 (but other options like Z282* or PF6155xM458 and even Z93 can't be excluded at this moment).
I've received contradictory info on whether he is positive to SRY 1532.2 or not(unpopular, non-widely used upstream SNP) but haplotype is unmistakably R1a and he will be tested for much more Y-SNPs in the future.

His pigmentation is a fantasy, allele for a pigmentation of hair, eyes and skin are to be tested soon.

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Old May 5th, 2015, 02:54 PM   #1846
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WW1 monument in Konopki Wielkie/Groß Konopken, Masuria


Quote:
FRIEDRICH BOGEL
FRIEDRICH BRZOSKA
JOH. CZEPLUG
JOH. CWALINNA
MAX. CZYGAN
FRIEDR. DEKARZ
EMIL/JOH. DENNIG
FRIEDRICH GROSS
AUG. KUTZBORSKI
GUST. PARACNIK
ADOLF. SCHARNA
HERM. STENZEL
GUSTAV WASCHK
Former Protestant Church in Bajtkowo/Baitkowen, Masuria






WW1 monument


Quote:
Andreaswalde:
Friedrich Begel

Baitkowen:
Karl Czypull
Otto Gelsat
Gustav Glöckner
Heinrich Gottlob von Kannewurff
Wilhelm Konrad
Wilhelm Lemke
Gustav Nickel
Emil Sakal

Biallojahnen:
Hermann Kruschewski
Emil Niebrzydowski
Julius Paul Niebrzydowski

Borken:
Franz Danowski
Gustav Rysy
Gottfried Woykoß

Borkenhof:
Kurt Wrobel

Cziernien:
Gustav Bandilla
Gustav Drager
Hugo Katoll

Karbowsken:
Gustav Matzko
Gustav Narwutsch

Kotten:
Gustav Janzyk

Monethen:
Gottfried Brozio
Wilhelm Dorroch
Fritz Kleingärtner
Adolf Schmidt
August Sendzik
August Treinogga
Friedrich Viktor
Gustav Zwolinna

Mostolten:
Rudolf Borrasch
Gustav Jahnert
August Kruschewski
Ludwig Mrotzek
Karl Pentzek
Franz Sallach
Adolf Schuchna
Hermann Sentek

Niekrassen:
Fritz Buczko
Fritz Karsties
Otto Kleinhans
August Konietzko
Friedrich Kudritzki
Horst Raeder

Pistken:
Matthis Kruppa
Wilhelm Zyganowski

Rakowen:
Johann Erdt
Friedrich Hegener

Rostken:
Hermann Koslowski
Wilhelm Salamon

Sdeden:
Adolf Galonska
Matthias Galonska
Hermann Kalinna
Leopold Kalinna
Johann Malinowski
Robert Napiany
Rudolf Napiany
Rudolf Salinski

Schnepien:
Franz Alexander
Emil Gayko
Fritz Gayko
Emil Potchur
Friedrich Schwendowius
Karl Schwendowius
Adolf Viktor
Emil Waschesrio

Steinfelde:
Gustav Dudek
Otto Dziencziol
Friedrich Konopatzki
Franz Sawatzki
Emil Trixa
Gustav Trixa
Johann Trixa

Sutzken:
Karl Becker
Friedrich Budnik
Karl Jankowski
Gustav Zastrzewski
Alfred Kitul
August Waseyzik
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Old May 6th, 2015, 05:37 PM   #1847
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WW1 monument in Piduń/Schuttschenofen, Masuria (photos taken during tidying up around the war memorial in 2014)



Source

Quote:
Joh. Pidun
Fried. Wischnewski
Karl Powierski
Michael Laaser
Karl Rogalla
Joh. Karweina
Jakob Wohlers
Karl Rogalla
Karl Sender
Jakob Pidun
Joh. Siskowski
Karl Todzÿ
Mich. Bartnik
Otto Dominik
Former Protestant Church in Grabnik/Grabnick, Masuria






WW1 monument


Quote:
+ GRABNICK +
AD. CZYSEWSKI
AD. GERLITZKI
CARL GROSS
FRITZ GROSS
GOTTL. HERMANN
JOH. IDZKO
AUG. JEGLINSKI
JOH. JEROCH
HERM. MARCZINSKI
PAUL MARCZINSKI
GUST. MASEYZIK
GUST. NARBUTSCH
KARL PALLUCK
AUG. SEWCZICK
OTTO SEWCZICK
AUG. SEWCZYK
AUG. SEWCZYK
O. SEWCZYK
KARL WENGORSCH
AUG. WASCHULT

+ GUSKEN +
GUSTAV ABEL
CARL ERDMANNSKI
JOHANN ERDMANNSKI
JOHANN KRUSCHEWSKI
HERMANN KULLIAK
HERM. KUTZ
FRDR. MALSO
JOH. MALSO
HERMANN MROTZEK

+ MALKIENEN +
ROBERT BARCZEWSKI
JOHANN DREWELLO
FRANZ KARWOWSKI
KARL KAULBACH
AUGUST STOFFENBERGER

+ KROLOWOLLA +
KARL DZILLAK
FRITZ GORZALKA
OTTO LEPLATONY
FRANZ NIKOLAY
FRITZ ROGALLA
KARL TREGEL

+ WOSZCZELLE[N] +
JOH. GORZALKA
PAUL WILLIMSOHN

+ BIENIEN +
ADOLF MEXA
GUSTAV MEXA
GOTTLIEB MEYER
GUSTAV WOYCZECHOWSKI
HERMANN WOYCZECHOWSKI
ALFR. ZIEMEK

+ LEPACKEN +
ADOLF KOYRO
GOTTLIEB MICHALSKI
KARL MICHALSKI
MICH. PAWLOWSKI
FRDR. PLENIO
MAX SEBROWSKI
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Old May 7th, 2015, 11:12 AM   #1848
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#1819...and some of the modern signs which mark the Warmian-Masurian "border"






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Old May 7th, 2015, 11:57 AM   #1849
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Warmian folk costume (more)



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Old May 8th, 2015, 02:16 PM   #1850
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Polish School in Brąswałd/Braunswalde (1931-1938), Warmia


Maria Zientara-Malewska and her pupils (1935)


Maria Zientara-Malewska's house


Poetry by Maria Zientara-Malewska and other Warmian writers (such as Augustyn Steffen, Michał Lengowski and Alojzy Śliwa) - link

Polish School in Nowa Kaletka/Neu Kaletka (1929-1939), Warmia


Polish School in Unieszewo/Schönfelde (1929-1939), Warmia


Polish schools in Warmia and Masuria (exhibition in Olsztyn/Allenstein)



Source

Polish Catholic School Society in Warmia


Other Polish Schools (all have been closed by German authorities in 1939, many activists connected with these schools lost their lives in KZ Hohenbruch):
Chaberkowo


Giławy/Gillau


Skajboty/Skaibotten


Woryty/Woritten


Olsztyn/Allenstein


Purda/Groß Purden

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Book series „Miniatury Mazurskie” by Retman publisher
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Old May 12th, 2015, 01:31 PM   #1851
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The remains of Gothic barbican in Olsztyn/Allenstein, Warmia

Source

Ignacy Krasicki's Orangery in Lidzbark Warmiński/Heilsberg, Warmia







Source

New houses in Elbląg/Elbing

Source
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Old May 15th, 2015, 04:27 AM   #1852
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Deleted some off topic stuff. It's a skyscraper and related topics forum guys...
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Old May 15th, 2015, 06:34 PM   #1853
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"Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum" (Adam of Bremen, ca.1073-1076)

Quote:
Capitulum 18.

Sclavania igitur, amplissima Germaniae provintia, a Winulis incolitur, qui olim dicti sunt Wandali. Decies maior esse fertur, quam nostra Saxonia, praesertim si Boemiam et eos qui trans Oddaram (*) sunt Polanos, quia nec habitu nec lingua discrepant, in partem adieceris Sclavaniae. Haec autem regio cum sit armis, viris et frugibus opulentissima, firmis undique saltuum vel terminis fluminum clauditur. Eius latitudo est a meridie usque in boream, hoc est ab Albia fluvio usque ad mare Scythicum. Longitudo autem illa videtur, quae initium habet ab nostra Hammaburgensi parrochia et porrigitur in orientem, infinitis aucta spatiis, usque in Beguariam, Ungriam et Graeciam. Populi Sclavorum multi, quorum primi sunt ab occidente confines Transalbianis Waigri, eorum civitas Aldinburg (**) maritima. Deinde secuntur Obodriti, qui nunc Reregi vocantur, et civitas eorum Magnopolis. Item versus nos Polabingi, quorum civitas Razispurg. Ultra illos sunt Lingones et Warnabi. Mox habitant Chizzini (***) et Circipani, quos a Tholosantibus et Retheris separat flumen Panis, et civitas Dimine. Ibi est terminus Hammaburgensis parrochiae. Sunt et alii Sclavaniae populi, qui inter Albiam et Oddaram degunt, sicut Heveldi, qui iuxta Habolam fluvium sunt et Doxani, Leubuzzi, Wilini et Stoderani cum multis aliis. Inter quos medii et potentissimi omnium sunt Retharii, civitas eorum vulgatissima Rethre, sedes ydolatriae. Templum ibi magnum constructum est demonibus, quorum princeps est Redigast. Simulacrum eius auro, lectus ostro paratus. Civitas ipsa novem portas habet, undique lacu profundo inclusa, pons ligneus transitum praebet, per quem tantum sacrificantibus aut responsa petentibus via conceditur. Credo, ea significante causa, quod perditas animas eorum, qui ydolis serviunt, congrue 'novies Styx interfusa cohercet'.

Ad quod templum ferunt a civitate Hammaburg iter esse quatuor dierum.

Capitulum 19.

Ultra Leuticios, qui alio nomine Wilzi dicuntur, Oddara flumen occurrit, ditissimus amnis Sclavaniae regionis . In cuius ostio, qua Scyticas alluit paludes, nobilissima civitas Iumne celeberrimam praestat stacionem barbaris et Graecis, qui sunt in circuitu. De cuius praeconio urbis, quia magna quaedam et vix credibilia recitantur, volupe arbitror pauca inserere digna relatu. Est sane maxima omnium quas Europa claudit civitatum, quam incolunt Sclavi cum aliis gentibus, Graecis et barbaris. Nam et advenae Saxones parem cohabitandi legem acceperunt, si tamen christianitatis titulum ibi morantes non publicaverint. Omnes enim adhuc paganicis ritibus oberrant, ceterum moribus et hospitalitate nulla gens honestior aut benignior poterit inveniri. Urbs illa mercibus omnium septentrionalium nationum locuples, nichil non habet iocundi aut rari. Ibi est Olla Vulcani, quod incolae Graecum ignem vocant, de quo etiam meminit Solinus. Ibi cernitur Neptunus triplicis naturae: tribus enim fretis alluitur illa insula, quorum aiunt unum esse viridissimae speciei, alterum subalbidae, tertium motu furibundo perpetuis saevit tempestatibus. Ab illa civitate brevi remigio traiicitur, hinc ad Dyminem urbem quae sita est in hostio Peanis fluvii, ubi et Runi habitant; inde ad Semland provinciam, quam possident Pruzi. Iter eiusmodi est, ut ab Hammaburc vel ab Albia flumine septimo die pervenias ad Iumne civitatem per terram; nam per mare navim ingrederis ab Sliaswig vel Aldinburc, ut pervenias ad Iumne. Ab ipsa urbe vela tendens quartodecimo die ascendes ad Ostrogard Ruzziae. Cuius metropolis civitas est Chive, aemula sceptri Constantinopolitani, clarissimum decus Graeciae. Sicut ergo praedictum est, Oddara flumen oritur in profundissimo saltu (****) Marahorum, ubi et Albia noster principium sortitur, nec longis ab invicem spatiis, sed diverso currunt meatu. Alter enim, id est Oddara, vergens in boream, transit per medios Winulorum populos, donec pertranseat usque ad Iumnem, ubi Pomeranos dividit a Wilzis. Alter vero, id est Albia, in occasum ruens, primo impetu Bechemos alluit cum (*****) Sorabis , medio cursu paganos dirimit a Saxonia, novissimo alveo Hammaburgensem parrochiam scindens a Bremensi, victor occeanum ingreditur Brittanicum.

* Trans Oddoram fluvium primi habitant Pomerani, deinde Polani, qui a latere habent hinc Pruzzos, inde Behemos, ab oriente Ruzzos.
** Aldinborg civitas magna Sclavorum, qui Waigri dicunter, sita est iuxta mare, quod Balticum sive Barbarum dicitur, itinere die . . ab Hammaburg.
*** Chizzini et Circipani cis Panim fluvium habitant, Tholosantes et Rehtarii trans Panim fluvium; hos quatuor populos a fortitudine Wilzos appellant vel Leuticos.
**** Marahi sunt populi Sclavorum, qui sunt ab oriente Behemorum, habentque in circuitu hinc Pomeranos et Polanos, inde Ungros et crudelissimam gentem Pescinagos, qui humanis carnibus vescuntur.
***** Sorabi sunt Sclavi, qui campos inter Albim et Salam interiacentes incolunt; suntque eis contermini fines Thuringorum ac Saxonum. Ultra Aram fluvium alii Sorabi commorantur.
Source

Quote:
Chapter 18.

Sclavania is the largest (amplissima) province of Germaniae inhabited by the Winulis who at one time were called Wandali. It is said to be ten times larger than our Saxonia, especially if you count Boemiam and the expanses across the Oddaram (*) the Polanos, because they differ neither in appearance nor in language. Although this region is very rich in arms, men, and crops, it is shut in on all sides by fast barriers of wooded mountains and rivers. In breadth it extends from south to north, that is, from the Albium River to the Scythicum Sea. And in length it appears to stretch from our diocese of Hammaburgensi, where it begins, toward the east and, spread in boundless expanses, reaches Beguariam, Ungriam and Graeciam.. There are many Sclavorum peoples, of whom the first, beginning in the west, are the Waigri, neighbours of the Transalbianis. Their city is Aldinburg by the seas (**). Then come the Obodriti, who now are called Reregi, and their city is Magnopolis. In our direction, too, are the Polabingi, whose city is Razispurg. Beyond them live the Lingones and Warnabi. Farther on dwell the Chizzini (***) and Circipani, whom the Panis River separates from the Tholosantibusand from the Retheris and their city of Dimine. There is the end of the diocese of Hammaburgensis. There also are other Sclavaniae peoples, who live between the Albiam and the Oddaram; such as the Heveldi, who are seated by the Habolam River, and the Doxani, Leubuzzi, Wilini and Stoderani besides many others. Among them the Retharii, centrally located, are the mightiest of all. Their city, very widely known as Rethre, is a seat of idolatry. There a great temple was erected to the demons, the chief of whom is Redigast. His image is of gold, his bower bedecked with purple. The city itself has nine gates and is surrounded on all sides by a deep lake. A wooden bridge, over which approach is allowed only to those who would make sacrifices or seek oracular advice, affords a means of crossing. For this there is, I believe, a meaningful explanation: fitly the “Styx imprisons with its ninefold circles" the lost souls of those who serve idols.

This temple they say is a four-day journey from the city of Hammaburg.

Chapter 19.

Beyond the Leuticios, who are also called Wilzi, one comes to the Oddara River, the largest stream in the Sclavaniae region. At its mouth, where it feeds the Scyticas marshes, Iumne, a most noble city, affords a very widely known trading centre for the barbarians and Graecis who live round about. Because great and scarcely credible things are said in praise of this city, I think it of interest to introduce a few facts that are worth relating. It is truly the largest of all the cities in Europe, and there live in it Sclavi and many other peoples, Graecis and barbarians. For even alien Saxones also have the right to reside there on equal terms with others, provided only that while they sojourn there they do not openly profess Christianity. In fact, all its inhabitants still blunder about in pagan rites. Otherwise, so far as morals and hospitality are concerned, a more honourable or kindlier folk cannot be found. Rich in the wares of all the northern nations, that city lacks nothing that is either pleasing or rare. There is Olla Vulcani, which the inhabitants call Graecum fire and of which Solinus also makes mention. There Neptunus may be observed in a threefold mood: that island is washed by the waters of three straits, one of which they say is of a very green appearance; another, rather whitish; the third rages furiously in perpetual tempests. From that city it is a short passage in one direction to the city of Dyminem, which is situated at the mouth of the Peanis River, where the Runi also live. The other one reaches the province of Semland, which the Pruzi occupy. The journey is such that it takes seven days to go from Hammaburc or the Albia River to the city of Iumne by land; for by the sea route one boards ship at Sliaswig or Aldinburc to get to Iumne. From the latter city it is fourteen days‘ sail up to Ostrogard of Ruzziae. The largest city of is Chive, rival of the scepter of Constantinopolitani, the brightest ornament of Graeciae. Now, as was said before, the Oddara River rises in the depths of the (****) Marahorum forest, where our Albia also has its source. At first not a great distance from each other, these rivers follow different courses. For the one, that is the Oddara, tending toward the north, passes through the midst of the Winulorum peoples until it passes by Iumnem, where it divides the Pomeranos from the Wilzis. But the other, that is the Albia, rushing toward the west, waters in its upper-most course the country of the Bechemos and (*****) the Sorobis midway in its course it divides the pagans from the Saxonia; in its lower part it divides the diocese of Hammaburgensem from that of Bremensi and sweeps victoriously into the Brittanicum Ocean.

* Across the Oddoram River the first people are the Pomerani, next the Polani who are flanked here by the Pruzzos, there by the Behemos, on the east by the Ruzzos.
** Aldinborg, a large city of the Sclavorum that are named Waigri, is situated on the sea called the Balticum or Barbarum, a day's journey from Hammaburg.
*** The Chizzini and Circipani live on the hither side of the Panim River, the Tholosantes and Rehtarii on the other side of the Panim River. Because of their bravery these four peoples are called Wilzos or Leuticos.
**** The Marahi are Sclavorum peoples who live to the east of the Behemorun and are encircled on one side by the Pomeranos and Polanos, on the other by the Ungros and the Pescinagos, an extremely fierce folk that eats human flesh.
***** The Sorabi are Sclavi who live on the plains lying between the Albim and the Salam; and their bounds are coterminous with those of the Thuringorum and Saxonum. Beyond the Aram River dwell other Sorabi peoples.
Quote:
We have also found that the boundaries of Saxony across the Elbe were drawn by Charles and other emperors as follows: The first extends from the east bank of the Elbe up to the rivulet which the Slavs call Boize. From that stream the line runs through the Delvunder wood up to the Delvenau River. And so it goes on to the Hornbecker Muehlen-Bach and to the source of the Bille, thence to Liudwinestein and Weisbirken and Barkhorst. Then it passes on through Suederbeste to the Trave woods and again through this forest to Blunk. Next it goes to the Tensfelder Au and ascends directly up to the ford called Agrimeswidil. At that place, too, Burwid fought a duel with a Slavic champion and slew him; and a memorial stone has been put in that spot. Thence the line runs up, going to the Stocksee, and thus on to the Zwentifeld lying to the East as far as the Schwentine River itself. Along the latter stream the Saxon boundary goes down to the Scythian Lake and to the sea they call the Eastern Sea.
(...)
At the mouth of the sea mentioned before, on its southern coast facing us, there live as far as the Schlei Sea the first people, the Danes, who are called Jutes. There begins the territory of the diocese of Hamburg, which extends a long way through the midst of the Slavic coastal Peoples as far as the Peene River. There are the limits of our diocese. From that place to the Oder River the Wilzi and Leutici have their homes. Across the Oder, as we have learned, live the Pomeranians; beyond them stretches the very extensive country of the Poles, the boundary of which, they say, joins with that of the kingdom of Russia. This is the farthest and largest province of the Winuli, and it also is at the end of that sea.
(...)
Of the islands that lie near the Slavs, we understand that three are of considerable importance. The first of them is called Fehmarn. It is opposite the Wagiri, so it can be seen from Oldenburg, like the one named Laaland. The second, opposite the Wilzi, is possessed by the Rani or Runi, the most powerful of the Slavic peoples, without whose consent nothing may lawfully be done in matters of public concern; so much are they feared on account of their familiarity with the gods, or rather demons, whom this people holds in greater veneration than do the others. Both these islands, too, are infested by pirates and by very bloodthirsty robbers who spare no one who passes that way. For they kill all those whom others are accustomed to sell. The third island, that called Samland, is close to the Russians and Poles. It is inhabited by the Sembi or Prussians, a most humane people, who go out to help those who are in peril at sea or who are attacked by pirates. Gold and silver they hold in very slight esteem. They have an abundance of strange furs, the odour of which has inoculated our world with the deadly poison of pride. But these furs they regard, indeed, as dung, to our shame, I believe, for right or wrong we hanker after a marten-skin robe as much as for supreme happiness. Therefore, they offer their very precious marten furs for the woollen garments called faldoner. Many praiseworthy things could be said about these peoples with respect to their morals, if only they had the faith of Christ whose missionaries they cruelly persecute. At their hands Adalbert, the illustrious bishop of the Bohemians, was crowned with martyrdom. Although they share everything else with our people, they prohibit only, to this very day indeed, access to their groves and springs which, they aver, are polluted by the entry of Christians. They take the meat of their draft animals for food and use their milk and blood as drink so freely that they are said to become intoxicated. These men are blue of colour, ruddy of face, and long-haired. Living, moreover, in inaccessible swamps, they will not endure a master among them.
Source


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Old May 18th, 2015, 12:46 PM   #1854
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"De Origine et situ Germanorum" (Gaius Cornelius Tacitus, ca. 98)

Quote:
XXXVIII

Nunc de Suevis dicendum est, quorum non una, ut Chattorum Tencterorumve, gens; maiorem enim Germaniae partem obtinent, propriis adhuc nationibus nominibusque discreti, quamquam in commune Suevi vocentur. Insigne gentis obliquare crinem nodoque substringere: sic Suevi a ceteris Germanis, sic Suevorum ingenui a servis separantur. In aliis gentibus seu cognatione aliqua Suevorum seu, quod saepe accidit, imitatione, rarum et intra iuventae spatium; apud Suevos usque ad canitiem horrentem capillum retro sequuntur. Ac saepe in ipso vertice religatur; principes et ornatiorem habent. Ea cura formae, sed innoxia; neque enim ut ament amenturve, in altitudinem quandam et terrorem adituri bella compti, ut hostium oculis, armantur.

XXXIX

Vetustissimos se nobilissimosque Suevorum Semnones memorant; fides antiquitatis religione firmatur. Stato tempore in silvam auguriis patrum et prisca formidine sacram omnes eiusdem sanguinis populi legationibus coeunt caesoque publice homine celebrant barbari ritus horrenda primordia. Est et alia luco reverentia: nemo nisi vinculo ligatus ingreditur, ut minor et potestatem numinis prae se ferens. Si forte prolapsus est, attolli et insurgere haud licitum: per humum evolvuntur. Eoque omnis superstitio respicit, tamquam inde initia gentis, ibi regnator omnium deus, cetera subiecta atque parentia. Adicit auctoritatem fortuna Semnonum: centum pagi iis habitantur magnoque corpore efficitur ut se Suevorum caput credant.

XLV

(...) Ergo iam dextro Suevici maris litore Aestiorum gentes adluuntur, quibus ritus habitusque Suevorum, lingua Britannicae propior. Matrem deum venerantur. Insigne superstitionis formas aprorum gestant: id pro armis omniumque tutela securum deae cultorem etiam inter hostis praestat. Rarus ferri, frequens fustium usus. Frumenta ceterosque fructus patientius quam pro solita Germanorum inertia laborant. Sed et mare scrutantur, ac soli omnium sucinum, quod ipsi glesum vocant, inter vada atque in ipso litore legunt. Nec quae natura, quaeve ratio gignat, ut barbaris, quaesitum compertumve; diu quin etiam inter cetera eiectamenta maris iacebat, donec luxuria nostra dedit nomen. Ipsis in nullo usu; rude legitur, informe profertur, pretiumque mirantes accipiunt. Sucum tamen arborum esse intellegas, quia terrena quaedam atque etiam volucria animalia plerumque interlucent, quae implicata umore mox durescente materia cluduntur. Fecundiora igitur nemora lucosque sicut Orientis secretis, ubi tura balsamaque sudantur, ita Occidentis insulis terrisque inesse crediderim, quae vicini solis radiis expressa atque liquentia in proximum mare labuntur ac vi tempestatum in adversa litora exundant. Si naturam sucini admoto igni temptes, in modum taedae accenditur alitque flammam pinguem et olentem; mox ut in picem resinamve lentescit. Suionibus Sitonum gentes continuantur. Cetera similes uno differunt, quod femina dominatur; in tantum non modo a libertate sed etiam a servitute degenerant. Hic Sueviae finis.
A fragment of Tacitus' text (from a book published in 1502)


Quote:
XXXVIII

I must now speak of the Suevi, who are not one nation as are the Chatti and Tencteri, for they occupy the greater part of Germaniae, and have hitherto been divided into separate tribes with names of their own, though they are called by the general designation of "Suevi". A national peculiarity with them is to twist their hair back, and fasten it in a knot. This distinguishes the Suevi from the other Germanis, as it also does their own freeborn from their slaves. With other tribes, either from some connection with the Suevic race, or, as often happens, from imitation, the practice is an occasional one, and restricted to youth. The Suevi, till their heads are grey, affect the fashion of drawing back their unkempt locks, and often they are knotted on the very top of the head. The chiefs have a more elaborate style; so much do they study appearance, but in perfect innocence, not with any thoughts of love-making; but arranging their hair when they go to battle, to make themselves tall and terrible, they adorn themselves, so to speak, for the eyes of the foe.

XXXIX

The Semnones give themselves out to be the most ancient and renowned branch of the Suevi. Their antiquity is strongly attested by their religion. At a stated period, all the tribes of the same race assemble by their representatives in a grove consecrated by the auguries of their forefathers, and by immemorial associations of terror. Here, having publicly slaughtered a human victim, they celebrate the horrible beginning of their barbarous rite. Reverence also in other ways is paid to the grove. No one enters it except bound with a chain, as an inferior acknowledging the might of the local divinity. If he chance to fall, it is not lawful for him to be lifted up, or to rise to his feet; he must crawl out along the ground. All this superstition implies the belief that from this spot the nation took its origin, that here dwells the supreme and all-ruling deity, to whom all else is subject and obedient. The fortunate lot of the Semnones strengthens this belief; a hundred cantons are in their occupation, and the vastness of their community makes them regard themselves as the head of the Suevic race.

XLV

(...) At this point the Suevic sea, on its eastern shore, washes the tribes of the Aestii, whose rites and fashions and style of dress are those of the Suevi, while their language is more like the British. They worship the mother of the gods, and wear as a religious symbol the device of a wild boar. This serves as armour, and as a universal defence, rendering the votary of the goddess safe even amidst enemies. They often use clubs, iron weapons but seldom. They are more patient in cultivating corn and other produce than might be expected from the general indolence of the Germans. But they also search the deep, and are the only people who gather amber (which they call "glesum"), in the shallows, and also on the shore itself. Barbarians as they are they have not investigated or discovered what natural cause or process produces it. Nay, it even lay amid the sea's other refuse, till our luxury gave it a name. To them it is utterly useless; they gather it in its raw state, bring it to us in shapeless lumps, and marvel at the price which they receive. It is however a juice from trees, as you may infer from the fact that there are often seen shining through it, reptiles, and even winged insects, which, having become entangled in the fluid, are gradually enclosed in the substance as it hardens. I am therefore inclined to think that the islands and countries of the West, like the remote recesses of the East, where frankincense and balsam exude, contain fruitful woods and groves; that these productions, acted on by the near rays of the sun, glide in a liquid state into the adjacent sea, and are thrown up by the force of storms on the opposite shores. If you test the composition of amber by applying fire, it burns like pinewood, and sends forth a rich and fragrant flame; it is soon softened into something like pitch or resin. Closely bordering on the Suiones are the tribes of the Sitones, which, resembling them in all else, differ only in being ruled by a woman. So low have they fallen, not merely from freedom, but even from slavery itself. Here Suevia ends.
Source

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Old May 19th, 2015, 01:15 PM   #1855
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"Etymologiae" (Isidore of Seville, ca.615-630s)
Quote:
3. Prima Europae regio Scythia inferior, quae a Maeotidis paludibus incipiens inter Danubium et Oceanum septentrionalem usque ad Germaniam porrigitur; quae terra generaliter propter barbaras gentes, quibus inhabitatur, Barbarica dicitur. Huius pars prima Alania est, quae ad Maeotidis paludes pertingit; post hanc Dacia, ubi et Gothia; deinde Germania, ubi plurimam partem Suevi incoluerunt.
4. Germania post Scythiam inferiorem a Danubio inter Rhenum fluvium Oceanumque conclusa cingitur a septentrione et occasu Oceano, ab ortu vero Danubio, a meridie Rheno flumine dirimitur. Terra dives virum ac populis numerosis et inmanibus; unde et propter fecunditatem gignendorum populorum Germania dicta est. Gignit aves Hyrcanias, quarum pinnae nocte perlucent; bisontes quoque feras et uros atque alces parturit. Mittit et gemmas, crystallum et sucinum, callaicum quoque viridem, et ceraunium candidum. Duae sunt autem Germaniae: superior iuxta septentrionalem Oceanum, inferior circa Rhenum.
Quote:
89. Gothi a Magog filio Iaphet nominati putantur, de similitudine ultimae syllabae, quos veteres magis Getas quam Gothos vocaverunt; gens fortis et potentissima, corporum mole ardua, armorum genere terribilis. De quibus Lucanus (2,54):
Hinc Dacus premat inde Getes occurrat Iberis.
(...)
92. Gipedes pedestri proelio magis quam equestre sunt usi, ex hac causa vocati.
93. Sarmatae patentibus campis armati inequitabant prius quam eos Lentulus Danubio prohiberet; atque inde ob studio armorum Sarmatae nuncupati existimantur.
(...)
97. Germanicae gentes dictae, quod sint inmania corpora inmanesque nationes saevissimis duratae frigoribus; qui mores ex ipso caeli rigore traxerunt, ferocis animi et semper indomiti, raptu venatuque viventes. Horum plurimae gentes variae armis, discolores habitu, linguis dissonae, et origine vocabulorum incertae; ut Tolosates, Amsivari, Quadi, Tuungri, Marcomanni, Bruteri, Chamavi, Blangiani, Tubantes; quorum inmanitas barbariae etiam in ipsis vocabulis horrorem quendam significat.
98. Suevi pars Germanorum fuerunt in fine Septentrionis. De quibus Lucanus (2,51):
Fundit ab extremo flavos aquilone Suevos.
Quorum fuisse centum pagos et populos multi prodiderunt. Dicti autem Suevi putantur a monte Suevo, qui ab ortu initium Germaniae facit, cuius loca incoluerunt.
A fragment of Isidore's text


Quote:
3. The first region of Europe is lower Scythia, which begins in the Maeotian swamps (i.e. the Sea of Azov), stretching between the Danube and the northern Ocean up to Germania. And this land is called Barbarica in general usage on account of the barbaric people by whom it is inhabited. Its first part is Alania, which touches on the Maeotian swamps; after this Dacia, where Gothia is; then Germania, where the Suevi inhabit the greater part.
4. Germania lies beyond lower Scythia. It starts at the Danube and is enclosed by the river Rhine and the Ocean. In the north and in the west the Ocean is its boundary, in the east the Danube, in the south the river Rhine. The country is rich in men and has a numerous and fierce (immanis) population; due to this and its fecundity in producing peoples it is called Germania (cf.germinare, “germinate”). It produces the Hyrcanian birds, whose feathers shine at night; it also produces wild bison, wild oxen, and elk. It exports precious stones, crystal, and amber, as well as green callaica and white ceraunium. There are two parts to Germania: Upper Germania, adjoining the northern Ocean, and Lower Germania, beside the Rhine.
Quote:
89. The Goths are thought to have been named after Magog, the son of Japheth, because of the similarity of the last syllable. The ancients called them Getae rather than Goths. They are a brave and most powerful people, tall and massive in body, terrifying for the kind of arms they use. Concerning them, Lucan (Civil War 2.54):
Let here a Dacian press forward, there a Getan (Getes) rush at the Iberians.
(...)
92. The Gipedes used to go to war on foot (pedester) rather than on horseback, and they are so named for this reason.
93. The Sarmatians rode armed (armatus) over the open fields before Lentulus restrained them at the Danube, and from their enthusiasm for weaponry (arma) they are thought to have received the name Sarmatians.
(...)
97. The Germanic (Germanicus) nations are so called because they are immense (immanis) in body, and they are savage (immanis) tribes hardened by very severe cold. They took their behavior from that same severity of climate – fiercely courageous and ever indomitable, living by raiding and hunting. There are many tribes of Germani, varied in their weaponry, differing in the color of their clothes, of mutually incomprehensible languages, and with uncertain etymologies of their names – such as the Tolosates, the Amsivari, the Quadi, the Tuungri, the Marcomanni, the Bruteri, the Chamavi, the Blangiani, the Tubantes. The monstrosity of their barbarism gives a fearsome quality even to their names.
98. The Suevi were a segment of the Germanic nation at the northern frontier. Of them, Lucan (Civil War 2.51):
pour the blond Suevi from the extreme north.
Many have reported that there were a hundred villages and communities of Suevians. The Suevi are thought to have been named from Mount Suevus, which forms the eastern boundary of Germania and whose territory they occupied.
Source

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Old May 19th, 2015, 04:47 PM   #1856
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Various Prussian (probably 36-38) and Slavic (1-35; 39-55) tribes according to Bavarian Geographer (ca.844)


Quote:
Descriptio ciuitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem plagam Danubii.
Isti sunt qui propinquiores resident finibus Danaorum quos uocant Nortabtrezi ubi regio in qua sunt ciuitates LIII per ducos partitae. Vuilci in qua ciuitates XCV et regiones IIII. Linaa est populus qui habet ciuitates VII. prope illis resident quas uocant Bethenici, et Smeldingon, et Morizani, qui habent ciuitates XI. Iuxta illos sunt qui uocantur Hehfeldi, qui habent civitates VIII. Iuxta illos est regio, quae uocatur Surbi. in qua regione plures sunt quae ha bent ciuitates L. Iuxta illos sunt quos uocantur Talaminzi, qui habent civitates XIIII. Betheimare in qua sunt civitates XV. Marharii habent ciuitates XI. Vulgarii regio est inmensa et populus multus habens ciuitates V. eo quod multitudo magna ex eis sit et non sit eis opus ciuitates habere. Est populus quem uocant Merehanos, ipsi habent ciuitates XXX. Iste sunt regiones quae terminant in finibus nostris. Isti sunt qui iuxta istorum fines resident. Osterabtrezi, in qua ciuitates plusquam C sunt. Miloxi, in qua ciuitates LXVII. Phesnuzi habent ciuitates LXX. Thadesi plusquam CC urbes habent. Glopeani, in qua ciuitates CCCC aut eo amplius. Zuireani habent ciuitates CCCXXV. Busani habent ciuitates CCXXXI. Sittici regio inmensa populis et urbibus munitissimis. Stadici in qua ciuitates DXVI populusque infinitus. Sebbirozi habent ciuitates XC. Vnlizi, populus multus, ciuitates CCCXVIII. Neriuani habent ciuitates LXXVIII. Attorozi habent CXL VIII, populus ferocissimus. Eptaradici habent ciuitates CCLXIII. Vuillerozi habent ciuitates CLXXX. Zabrozi habent ciuitates CCXII. Znetalici habent ciuitates LXXIIlI. Aturezani habent ciuitates CIIII. Chozirozi habent ciuitates CCL. Lendizi habent ciuitates XCVIII. Thafnezi habent ciuitates CCLVII. Zeriuani quod tantum est regnum ut ex eo cunctae gentes Sclauorum exortae sint et originem sicut affirmant ducant. Prissani ciuitates LXX. Velunzani ciuitates LXX. Bruzi plus est undique quam de Enisa ad Rhenum. Vuizunbeire. Caziri ciuitates C. Ruzzi. Forsderen. Liudi. Fresiti. Serauici. Lucolane. Vngare. Vuislane. Sleenzane ciuitates XV. Lunsizi ciuitates XXX. Dadosesani ciuitates XX. Milzane ciuitates XXX. Besunzane ciuitates II. Verizane ciuitates X. Fraganeo ciuitates XL. Lupiglaa ciuitates XXX. Opolini ciuitates XX. Golensizi ciuitates V.

Sueui non sunt nati, sed seminati.
Beire non dicuntur bauarii, sed boiarii, a boia fluvio.


I'm not suggesting anything but according to Isidore of Seville two centuries earlier...


...and Procopius about migration of Eruli (509-512) and territory north of the Danube...
Quote:
Eruli (...) migrated from their ancestral homes, some of them, as has been told by me above, made their home in the country of Illyricum, but the rest were averse to crossing the Ister River, but settled at the very extremity of the world; at any rate, these men, led by many of the royal blood, traversed all the nations of the Sclaveni one after the other, and after next crossing a large tract of barren country, they came to the Varni, as they are called.
Quote:
In fact, the Sclaveni and the Antae actually had a single name in the remote past; for they were both called Spori in olden times, because, I suppose, living apart one man from another, they inhabit their country in a sporadic fashion. And in consequence of this very fact they hold a great amount of land; for they alone inhabit the greatest part of the northern bank of the Ister.
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Old May 20th, 2015, 12:44 PM   #1857
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Abraham ben Jacob (ca.965)
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The country of the Slavs [Saqaliba] extends from the eastern Mediterranean to the North Atlantic. The tribes of the north dominate them and now live among them. They are of many different kinds. They were once united under a king named Makha, who was from a group of them called Veleti [Walitaba]. This group was of high status among them, but then their languages diverged, unity was broken and the people divided into factions, each of them ruled by their own king. At the present time they have four kings: the king of the Bulqars; Boreslav, king of Prague and Bohemia and Cracow; Mieszko, king of the north; and Nakon, who rules the farthest west.

The country of Nakon is bordered on the farthest west by the Saxons [Saksun] and some Norseman [Murman]. His country has low prices and many horses, which are exported to other places. They are well-armed, with shields, helmets and swords. From Burgh [Fargh] to Mayliyah is ten miles and from [there] to the bridge is fifty miles. It is a wooden bridge, a mile long. From the bridge to the fortress of Nakon is around 40 miles, and it is called Grad, which means “large fort”. Facing Grad is a fort built in a freshwater lake. This is the kind of place where the Saqaliba build most of their forts, in swampy meadows with thick foliage. They trace out a circular or square space the size they want their fort to be, and then dig a trench along the perimeter and heap up the earth into a rampart, which they then reinforce with planks and logs, until the walls of the fort are the height they require. They make a gate wherever they want and build a wooden bridge leading to it. From the fort of Grad to the Surrounding Sea is eleven miles. No army can penetrate the lands of Nakon without great difficult, because the country is all marshy, thickly forested and muddy.

As for the country of Boreslav, from the city of Prague to the city of Cracow is a journey of three weeks; its length is comparable to that of the country of the Turks. The city of Prague is built of stone and lime. It is the pinrcipal trading city. The Rus and the Saqaliba go there from Cracow, to trade, and so do Muslim merchants from the lands of the Turks, as well as Turks and Jews, with mathaquil al-marqatiyya. They carry away slaves, tin and various kinds of furs. Their country is the best in the north the richest in provender. There a man can buy enough flour for a month for a qinshar. In Prague are made saddles and griddles and the leather shields used in their countries. In Bohemia are made small lightly-woven kerchiefs like nets, embroidered with crescents, which have no practical use. The value of ten of these kerchiefs is always equivalent to none qinshar. They trade and exchange them, and have receptacles full of them. They constitute wealth, and the most expensive things can be purchased with them, wheat, slaves, horses, gold and silver and everything else. It is surprising that the people of Bohemia have brown or black hair; blonds are rare among them (link). The road from Madhinburgh to the country of Boleslav [to] and from it to the fort of Qaliwa is ten miles, and from it to Nub Grad is two miles. It is a fort built of stone and lime, and it is on the Saale River [Slawah], into which falls the River Bode. And from Nub Grad to Mallahat al-Yahud which is on the Saale River, is thirty miles. From there to the fort of Burjin, which is on the River Mulde [Muldasah] … and from it to edge of the forest is twenty-five miles; from its beginning to its end is forty miles, through mountains and forests. (...) From the end of the forest the city of Prague is entered.

As for the country of Mieszko, it is the most extensive of their countries. It abounds in food and meat and honey and cultivated fields. His taxes are levied in mathalqil al-margatiyya, and they are used to pay the monthly salaries of his men, each of whom receives a fixed number. He has 3,000 shield-bearers. One hundred of his soldiers are equal of 1,000. The men are given clothing and horses and weapons and everything they require. If one of them has a child, he is immediately assigned an allowance, whether it is male or female. When it grows up, if it is male, he provides for its marriage and gives a dowry to the father of the girl. Dowries are very important to the Saqaliba, and their customs concerning them are like those of the Berbers. If a woman has two or three daughters, they are considered a form of wealth. If a man has two sons, it is a cause of poverty.

Mieszko is bordered to the east by the Rus and to the north by Prussia. The inhabitants of Prussia live on the shore of the Surrounding Sea. They have their own language, and do not know the languages of their neighbours. They are famous for their courage. If an army comes against them, not one of them waits until his comrade joins him, but each man charges on his own, striking with his sword until he is killed. The Rus raid them in ships from the west.

West of the Rus lies the City of Women. (...) To the west of this city is a tribe of the Saqaliba called the nation of Walitaba [Veleti]. It is in the scrublands of the country of Mieszko to the north-west. They have a great city on the Surrounding Ocean. It has twelve gates and a harbour, with a revetment of wooden pilings. They make war on Mieszko and are very courageous. They have no king and trade with no one. Their judges are their old men.
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Last edited by RS_UK-PL; May 27th, 2015 at 10:18 PM.
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Old May 27th, 2015, 10:12 PM   #1858
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Prussian village

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Old May 27th, 2015, 10:17 PM   #1859
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Prussian village. OstPreussen dorf

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Old May 28th, 2015, 03:35 PM   #1860
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No interior plumbing, so there's a port-a-potty?
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