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Old June 10th, 2015, 07:04 AM   #1881
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Interesting. Are there any Old Believers still living in that area? I wonder what the Russians thought of them when they entered that area at the ed of the war - if they were still living there.
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Old June 10th, 2015, 11:30 AM   #1882
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Only a small community exists to this date. Communist Poland failed to keep many Masurian Old Believers within its borders, they left Poland and moved to Hamburg in the 1970s. Since the Fall of Communism they are frequent visitors to Masuria...

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Old June 11th, 2015, 03:43 PM   #1883
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Potocki's palace in Braniewo/Braunsberg, Warmia





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Bishop's Castle in Lidzbark Warmiński/Heilsberg, Warmia (being renovated)

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Old June 23rd, 2015, 02:14 PM   #1884
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Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post
Ignacy Krasicki's Orangery in Lidzbark Warmiński/Heilsberg, Warmia







Actually those conservatory works showed that the most part of the building and it's interior design was created during Teodor Andrzej Potocki era. Krasicki is too much exploited in Lidzbark
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Old July 2nd, 2015, 02:35 PM   #1885
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Prussian tribes before Teutonic Knights' conquest (map prepared in 1584)



*Click on the maps above to enlarge

Prussian-Slavic borderlands

Vandalus/Vistula (West) and Osa (South) rivers were separating Prussians from their West Slavic neighbours. Names such as Grodeck/Gródek, Mockra/Mokre, Rogeusno/Rogóźno, etc. are clearly of Slavic, while Quedin/Kwidzyn of Prussian origin.

"Kurtze vnd warhafftige Beschreibung des Landes zu Preussen" (1584) - LINK
Map of Poland (prepared by Wacław Grodecki in the 1550s; more)

*Click on the map to enlarge


*Click on the map to enlarge


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Old July 2nd, 2015, 06:26 PM   #1886
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Former Protestant Church in Mańki/Manchengut, Masuria (Protestant between 1685 and 1987, Roman Catholic since 1991)








Inside the church you can see names of the people from Kąpity/Kompitten, Biesal/Biessellen, Tomaszyn/Tomascheinen, Mańki/Manchengut, Mycyny/Meitzen, Zezuty/Sensutten, Gębiny/Heinrichsdorf, Makruty/Makrauten, Spoguny/Spogahnen, Guzowy Piec/Gusenofen, Witułty/Witulten, Jadaminy/Adamsgut, Samagowo/Sabangen, Śródka/Mittelgut, Zezuj/Sensujen who died in WW1...
Quote:
Emil Koschorrek, Biessellen. † 20.8.14
Aug. Schwezig, Tomascheinen. † 23.8.14
Adolf. Gross, Manchengut. † 11.9.14
Wilh. W˙rostek, Manchengut. † 9.14
Rudolf Windt, Tomascheinen. † 11.10.14

Aug. Brosda, Kompitten. † 15.10.14
Paul Striewski, Meitzen. † 16.10.14
Paul Krajewski, Sensutten. † 18.10.14
Paul Mazinski, Biessellen [Biesellen]. † 25.10.14
Herm. Kollack, Heinrichsd. † 29.10.14.

Adolf Uschack, Makrauten. † 18.11.14
Gust. Kitscha, Biessellen. † 6.12.14
Robert Pokojewski, Manchengut. † 25.12.14
Karl Brosda, Spogahnen. † 8.2.15
Erich Bahlo, Biessellen. † 22.2.15

Aug. Brosda, Spogahnen. † 12.2.15
Ed. Kischelewski, Spogahnen. † 23.2.15
Emil Komorowski, Gusenofen. † 7.3.15
Erich Duscha, Heinrichsdorf. † 5.5.15
Adolf Lischewski, Gusenofen. † 6.5.15

Karl Grolla, Gusenofen. † 14.5.15
Otto Bastkowski, Witulten. † 9.6.15
Adolf Schumbrutzki, Adamsgut. † 22.6.15
Emil Schumbrutzki, Adamsgut. † 20.7.15
Emil Gralka, Gusenofen. † 30.6.15

Wilh. Kolodze˙, Sensutten. † 21.7.15
Gust. Kollack, Heinrichsdorf. † 26.7.15
Emil Malinowski, Gusenofen. † 26.7.15
Aug. Kollack, Heinrichsdorf. † 17.8.15
Wilh. Twardack, Manchengut. † 20.8.15

Fritz Zebrowski, Biessellen. † 10.9.15
Heinr. Zebrowski, Sabangen. † 15.9.15
Herm. Trawinski, Manchengut. † 24.9.15
Karl Rettkowski, Gusenofen. † 16.10.15
Rud. Zitzwitz, Tomascheinen. † 5.12.16

Heinr. Samel, Sensutten. † 28.2.16
Gust. Wischnewski, Mittelgut. † 5.3.16
Wilh. Taube, Gusenofen. † 17.3.16
Aug. Kitscha, Kompitten. † 21.3.16
Paul Witulski, Sensujen. † 9.7.16

Johann Wolowski, Mittelgut. † 31.8.16
Adolf Langowski, Mittelgut. † 29.9.16
Karl Samel, Sensutten. † 26.12.16
Karl Dankowski, Heinrichsdorf. † 15.2.17
Wilh. Mlodochowski, Kompitten. † 9.4.17

Gust. Sabelek, Biessellen. † 16.4.17
Otto Gross, Manchengut. † 21.4.17
Karl Pelka, Meitzen. † 22.4.17
Rud. Hildebrandt, Biessellen. † 20.5.17
Wilh. Schweda, Gusenofen. † 7.6.17

Julius Rzendowski, Tomascheinen. † 18.6.17
Gust. Hepprich, Manchengut. † 22.7.17
Emil Kopatzki, Tomascheinen. † 25.7.17
Wilh. Naglatzki, Manchengut. † 31.7.17
Adolf Scharnewski, Witulten. † 22.8.17

Christoph Augustin, Gusenofen. † 28.8.17
Wilh. Stach, Manchengut. † 27.9.17
Wilh. Kitscha, Biessellen. † 2.11.17
Emil Gerschöwski, Tomasch. † 9.12.17
Gust. Schwesig, Sabangen. † 21.3.18

Paul Schulz, Gusenofen. † 11.3.18
Aug. Gross, Gusenofen. † 30.3.18
Alb. Langowski, Gusenofen. † 1.4.18
Otto Belss, Witulten. † 5.4.18
Paul Bednarski, Gusenofen. † 11.4.18

Aug. Jedamski, Sensutten. † 13.4.18
Wilh. Pokojewski, Tomasch. † 28.5.18
Kurt Küssner, Mortzfeld. † 1.6.18
Herm. Komorowski, Gusenofen. † 6.6.18
Emil Samel, Sensutten [Senutten]. † 16.7.18

Herm. Rzendowski, Tomascheinen. † 17.7.18
Fritz T˙bussek, Sabangen. † 17.7.18
Gust. Jakowski, Makrauten. † 19.7.18
Otto Spiewack, Manchengut. † 23.7.18
Adolf Pokojewski, Meitzen. † 24.7.18

Adolf Wo˙na, Gusenofen. † 30.7.18
Gust. Twardack, Manchengut. † 20.8.18
Gust. Pannek, Manchengut. † 2.9.18
Gust. Schweda, Gusenofen. † 7.9.18
Otto Koschorrek, Biessellen. † 17.9.18

Wilh. Striewski, Biessellen. † 25.9.18
Paul Prazeus, Heinrichsdorf. † 30.9.18
Wilh. Krajewski, Sensutten. † 9.10.18
Herm. Twardack, Manchengut. † 8.10.18
Aug. Twardack, Manchengut. † 4.11.18

Wilh. Putzka, Biessellen. † 5.11.18
Adolf Schelongowski, Biessellen. † im Jahre 18
Otto Samel, Sensutten. † 12.3.19
Artur Elwitz, Makrauten. † 5.4.19
Wilh. Tulikowski, Gusenofen. † 13.10.19

Herm. Schwesig, Tomascheinen. † 11.8.20
Fried. Gromotka, Meitzen. † im Jahre 15
Emil Pschack, Manchengut. † 2.9.18
Gust. Schwesig, Manchengut. † 30.10.18
Paul Kniffka, Biessellen. † 30.9.18
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Old July 4th, 2015, 05:19 AM   #1887
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Lots of assimilated Poles by the looks of the names. Polish last names sometimes Germanized with more German first names. Fascinating evolution. This process has been happening all over central Europe, Germanization, Polonization and Russification.
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Warsaw Post-War Reconstruction to Present

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Old July 6th, 2015, 02:55 PM   #1888
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Ebstorf Mappamundi (ca.1234)

1. Prucia
2. C. Polonie, Polonia, Odera fl.
3. Slavorum qui sunt ab oriente... bo...hinc Pommeranos
4. Semigallia, Curlant
5. Memela fl.
6. Sanelant
7. Riga Livonie civitas hic, Iste est Albis fluvius cuius meminit Lucanus, qui Goetelba a Gotis dicitur, Duna fl.
8. Smalentike, Plosceke c.
9. Budisin ci. regio.
10. Bohemica silva, Macha fl., Egra fl., Boemia regio, Praga c.

More about the map: link 1, link 2

"Tabula Rogeriana" (ca.1138-1154)

*Click on the map to enlarge

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Co się tyczy ziemi B(u)luniia, która jest krajem wiedzy i mędrców rumijskich (ar-Rum), wspomnieliśmy ją już poprzednio. Jest to kraj o pięknej ziemi, urodzajny, obfitujący w źródła i w rzeki, o ciągnących się bez przerwy prowincjach i dużych miastach, bogaty we wsie i domostwa... Posiada on winnice, oliwki i mnogie drzewa różnych gatunków owoców. Do miast jego należą: Ikraku (Kraków), G(i)nazna (Gniezno), -r(a)t(i)-slaba (Wrocław), S(i)rad(i)ja, N(u)grada, S(i)tnu. Wszystkie one są sławnymi stolicami i silnymi centrami, w których zebrane są dostatki rozmaitych krajów. Prócz tego zażywają one szacunku, ponieważ przebywają w nich uczeni wykształceni w dziedzinach nauk i zaznajomieni ze swymi zawodami. Co się tyczy miasta (I)kraku, miasta G(i)nazna i reszty jej (Bulunji) wspomnianych miast, są to miejscowości o blisko siebie stojących budowlach... Ze wszystkich stron otaczają ją góry ciągnące się nieprzerwanie i oddzielające ją od kraju S(a)sun(i)ja (Saksonia), kraju B(u)amija (Bohemia – Czechy) i kraju ar-Rusija (Ruś).

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Old July 6th, 2015, 05:10 PM   #1889
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It's very beautiful
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Old July 6th, 2015, 06:11 PM   #1890
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The 485th Anniversary of the Augsburg Confession in Wejsuny/Weissuhnen, Masuria (25/06/2015)










WW1 memorial plaque
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Old July 6th, 2015, 06:31 PM   #1891
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I love seeing the remains of the lands my ancestors called home. My 3rd Great-Grandparents came from Marienburg area, right on the East Prussian/West Prussian border, the villages of Teschendorf and Baumgarth respectively. Thank you all for the beautiful photos. I will continue to follow this post
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Old July 6th, 2015, 07:09 PM   #1892
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Part of german history always also have been slavic people and groups, just nazis tried to change it, so plz lets stopp this race/ DNA stuff.

my grandparents come from slesia and they and I also have slavic, polnish, russian and other blood, like many people in germany, specially in Prussia, but also in austria, etc.

If someone says, half germany has slavic influence , so its not german..., actually followes the Nazi way of thinking, I think.
Yes the Nazis tried to erase Slavs/Poles from German history, but they also tried to disconnect those Slavic groups from Polish history (by claiming that those weren't Poles, but different groups), and were trying to disconnect Germans who migrated eastward and settled there, many of whom later became Polonized, from Polish history as well. In this respect German authors (historians, linguists, ethnographers, etc.) from the 1800s - such as Joseph Partsch or Karl Gotthelf Jakob Weinhold - were more honest than those from later periods, as they did admit the Polish heritage of those lands. Below excerpts from Joseph Partsch, "Schlesien", vol. I, Breslau 1896 - about indigenous Poles in Lower Silesia (or Middle Silesia - as that part of Lower Silesia was sometimes called). Excerpts concerning "die Sprachgrenze 1790 und 1890" (pages 364 - 367). Between 1790 and 1890 Germanisation made huge progress there, according to Partsch:

First page: http://s4.postimg.org/vdylta0v1/4sy000_jpg.png



Second page: http://s3.postimg.org/yxo9hp7lf/11cbj9g_jpg.png



Many Germans from those regions also recognized their Polish heritage. For example Alexander Friedrich-Wilhelm Georg Konrad-Ernst-Maximilian Hochberg von Pless (1905 - 1984), son of Hans Heinrich XV, Prinz von Pless and his wife - Princess Daisy. His nephew is Bolko VI Hochberg von Pless (born in 1936). This Hochberg von Pless family actually claims to be descended from the Piast dynasty, though experts are sceptical about their claim (so they were about Friedrich Nietzsche's claim that he was descended from pure-blooded Polish nobility). In 1920 during the Silesian Uprisings, Alexander Hochberg von Pless declared that he was of Polish ethnicity and changed his name to Aleksander Pszczyński. Later in September 1939 - inside his Rolls-Royce and together with his wife - he crossed the border of Hungary, escaped to France, found General Sikorski, and volunteered to the Polish Army in the West, joining the 2nd Polish Corps.

With the 2nd Polish Corps he served in Italy, including the battle of Monte Cassino.

After the war he didn't return to Communist Polen / Poland, but settled in the island of Majorca, in a town the name of which is - what a coincidence (!?) - Pollença:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pollen%C3%A7a

Alexander Hochberg von Pless in the middle (1938):



And here dressed in a Polish army uniform (WW2):



===========

Ethnic map of Silesia in 1790 and 1890 from Joseph Partsch, "Schlesien", Teil 1, Breslau 1896:

http://s10.postimg.org/kfif0q1dz/Ethnic_Silesia.png

The same map, but with the 1790 German-Polish ethnic border underlined with red colour:

http://s29.postimg.org/rzs39lbut/Ethnic_Silesia_2.png



Here is an interesting excerpt from "Observations made on a tour from Hamburg through Berlin, Gorlitz, and Breslau, to Silberberg; and thence to Gottenburg" by Robert Semple, published in London in 1814 (the tour was in 1813) - from pages 122 - 123:

https://books.google.pl/books?id=xNW...page&q&f=false



In this excerpt above, Semple described a Polish-speaking territory to the west of Breslau, in the region between Leuthen (Lutynia) and Gałów (Gross Gohlau) - the latter located at the outskirts of the city of Breslau. Surprisingly, both German scholars (such as J. Partsch) and Polish ones (such as J. Janczak and T. Ladogorski - born as T. Ladenberger) forgot to mark that area in their maps. Partsch in his 1896 book "Schlesien", Teil I, wrote that Polish was still spoken in 1790 to the north, east and south of Breslau, but he didn't mention the Leuthen-Gohlau area to the west of Breslau.

Neither was that area "noticed" by Janczak and Ladogorski. Apparently they did not have access to R. Semple's diary. Ethnic maps of Silesia from Janczak and Ladogorski (they are similar to Partsch's map - just a bit more detailed -, since they are based on German sources):

Around year 1650:

http://www.fotosik.pl/pokaz_obrazek/...1f7fb0ac6.html



Around year 1800 (like Partsch's map for 1790):

http://www.fotosik.pl/pokaz_obrazek/...6e3327519.html

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Old July 10th, 2015, 11:50 AM   #1893
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Located in Smolajny/Schmolainen (Warmia) is a former summer palace of the bishops of Warmia built in 1741–46 in the Rococo style by Prince-Bishop Adam Stanisław Grabowski. The palace became the favorite residence of the famous satirist and fabulist, Prince-Bishop Ignacy Krasicki, who had served as Bishop Grabowski's coadjutor. Krasicki established there a beautiful park and built a gate tower (1765). The palace building is now used by an agricultural school.









Source

Recent photo of Ignacy Krasicki's Orangery in Lidzbark Warmiński/Heilsberg, Warmia
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Old July 12th, 2015, 02:41 PM   #1894
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Originally Posted by Urbanista1 View Post
Lots of assimilated Poles by the looks of the names. Polish last names sometimes Germanized with more German first names. Fascinating evolution. This process has been happening all over central Europe, Germanization, Polonization and Russification.
MEH, Masurians were all above it. Until the Civilisation came and force them to decide, which side they're on.

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Located in Smolajny/Schmolainen (Warmia) is a former summer palace of the bishops of Warmia built in 1741–46 in the Rococo style by Prince-Bishop Adam Stanisław Grabowski. The palace became the favorite residence of the famous satirist and fabulist, Prince-Bishop Ignacy Krasicki, who had served as Bishop Grabowski's coadjutor. Krasicki established there a beautiful park and built a gate tower (1765). The palace building is now used by an agricultural school.
From what I know, Roman Catholic Church already demanded "reprivatisation" of the property
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Old July 12th, 2015, 06:19 PM   #1895
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From what I know, Roman Catholic Church already demanded "reprivatisation" of the property
But we know that's very little.
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Old July 14th, 2015, 10:55 PM   #1896
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MEH, Masurians were all above it. Until the Civilisation came and force them to decide, which side they're on.
And almost all of them chose for the german side in the end as they went with their "real" german neighbors and left now polish East Prussia after 1945. In fact, many Masurians or descendants (the ones who care about though) heavely insist on not beeing mistaking for Poles. Which of course happens all the time.
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Old July 15th, 2015, 12:07 AM   #1897
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Originally Posted by Domen123 View Post
This map shows how many people stayed after WW2 - those who stayed were people who were classified as Polish (Germans were deported), but we need to remember that a lot of East Prussian Poles escaped to Germany - together with East Prussian Germans - already in 1944-1945, before the Red Army's onslaught. The map shows % of pre-war locals in East Prussia in 1950, it doesn't include people who came from other former German areas (e.g. if someone from Opole came to Olsztyn, they aren't counted here) and emigrants (e.g. if someone from Olsztyn went to Warsaw, they aren't counted too):



As you can see below, a relatively large part of those Poles who stayed were Catholic Warmiaks and Sztumiaks/Powislans (near the Vistula River), rather than Lutheran Mazurians - the largest number of Mazurians remained in Mrągowo county (German: Kreis Sensburg):

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Old July 15th, 2015, 02:02 AM   #1898
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And almost all of them chose for the german side in the end (...)
Not "in the end". This process started much earlier, during inevitable civilisational progress in the Masurian backwater in 2nd half of 19th century. And it speeded up during WWI, when most of Masurians started to feel German - maybe not (yet) in ethnical meaning, but certainly a part of the German society. Alhough, what you are saying below:

Quote:
Originally Posted by Saxonia View Post
(...) as they went with their "real" german neighbors and left now polish East Prussia after 1945.
...disregards the fact, that most of Germans after 1945 wanted to leave Polish part of East Prussia after 1945 (I am not surprised). Most of Masurians though wanted to stay and somehow settle down. And they did (those, who survived and who hadn't fled before the Red Army). They took part in quite humiliating process of "verification", received national ID with a white eagle and stayed in Poland in 1945. Which would show that local patriotism and feeling of being deeply rooted in the local fatherland (there's brilliant German word for it: Heimat) were stronger then German patriotism.

Of course it didn't meant that they felt any positive sentiment towards Poland either (maybe except from relatively small group of people from Masurian Association and so called "Działdowo Group" - local activists from the only Masurian county that went to Poland in 1920). They just wanted to be left alone, and this request wasn't granted.

It didn't last long. 10 years of living with Polish neighbours (most of which, frankly speaking, didn't notice much difference between Germans and Masurians), worse yet in the totalitarian state was more than enough to deprive Masurians of any sympathy towards Poland and Poles. As the result of the following migration of over 100 thousand people during next 30 years, the West-German proverb emerged: "You have Warmia and Mazury and we have Warmiaks and Mazurians".

Probably less than 10% remained, small communities (or single people), islands on the ocean of Poles (heavily mixed and from different parts of the world), usually intermarried with Poles, hiding and forgetting the rests of their identity. Paradoxically, it can be revived to some degree due to the fact that the local history becomes fashionable in Poland, and more generally in the EU, there are some sort of NGOses, associations and so on, the gov't of Germany actually supports lots of these efforts.

But would it be enough to keep this society? I doubt

And of course in Germany the situation was the same. Masurians were diluted in the German ocean. And second or third generation of descendants already doesn't remeber or doesn't care, who they ancestors were. And of course they won't keep learning their funny Masurian accent of Polish. What for? In Germany?

Let me be clear, this is absolutely natural process of assimilation. The only problem is that in the process, the whole ethnographic group was devoured, which is really sad.

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In fact, many Masurians or descendants (the ones who care about though) heavely insist on not beeing mistaking for Poles. Which of course happens all the time.
With name ending in "-ski" it's hard not to be mistaken for Pole or, worse yet, for Russian
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Last edited by Mruczek; July 15th, 2015 at 02:20 AM.
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Old July 15th, 2015, 02:44 AM   #1899
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And almost all of them chose for the german side in the end (...)
Not "in the end". This process started much earlier, during inevitable civilisational progress in the Masurian backwater in 2nd half of 19th century. And it speeded up during WWI, when most of Masurians started to feel German - maybe not (yet) in ethnical meaning, but certainly a part of the German society. Alhough, what you are saying below:

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(...) as they went with their "real" german neighbors and left now polish East Prussia after 1945.
...disregards the fact, that the timeframe of that "after" was different. Most of Germans after 1945 wanted to leave Polish part of East Prussia ASAP (I am not surprised). Most of Masurians though wanted to stay and somehow settle down. And they did (those, who survived and who hadn't fled before the Red Army). They took part in quite humiliating process of "verification", received national ID with a white eagle and stayed in Poland in 1945. Which would show that local patriotism and feeling of being deeply rooted in the local fatherland (there's brilliant German word for it: Heimat) were stronger then German patriotism.

Of course it didn't meant that they felt any positive sentiment towards Poland either (maybe except from relatively small group of people from Masurian Association and so called "Działdowo Group" - local activists from the only Masurian county that went to Poland in 1920). They just wanted to be left alone, and this request wasn't granted.

It didn't last long. 10 years of living with Polish neighbours (most of which, frankly speaking, didn't notice much difference between Germans and Masurians), worse yet in the totalitarian state was more than enough to deprive Masurians of any sympathy towards Poland and Poles. As the result of the following migration of over 100 thousand people during next 30 years, the West-German proverb emerged: "You have Warmia and Mazury and we have Warmiaks and Mazurians".

Probably less than 10% remained, small communities (or single people), islands on the ocean of Poles (heavily mixed and from different parts of the world), usually intermarried with Poles, hiding and forgetting the rests of their identity. Paradoxically, it can be revived to some degree due to the fact that the local history becomes fashionable in Poland, and more generally in the EU, there are some sort of NGOses, associations and so on, the gov't of Germany actually supports lots of these efforts.

But would it be enough to keep this society? I doubt

And of course in Germany the situation was the same. Masurians were diluted in the German ocean. And second or third generation of descendants already doesn't remeber or doesn't care, who they ancestors were. And of course they won't keep learning their funny Masurian accent of Polish. What for? In Germany?

Let me be clear, this is absolutely natural process of assimilation. The only problem is that in the process, the whole ethnographic group was devoured, which is really sad.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Saxonia View Post
In fact, many Masurians or descendants (the ones who care about though) heavely insist on not beeing mistaking for Poles. Which of course happens all the time.
With name ending in "-ski" it's hard not to be mistaken for Pole or, worse yet, for Russian
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Old July 15th, 2015, 02:57 AM   #1900
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Not "in the end". This process started much earlier, during inevitable civilisational progress in the Masurian backwater in 2nd half of 19th century. And it speeded up during WWI, when most of Masurians started to feel German - maybe not (yet) in ethnical meaning, but certainly a part of the German society.
With "the end" I meant the end of an actual East Prussia as an entity. 1945 obviously was a huge cut. Maybe the most striking one this land has seen since the the teutonic orders conquest.

Quote:
...disregards the fact, that most of Germans after 1945 wanted to leave Polish part of East Prussia after 1945 (I am not surprised).
Thats actually not fair. Many Germans wanted to stay and some of the ones who fled naturally returned to their homes shortly after the fighting ended, especially in Pomerania and Silesia. In East Prussia this was of course much harder because of the distance. Anyway, I believe that many, maybe not a vast majority but still a lot of Germans would had decided to stay there too, if they were led to. At least for the first decades. But it wasn't even a question if people classified by the Poles as Germans would be allowed to stay. So you can't say they chose patriotism over their Heimat more easily than Masurians. Because there was no choice.

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Originally Posted by Mruczek View Post
With name ending in "-ski" it's hard not to be mistaken for Pole or, worse yet, for Russian
The thing is, when I hear such a name in a combination with a common german pre name, my first reaction is Berlin or Ruhrgebiet, not Poland.
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