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Old August 4th, 2015, 02:09 PM   #1961
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Ignacy Krasicki's Orangery (the opening ceremony of the Orangery of Culture will take place on 12-13 September) in Lidzbark Warmiński/Heilsberg, Warmia





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Quote:
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(...) Later some religious refugees continued to migrate from Poland to Ducal Prussia (...)
Józef Naronowicz-Naroński (Naroński) (ca. 1610 -1678 Ortelsburg/Szczytno) - cartographer, mathematician, architect, military engineer, member of the Minor Reformed Church of Poland who found asylum in the Duchy of Prussia after 1658.

"Optica lubo perspectiva to iest opisanie nauk widzenia" (1659)

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Map of the Duchy of Biržai (1645)

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Samuel Przypkowski (Przipcovius, Pripcovius) (1592–19 April 1670, Königsberg/Królewiec) - was a Polish Socinian theologian, a leading figure in the Polish Brethren and an advocate of religious toleration.

"The life of that incomparable man Faustus Socinus Senensis"

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Zbigniew Morsztyn (Morstin, Morstyn) (ca. 1628 – December 13, 1689) - was a Polish poet who due to religious persecution in Poland fled in 1662 to the Duchy of Prussia.

"Sławna Victorya Nad Turkami od Woysk Koronnych y Wielkiego Xięstwa Litewskiego, pod Chocimiem otrzymana w dzień Swiętego Marcina 1673."

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Old August 4th, 2015, 04:39 PM   #1962
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Still this bridge exist?
Not quite. It was destroyed, then not long ago rebuilt, but the new bridge is not an exact copy of the old one (though resembles it). The same could be said about the house (pavilion) near the bridge. I have no idea what prevented them from keeping closer to the initial appearance.


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Old August 5th, 2015, 01:01 PM   #1963
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"Lexicon Latino-Polonicum" by Jan Mączyński (published in Königsberg/Królewiec in 1563)



Source

See also post #1024.

Most Medieval and Renaissance writers described Slavs as descendants of ancient Venedi who lived along Vistula plus perhaps some remnants of other tribes. Bishop of Warmia, Marcin Kromer argued in his "De origine et rebus gestis Polonorum libri XXX" that Slavs are of Sarmatian Venedi origin.

"Martini Cromeri de origine et rebus gestis Polonorum libri XXX" (1555)

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Translation from Latin (1611)

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http://www.jassa.org/
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Old August 6th, 2015, 10:40 AM   #1964
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The 18th century boundary pillars between Kingdom of Poland (Warmia) and Kingdom of Prussia (state established in 1701, officially recognised by Polish government in 1764)




Map of Kingdom of Poland/Polono Regiae (Prussia Polonica with cities such as Dantsik/Gdansk, Culm/Chelm, etc.) and Duchy of Prussia (Ducatus Prussiae) from 1690

* Click on the map to enlarge

Frederick de Wit also drew detailed city maps ("Stedenboek van Europa", Cracovia p.124, Dantzick p.125, Elbing p.126, Lublin p.127, Thorunium/Thoren p.128, Vilna p.129 and Zamoscium p.130 - link).

See also post #1832.

Gold coins minted in Duchy of Prussia by George William (1639, Königsberg)

In 1619 George William inherited the Margravate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia. He paid his feudal homage in person to the King of Poland, Sigismund III, in September 1621 in Warsaw. The homage was renewed in 1633 after the election of a new Polish king, Władysław IV Vasa.

Gold coins minted in the Polish province of Royal Prussia by Sigismund III of Poland (Malbork, Gdansk and Torun)...






...and John II Casimir (Elblag)


Polish coins were minted in Torun since 1454, in Gdansk and Elblag since 1457.

---------------------------------

Gold coins minted in neighbouring Duchy of Pomerania by Bogislaw XIV (Stettin)
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Old August 6th, 2015, 06:17 PM   #1965
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Amazing. Could tell me where are they situated (names of villages)?
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Old August 6th, 2015, 06:41 PM   #1966
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Amazing. Could tell me where are they situated (names of villages)?
Of course...The first one is located near Święta Lipka (link), while the second boundary pillar was erected in Dąbrówka (link).
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Old August 10th, 2015, 04:17 PM   #1967
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Barczewo/Wartenburg, Warmia


See also post #1814



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Old August 14th, 2015, 12:49 PM   #1968
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The official starting point for the Northern Crusades was Pope Celestine III's call in 1193; but the Christian kingdoms of Scandinavia, Poland and the Holy Roman Empire had begun moving to subjugate their pagan neighbors even earlier. The non-Christian people who were objects of the campaigns at various dates included:
- the Polabian Wends, Sorbs, and Obotrites between the Elbe and Oder rivers (by the Saxons, Danes, and Poles, beginning with the Wendish Crusade in 1147)
- the peoples of (present-day) Finland in 1154 (Southwest Finland; disputed), 1249? (Tavastia) and 1293 (Karelia) (Swedish Crusades, although Christianization had started earlier),
- Livonians, Latgallians, Selonians, and Estonians (by the Germans and Danes, 1193–1227),
- Semigallians and Curonians (1219–1290),
- Old Prussians,
- Lithuanians and Samogitians (by the Germans, unsuccessfully, 1236–1316).

Armed conflict between the Baltic Finns, Balts and Slavs who dwelt by the Baltic shores and their Saxon and Danish neighbors to the north and south had been common for several centuries before the crusade. The previous battles had largely been caused by attempts to destroy castles and sea trade routes and gain economic advantage in the region, and the crusade basically continued this pattern of conflict, albeit now inspired and prescribed by the Pope and undertaken by Papal knights and armed monks.
Northern Crusades

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Originally Posted by Domen123 View Post
As for the genocide, enslavement and expulsions of Pagan Slavic people from what is now East Germany, you may want to read:

Karlheinz Deschner, "Kriminalgeschichte des Christentum" (English: "Criminal History of Christianity")
In 1230, following the Golden Bull of Rimini, Grand Master Hermann von Salza and Duke Konrad I of Masovia launched the Prussian Crusade, a joint invasion of Prussia intended to Christianize the Baltic Old Prussians. The Knights had quickly taken steps against their Polish hosts and with the Holy Roman Emperor's support, had changed the status of Chełmno Land (also Ziemia Chelminska or Kulmerland), where they were invited by the Polish prince, into their own property. Starting from there, the Order created the independent Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights, adding continuously the conquered Prussians' territory, and subsequently conquered Livonia.


Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights coins were minted in Toruń/Thorn since the 1230s, Elbing since the 1240s and Königsberg since 1255.


In the 1200s Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights was bordering the Duchy of Pomerania to the west. The Treaty of Kępno, an agreement between the High Duke of Poland and Wielkopolska Przemysł II and the Duke of Pomerania Mestwin II (sometimes rendered as "Mściwój" or "Mszczuj") signed on February 15, 1282, transferred the suzerainty over Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomeralia) to Przemysł. Mestwin, per the agreement, retained de facto control over the province until his death in 1294, at which time Przemysł, who was already the de jure ruler of the territory, took it over in practice.

Coins minted by Mestwin II (1271–1294) in Gdansk




Royal seal of Przemysł II, 1296

S. Premislii Dei Gracia. Regis. Polonie et Ducis Pomoranie

"Annales seu cronici incliti regni Poloniae"
Quote:
Po śmierci księcia pomorskiego Mszczuja, jego następcą na stolicy książęcej zostaje książę Wielkopolski Przemysł.

Na osiem dni przed pierwszym [...] umiera książę Pomorza Mszczuj i zostaje pochowany w grobowcu swoich przodków w klasztorze w Oliwie. Po jego śmierci przybywa do Gdańska książę Wielkopolski Przemysł, któremu zarówno tytułem pokrewieństwa, jak i z zapisu przysługiwało następstwo na stolicy książęcej Pomorza i przejmuje spokojnie całe księstwo pomorskie w posiadanie. On pierwszy postarał się o obwarowanie miasta Gdańska blankami.
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Old August 17th, 2015, 12:41 PM   #1969
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In the 1300s Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights invaded and brutally conquered its Christian neighbours, the Duchy of Pomerania, part of Poland.

"Annales seu cronici incliti regni Poloniae"
Quote:
MISTRZ PRUSKI, PO OPANOWANIU GDAŃSKIEGO ZAMKU, MIASTO DO PODDANIA SIĘ PRZYMUSZA I WSZYSTKICH POLAKÓW W PIEŃ WYCINA, NIE PRZEPUSZCZAJĄC ANI PŁCI, ANI WIEKOWI [1310]

Mistrz i Krzyżacy pruscy, zagarnąwszy pod swoją władzę w ten sposób, jak się wyżej rzekło, zamek gdański, gdy postrzegli, że książę Władysław Łokietek zatrudniony był i zewsząd zakłopotany wojną litewską i ruską i rozerwaniem wewnętrznym królestwa polskiego, którego część jedną, to jest Wielką Polskę, kto inny w swoim ręku dzierżył, i że podówczas koniecznością było dla niego tak dawniej doznane, jak i nowe krzywdy cierpliwie znosić, pozbierali z różnych krajów niemieckich najemne zaciągi i ozuchwaleni, że im przez czas niejaki opanowanie zamku Gdańska uchodziło bezkarnie, jęli myśleć o zagarnieniu całego Pomorza. Mając przeto zebrane w znacznej liczbie i potężne wojsko, i przygotowane do wojny zasoby, nagłym pochodem wtargnęli do kraju, którym, jak się wyżej powiedziało, rządzili w imieniu Władysława Łokietka Przemysław i Kazimierz, książęta gniewkowskiej i michałowskiej ziemi, i miasto Gdańsk, zostające wtedy pod władzą książęcia Władysława, w sam dzień św. Dominika, w którym z powodu przypadającego jarmarku lud zazwyczaj licznie się do niego zgromadza, oblężeniem ścisnął. Wytrzymało miasto przez dni kilkanaście takowe oblężenie, gdy rycerstwo i szlachta walecznie go broniło; ale nareszcie przez zdradę niektórych mieszczan gdańskich rodu teutońskiego, którzy o poddanie miasta z Krzyżakami tajemnie się byli umówili, w nocy otwarte im zostało i nieprzyjaciele wpuszczeni jedną bramą miasto opanowali. Wnet wszystkich rycerzy, panów i szlachtę pomorską, a co większą jeszcze było niegodziwością, wszystek lud rozmaitym rodzajem kaźni wymordowali; żadnemu z Polaków nie przepuszczając i nie szczędząc żadnego stanu ani płci, ani wieku, wycięli bez miłosierdzia zarówno młodzież, jak dzieci i niemowlęta, a to dlatego, aby rozgłos takiej srogości wszystkich przeraził i odstręczył inne miasta i warownie od stawiania im oporu, niemniej aby po wytępieniu panów i szlachty tej okolicy snadnie im było całą ziemię owładnąć. Mało było przykładów w Polsce podobnej rzezi, rzadko kiedy przy zdobyciu jakiego miejsca warownego tyle krwi wypłynęło. Nie było żadnego rodzaju gwałtu i okrucieństwa, którego by ręka nieprzyjacielska nie użyła na zagładę Polaków. Dwojaką Krzyżacy, a najhaniebniejszą ośmielili się popełnić zbrodnię, z którą żaden czyn najsroższych nawet barbarzyńców porównać się nie może. Najprzód bowiem wezwani przez książęcia Władysława Łokietka do obrony gdańskiego zamku, wypędziwszy z niego z największą sromotą tych, którym stać się mieli pomocą, sami zamek opanowali. Potem, w niejaki czas zagarnęli i miasto Gdańsk, wymordowawszy szlachtę, która się była do niego zjechała na jarmark, i inne niewinne ofiary, tak iż Polakom znośniej by było pokonanymi być od Saksonów albo ustąpić ze swoich siedlisk, niżeli wśród pokoju i bezpiecznego wczasu w progach swoich świątyń i ojczystych domów dać nędznie gardła obyczajem bydląt pod miecz bezbożnych sprzymierzeńców i zostawić im łupem wszystkie majątki ruchome i nieruchome, przez długi czas zbierane, a nadto swoje żony i dzieci, na nieszczęsną przeznaczone niewolę.
Source

Map of Gdańsk before the cruel conquest


Pope Clement V (1310)
Quote:
Novissime vero ad nostrum pervenit auditum, quod dicti praeceptores et fratres hospitalis eiusdem dilecti filii nobilis viri Wladislai Cracovie et Sandomirie ducis terram hostiliter subintrantes in civitate Gdansco ultra decem milia hominum gladio peremerunt infantibus vagientibus in cunis mortis exitum inferentes, quibus etiam hostis fidei pepercisset.
Quote:
It has recently come to our attention that the said preceptors and brothers of the same hospital, stealing into the land of our dear son, the nobleman Duke Władysław of Kraków and Sandomierz, in a hostile manner, killed more than 10,000 people in the town of Gdańsk by the sword, inflicting death upon infants crying in their cradles, whom even the enemies of the faith would have spared.
Lites I (3), 69 (Papal bull)
Quote:
Gravem dilecti nobilis viri Wladislai ducis Polonie querelam accepimus, continentem, quod magister et fratres domus s. Marie Theutonicorum non attendentes, quod quondam Conradus dux Polonie avus eiusdem ducis eosdem magistrum et fratres, quos veros credebat katholice fidei defensores, ad partes illas pro defensione ipsius fidei primitus advocavit et nonnula inmobilia et mobilia bona liberaliter concessit eisdem, alias eos dictus Conradus et successors sui benigne ac favorabiliter prosequendo; sed ipsi dicto duci se reddentes ingratos et ad bona ipsius rapacitatis manus extendentes, illicite ducem ipsum terra sua Pomoranie Wladislauiensis dyocesis, que de regno Polonie fore dinoscitur temeritate propria spoliantes, illam cum hominibus, vasallis, castris, villis, possessionibus et bonis existentibus in eadem contra iusticiam occuparunt et detinuerunt iam per octo annos et amplius sicut adhuc detinent violenter, fructus ac redditus et proventus provenientes ex illa percipientes indebite et iniuste, illam sibi reddere contradicunt in ipsius ducis grave dispendium et regni predicti diminucionem enormem et scandalum manifestum.
Quote:
We accepted the serious complaint of our dear son, the nobleman Duke Władysław of Poland, the master and brothers of the Teutonic Order not being present, maintaining that the late Duke Konrad of Poland, grandfather of the same duke, first called the master and brothers, whom he believed true defenders of the Catholic faith, and he freely conceded to them some movable and immovable goods, and the said Konrad and his successors with benign favour followed these up with others. But, showing no gratitude to the said duke and extending the hands of rapacity towards his goods, they boldly and illicitily robbed that duke of his own land of Pomerania, of the diocese of Włocławek, which it is known should belong to the kingdom of Poland, along with the men, vassals, castles, villages, possessions, and goods in it, now occupying and detaining it against justice for eight years and more still violently detaining its fruits and revenues and produce wtihout right and unjustly, they refuse to return it to him at great cost to the duke himself and immense damage to the aforesaid kingdom and in manifest scandal.
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Old August 17th, 2015, 02:37 PM   #1970
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In the 1300s Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights invaded and brutally conquered its Christian neighbours, the Duchy of Pomerania, part of Poland.
Pomerelia. Pomerania was already part of the empire since 12th century.
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Old August 17th, 2015, 03:05 PM   #1971
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Pomerelia. Pomerania was already part of the empire since 12th century.
Pomerelia is a modern term, which is now applied to Gdańsk Pomerania or Eastern Pomerania. In the 13th century, there were two separate Duchies of Pomerania, Western Pomerania which was depopulated on the left bank of the Oder river after Wendish Crusade accepted overlordship of Holy Roman Emperor, while Eastern Pomerania reunited with Poland.

If you'd like to learn more about history of Western Pomerania, I'd recommend e.g. "Pomerania" (written in 1518)...



Source

Seals of Boguslaw IV (ruler of Western Pomerania in 1276-1309), Mestwin II (ruler of Eastern Pomerania in 1271–1294) and Vitslav II (ruler of Rügen in 1260–1302, the son of Prince Jaromar II of Rügen and Euphemia, a daughter of Duke Swantopolk II of Eastern Pomerania)

"S. Buguzlai dei gracia ducis Slavorum et Kassubie", "S. Dni. Mistwoii ducis Pomoranie" and "Sigillum Wiizslavi Ruyanorum Principis". The name "Pomoranie" comes from Slavic po more, which means "[land] by the sea".

After unjustified loss of Eastern Pomerania in the early 1300s, Polish monarchs still officially titled themselves as rulers of Pomerania, e.g. "nos Wladislaus dei gracia Polonie Rex necnon Cracouie, Sandomirie, Syradie, Lancicie, Cuyauie, Pomoranieque terrarum dux" (Władysław I the Elbow-high), "nos Kazimirus, dei gracia Rex Polonie et Russie, nec non terrarum Cracouie, Sandomirie, Syradie, Lancicie, Mazouie, Dobrinie, Cuyauie, Pomoranieque dominus uerus ac heres" (Casimir III the Great), etc.

----------------------------

Royal title of Casimir IV after Prussian Confederation offered to incorporate Prussia into the Kingdom of Poland: "Nos Casimirus Dei Gratia Rex Poloniae necnon Terrarum Craoviae, Sandomiriae, Siradiae, Lancitiae, Kujaviae, magnus Dux Lithvaniae, Russiae, Prussiaeque, Chulmensis, Konigsbergensis, Elbingensis et Pomeraniae Dominns et Haeres" (August 1454)
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Old August 17th, 2015, 10:18 PM   #1972
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Quote:
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Pomerelia. Pomerania was already part of the empire since 12th century.
Quick guide about terminology:

What is called Pomerelia in Germany and everywhere else (also: Westpreussen, polnische Korridor, verfluchte polnische Korridor, etc.) is usually called Pomerania / Gdańsk Pomerania / Eastern Pomerania (Pomorze, Pomorze Gdańskie, Pomorze Wschodnie) in Poland.

What is called Pomerania (proper) in Germany (Pommern, Hinterpommern, the former Pomeranian Duchy), is called usually West Pomerania, Szczecin Pomerania in Poland (Pomorze Zachodnie, Pomorze Szczecińskie).

The question emerges, how the remaining part of Pomerania staying in Germany (Vorpommern) is called in Poland? Well, in Poland it's usually called Niemcy (Germany), it's the area where we go to steal the cars or at least car-radios and car-wheels, taking therefore war reparations in kind
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Old August 17th, 2015, 10:38 PM   #1973
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The German part of Pomerania I call 'Pomorze' not 'Niemcy'.
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Old August 19th, 2015, 12:45 PM   #1974
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Znamienka and Aleksandrówka are villages founded by Masurians who came from East Prussia invited by Nicholas II of Russia to settle in Siberia. In 1991 Aleksandrówka had a population of 200 (70% of Polish origin), while Znamienka has a population of 600 with siginificant group of Polish origin (over 60 families). Masurian dialect is still spoken among older people.

Baptists meeting house in Znamienka (1991) where people pray and read the Bible in Polish


Polish is the language being taught in primary school in Znamienka, there's also "Mazury" cultural organisation.

One of many Masurian houses in Znamienka


Children of Masurian origin from Siberia during Borderlands (Kresy) Culture Festival in Mrągowo/Sensburg, Masuria


"Czerwone jagody" (folk musicians)
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Old August 20th, 2015, 03:04 PM   #1975
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Carta Marina (drawn by Olaus Magnus in 1527-39)



*Click on the maps to view a larger version

See also posts #1885, #1888 and #1954.
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Old August 20th, 2015, 08:43 PM   #1976
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Mruczek
The question emerges, how the remaining part of Pomerania staying in Germany (Vorpommern) is called in Poland?
According to many opinions Pomerania ends along the Oder, behind the Oder there is Polabia (Połabie).

I've also seen the terms Veletia, Obodritia, Wagria - but all of these are parts of Polabia.
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Old August 20th, 2015, 08:55 PM   #1977
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Etymology of Pomerania is from Slavic "po more" / "po morze" - meaning "at the sea".

But it is likely that Slavic people who lived there were first called "Pomeranians" ("people living at the sea"), and name of the region comes from those people.

On the other hand, Slavic tribes living to the west of the Oder, were never called Pomeranians - they were called Veleti, Lutici, Rujani, Obodrites, etc. Name Vorpommern originates from the fact that Polish and Pomeranian dukes expanded to the west, into Veleti & Rujani territory, transplanting the name.

However, Vorpommern is not original Pomerania. Just like West Galicia was not original Galicia (name originating from the Ruthenian Duchy of Galich/Halych) and West Prussia wasn't original Prussia. West Galicia is Lesser Poland, and West Prussia is mostly Pomerelia.

And this small part of former Silesia which today remains in Germany, is also not Silesia - it is Lusatia, but that part of Lusatia belonged to Provinz Schlesien (which was just an administrative unit of the Kingdom of Prussia-Brandenburg and later after 1871 of the German Empire, not a historical region).
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Old August 20th, 2015, 09:05 PM   #1978
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Note that German crusaders generally did not preserve Slavic names, but re-named conquered regions.

This is why we have as many as 3 Saxonies (Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony).

Of those 3 Saxonies, only Lower Saxony corresponds - more or less - to original homeland of the Saxons.

On the other hand, borderlands of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Brandenburg = historical Lusatia / Sorbia.
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Old August 20th, 2015, 10:41 PM   #1979
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I would say that 'po morze' means 'to the sea/all the way to the sea' rather than 'at the sea'. Pomorze Połabskie?
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Old August 21st, 2015, 12:03 AM   #1980
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Domen123 View Post
Note that German crusaders generally did not preserve Slavic names, but re-named conquered regions.

This is why we have as many as 3 Saxonies (Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony).

Of those
3 Saxonies, only Lower Saxony corresponds - more or less - to original homeland of the Saxons.
.
State names do not correspond with names for regions. The main reason the name "Saxony" went up the Elbe, is that Saxony was an electorate. When the old duchy was broken up in 1180, the name Saxony and the right to elect the Kaiser was given to the Ascanians which had also territories in the east. It was divided again in Saxony-Lauenburg and Saxony-Wittenberg in 1295. The latter ulitmately secured its right to elect the Kaiser as the Saxon duke due to the Golden bull in 1356. In 1422 the Wettins got Saxony-Wittenberg. So instead of calling themselves Margraviates of Meißen, they used the much more prestigous title of the Saxon duke. Thus the name "Saxony" was increasingly used for all their territories although they actually were never part of a saxon duchy.

Large parts of Sachsen-Anhalt were not only part of the pre 1180 duchy, but also of the of Wettin state before 1815.
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