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Old December 12th, 2012, 12:14 AM   #121
KonstantinasŠirvydas
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And here are some traditional wayside shrines of Lithuanian villages.
On Čiurlionis paintings.

wiki

XIX century wooden sculptures from the villages of Lithuania. These were put in small wooden chapels, built by the roads, crossroads, inside villages. Also these were put into wood-carved roadside poles.

Adomas Varnas interwar photos.
Quote:
Author of the world first album of ethnographical photography Lithuanian Crosses (Lietuvos kryžiai, 2 volumes, 1926, Kaunas) about the unique Lithuanian folk art, cross crafting.
Really don't know how to call it. Architecture, sculpture, art? What is it?





















source: epaveldas.lt

Some of these are still preserved in Lithuanian villages from place to place.
Stone chapel in Alsūdis village.

wiki

Chapel in Vepriai town.

wiki

Buknaičiai village.

wiki

In Ukrinas village.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...pis_resize.JPG

Near the road, wooden. Near the barn.

wiki
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Old December 12th, 2012, 12:20 AM   #122
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Now the most interesting part of these structures. Although it is sculpture, it is integral part of the chapel and can live separate from the architectural part of the chapel only in the museum. These were usually on the top of the wayside shrines or inside those boxes, houses n the top.

Here are some XVII - XIX c. examples from the Lithuanian Art Museum. Titles of these say "unknown folk sculptor".





















source: epaveldas.lt
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Old December 12th, 2012, 12:21 AM   #123
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Usually part of a large composition or growing from the architectural part.



















source: epaveldas.lt
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Old December 12th, 2012, 12:22 AM   #124
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source: epaveldas.lt
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Old December 12th, 2012, 12:25 AM   #125
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source: epaveldas.lt

By the way, a lot of 1900-1940 architects used these chapels as inspiration in their art nouveau, functionalist, modernist architecture. Many details were borrowed from this primitive chapels.
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Old December 12th, 2012, 12:36 AM   #126
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It is a folk art. Difficult to define, but i guess it is probably sculpture. this tradition is recognised by UNESCO.
the most interesting thing are the crosses on the top of wayside shrines and others. majority of them actually can be traced back to pagan times, according etnology, relgion science. many of such "structres" were built near so called magical stones, hills, rivers which have their own legends like "dead giants" (giants mostly mean worriors of ancient time, northen crusrade etc. in folk tradition) or just to commemorate any important event.
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Old December 12th, 2012, 12:48 AM   #127
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So some pictures of typical architectural parts of these architectural elements.
These were taken to the museum.

Stood in Tolimėnai village.


Stood near the road.


Small XIX c. village architecture.


Made in neo-Gothic architecture manner.


This reminds a house in the village or a wooden church.


Piece of art. This wayside chapel also stood simply near the road.


source: muziejai.lt
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Old December 12th, 2012, 01:03 AM   #128
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Prosp View Post
It is a folk art. Difficult to define, but i guess it is probably sculpture. this tradition is recognised by UNESCO.
the most interesting thing are the crosses on the top of wayside shrines and others. majority of them actually can be traced back to pagan times, according etnology, relgion science. many of such "structres" were built near so called magical stones, hills, rivers which have their own legends like "dead giants" (giants mostly mean worriors of ancient time, northen crusrade etc. in folk tradition) or just to commemorate any important event.
True. Difficult. It is sculpture, but at the same time it uses for example, elements of professional architecture - like carved from wood columns, pediments or even flying buttresses
Not only in its sculptural part, but also in the architectural.
It may also have architectural elements or models of real or fictional churches and buildings in the composition of the sculptures.
Yes, typically the upper part is the most interesting, but also sometimes the trunk of the chapel may be of interesting forms.
The best part of these chapels is that they do inspire professional architecture and do have some basic ideas of modern and the most to date architecture in their attitude, look, parts.
Agree on mythological part. Some of them where built not only near, but on these mythological stones.

P.S. Take a look at interwar Central Post building of Kaunas.

diena.lt
The architect told while designing the building, he always had all these wayside shrines, wooden carvings, wooden chapels, traditional ornaments in his mind. Just one example.
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Old December 12th, 2012, 05:40 AM   #129
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Some more traditional wooden architecture of Lithuania.
There are a lot of traditional barns. Look like these.

Barn at Kurtuvėnai manor.

wiki

Barn at Ustonė.

wiki

Barn of Taujėnai manor before restoration.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/jonas_j/5114331511/

Barn at Kelmė.

kpd.lt


kpd.lt

Užventis barn.

etaplius.lt

Granary of Raudondvaris manor.
image hosted on flickr

http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/7992647390/

Later will show more types of Lithuanian wooden architecture if would be people interested.

P.S. Here a free copy of book on Lithuanian wooden heritage can be downloaded from the official site of Lithuanian department of cultural heritage protection: http://www.kpd.lt/failai/u1/wooden_architecture.pdf
You will see what a great book it is!
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Old December 12th, 2012, 07:31 AM   #130
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Thank you so muich for the beautiful and interesting review of Lithuanian architecture and historic structures. The wooden buildings, in particular, express an almost poetic message of decades and decades of human experiences and lives we never knew. Amazing.

Is the current geographical area of Lithuania an area that was always populated primarily or exclusively by ethnic Lithuanians?
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Old December 12th, 2012, 08:17 AM   #131
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Quote:
Originally Posted by keepthepast View Post
Thank you so muich for the beautiful and interesting review of Lithuanian architecture and historic structures. The wooden buildings, in particular, express an almost poetic message of decades and decades of human experiences and lives we never knew. Amazing.

Is the current geographical area of Lithuania an area that was always populated primarily or exclusively by ethnic Lithuanians?
Yes and no . Todays Lithuania can be regarded as a Lithuania propria. Teritory was and is populated exclusively by lithuanians, descendent of various ofbaltic tribes like Prussians, Yotvingians, Curonians, Semigalians, Samogitians etc. They were majorty.
But. Former GDL was a multiethnic country and if we talking about present day teritory, than we must say, that tatars, caraims (both - Trakai, Naujamiestis, Panevezys, Vilnius region), jews and probaby germans lives ir lived here from XIV-XV century. Ruthenians (present day Belarus Ukraine, western part of present day Russian) had lived also, only it is questionable when they settled exactly in Lithuania propria. Until 1384/1418 GDL, or particulalrly present day Lithuania
was a pagan state, the last pagan state, society of Europe, but relationship with eastern world (ruthenians, Byzantine) were....not bad.
Jews were probaly the largest ethnic minorty in present day Lithuania, paricularly in cities (19 cent, it was a policy of Russian administration). Germans ar latins as wester europeans - as a result of Grand Duke Gediminas diplomacy in XIV - mostly they lived in largest cities like Vilnius, Kaunas (in todays Lithuania) or Klaipėda/Mėmelis - particularly germans. Question is about Poles. There are several opinions about the time, when they started to live in present day Lithuania. Despte all "when", "why", "how", tatars, caraims, jews, germans, ruthenians, poles, italians lived and still live in present day Lithuania.
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Old December 12th, 2012, 01:01 PM   #132
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"Teritory was and is populated exclusively by lithuanians"

Could you please show me the map of territories inhabited by Baltic Lithuanian majority before (19-20th century) and after WW2?
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Old December 12th, 2012, 06:18 PM   #133
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Prosp is right. Lithuania Propria was 2 times larger than Lithuania is now, and was inhabited by the tribes, from who Lithuanian nation sprang, from 2500 BC. So no less than 4000 years there were living ancestors of contemporary Lithuanians.
The intensive migrations of other peoples to Lithuania propria, started from the 14th century.
Jews. There were many Jews and Vilnius or Vilna was called Northern Jerusalem. The saying Ich bin a vilner was very honorable. Vilna Gaon, Jacques_Lipchitz, Jascha Heifetz, Emmanuel Levinas and many more.
By the way Monica Lewinski's, grandma was from Lithuania and had a surname Vilnianski.
There can be mentioned Armenians in Vilnius. There were these people in the middle ages and around 1000 today. The most prominent Armenian probably is Յան Ռուստամ.
Also there were Scottish people in Kėdainiai town in 16-18 c. and some people are descendants of Scots there as many of Scots Lithuanised. Also one can stay at the hotel Gray house, for example: http://www.grejausnamas.lt/en/apie/istorija
Italians. There were many Italians working as architects, sculptors, writers, lawyers, university professors, etc. Some of them created families here and so on. Most of the churches prior to the 19th century in Lithuania were built by Italians. for example, some surnames of Lithuanian Baroque architects: Giovanni Maria Bernardoni, Constantino Tencalla, Giovanni Battista Frediani, Pietro Puttini, Giovanni Cini, Giovanni Maria Padovano Mosca, Giovanni Giacopo Caraglio, Giacinto Campana, Michelangelo Palloni, Martino Altamonte, Giuseppe Fontana, Giovanni Battista Merli, Giovanni Pietro Perti and many more. No wonder, that the first theater performances were held in Vilnius (1636) decades earlier that in London or Paris.
The same with Germans, Austrians, Swiss, French, Hungarian, Dutch. Some of them worked in Lithuania for a short time, while others were born in Lithuania or stayed. Johann Christoph Glaubitz, Johann Peter Frank, Ludwig Heinrich Bojanus, Johann Georg Adam Forster, Békés Gįspįr.
We too have Russians. While 5% of Lithuanian population are Russians, not all of them came after the war and during the USSR times. There are around 50-60 thousand Old Believers Russians, who were persecuted in Russia from the 17th century on and moved to Eastern Lithuania. There are a lot of villages of old believers there, also wooden tserkvas, but as these people live in Lithuania for 300-400 years, one can not tell the difference, as they are fluent in Lithuanian or even have Lithuanian as their mother tongue.
There are quite a lot of Ukrainians in Lithuania. Most of nowadays Ukrainians of Lithuania came after the war and it is difficult to say, are there any historical Ukrainians, from the 14th of 16th century, like descendants of Konstantin Ostrozhskiy, Konstantin Vasil Ostrozhskiy, who established Orthodox churches, monasteries. There are Uniate (Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church) church in Vilnius today.
Tatars. The towns like Nemėžis, Raižiai, Subartonys, Kaišiadorys, neighborhood - Lukiškės or lakes in Trakai - Totoriškės, Luka were named after the Tatars. There are not so many Tatars today, only 3000, but there are tens of thousands of Lithuanians, descendants of Tatars. For example, people with surnames like Asadauskas, Asanavičius, Bogušis, Tallat-Kelpša, Ulanas, Vilčinskis, Kričinskas, Afandavičius, Sinkevičius, Smolskis, Butleris, Januševskis, Beliakas, Korsakas, Krinickas, Korickas, Rajeckas, Janušauskas, Jablonskis, Kalina and many more.
Belarusians and Poles. Sometimes it is difficult to say, as a lot of them come from Lithuanian background. Of course, there were Poles from Poland in the middle ages like Sarbievius, Piotr Skarga, Nicolaus Hussovianus and many more, but mostly todays Poles and Belarusian of Lithuania are local people, who at some period of history adopted Polish or Belarusian language because of various persecutions, ban on Lithuanian language and press, ban on Lithuanian schools and because of the Tsarist policy of sending educated Lithuanians work to Russian provinces, prohibition to work in Lithuania.
It is more common among Poles, as quite a lot of Belarusians came to Lithuania during the USSR times from as far as Orsha or Gomel.

Again, some of these people have their own traditional architecture. Tatars have their wooden mosques, Ruthenians have medieval Gothic Orthodox Churches/Tserkvas, Karaites have kenesas; Jews - synagogues, where Lithuanian wooden synagogues are unique in Europe; Old Believers have their traditional wooden churches in villages and so on.
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Old December 12th, 2012, 06:44 PM   #134
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If you say so i believe you...

But what happened with all Lithuanians after WW2? Why Lithuania is one of the least densely populated countries in Europe? I've never heard about some plagues or ethnic cleansing of Baltic Lithuanians on territories of Lithuania?! For example, Poles and Jews have been victims of genocide in Ponary massacre (the mass-murder of 100,000 people, mostly Jews and Polish intelligentsia), not Lithuanians. Also, almost 250,000 of Poles (still around 200,000 left in today's Lithuania: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poles_in_Lithuania), not Baltic Lithuanians, have been expelled after the war .

Last edited by RS_UK-PL; December 12th, 2012 at 07:33 PM.
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Old December 12th, 2012, 07:36 PM   #135
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Quote:
Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post
If you say so i believe you...

But what happened with all Lithuanians after WW2? Why Lithuania is one of the least densely populated countries in Europe? I've never heard about some plagues or ethnic cleansing of Baltic Lithuanians on territories of Lithuania?! For example, Poles and Jews have been victims of genocide in Ponary massacre (the mass-murder of 100,000 people, mostly Jews and Polish intelligentsia), not Lithuanians.
Do not want to be rude, but what Nazi misdeeds in Lithuania, Getto benches in Poland, Ukrainian massacres in Pawłokoma and tens of other settlements, Obóz Narodowo Radykalny has to do with Classic Architecture of Lithuania?
Is it some Polish mania, some sort of obsession or what?

And what happened with all Finns, Estonians, Latvians, Belarusians after WW2? Why Latvia, Estonia, Belarus, Finland are one of the least densely populated countries in Europe? I've never heard about some plagues or ethnic cleansing of Finnish Estonians and Finns on territories of Estonia and Finland and Slavic Belarussians?! Or is it Józef Kuraś, Zygmunt Szendzielarz, who made Poland one of the most densely?
Sorry, but I do not get the logic.

Please, do not ruin the thread.
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Old December 12th, 2012, 08:19 PM   #136
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St. Michael's (Mykolo) Church in Vilnius and monastery
Built in 1627 by Leonas Sapiega (bel. Леў Сапега) and church was used as mausoleum of Sapiegos familly
Started to built in 1594.


Photos from www.archmap.lt





















Tombstone of Leonas Sapiega

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Old December 12th, 2012, 08:25 PM   #137
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Quote:
Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post
Also, almost 250,000 of Poles (still around 200,000 left in today's Lithuania: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poles_in_Lithuania), not Baltic Lithuanians, have been expelled after the war .
Oh, U. Edited Your post. Ok, will answer to this also.
Yes, a lot of people from Belorussia immigrated to Lithuania in 1945-1990. A lot of them were speaking in Russian or Belarussian, but traditionally considered themselves Poles, because they were Catholics. Also, a lot of these Catholics were of Lithuanian background, only adopted Belarussian or Russian in the 19th century. For example, if one would look at the surnames of these people, traditional ornaments on the houses, at the ornaments of traditional textile http://www.tautinesjuostos.lt/en/ and so on.
Also, the names of the towns, where so called Lithuanian Poles live, have Lithuanian names, rivers with Lithuanian names flow. When one ask to sing these persons traditional songs, they will sing polyphonic songs, that are unique to Baltic peope and inscribed into UNESCO list. Please look here: http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/in...00011&RL=00433
Or ask them their folklore tales - these are the same as of Lithuanian people of, let's say Ukmergė or Utena, or Varėna, or Ignalina, Adutiškis, etc.
Some of them declare this to this day, but only traditionally. Prosp already pointed out at the vague ethnicity and origin of Lithuanian Poles and Belarussians.
But are there 200 000 today?
This would be a huge number but... As far, as I know, there are less than 2500 Jews in Lithuania and more than 350 of them learn at Jewish school. And You understand, that Hebrew is quite marginal language in Lithuania to know today, but one can see a ratio. But at Polish schools learn only around 10 000 and 200 000 Poles?
Also, magazines' circulations are no more than some hundred to thousand.
What is more, huge part of these people even do not know Polish language.
I wonder, would You call Stanisław Witkiewicz from Samogitia, who have signature Vitkacius, Jagna Marczułajtis, Andrzej Januszajtis, Klaus Wowereit Lithuanians when they probably did/do not know a single word in Lithuanian.
But the most interesting, that huge part of these people speak in po prostu dialect of Belarussian vernacular or gwara and call themselves Pulaki and feel themselves as distinctive group. Remember, that in the latest Polish census there was even graphs for Lemko or Silezian people.
But I would like you to stop talking about minorities in the thread, dedicated to architecture unless you have some pictures of traditional Polish architecture in Lithuania, than please post it.

And soon I am gonna post Old Believers churches pictures so do not make a mess before the pictures.
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Old December 12th, 2012, 08:36 PM   #138
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Its impossible to say that Lithuania is poor then you see this:

St. Peter and St. Paul's Church in Vilnius. Its interior has masterful compositions of stucco mouldings by Giovanni Pietro Perti and ornamentation by Giovanni Maria Galli of Milan, and is considered a Lithuanian Baroque masterpiece.







3D panorama http://www.panoramas.lt/m_katalog.php?p_id=733&lg=2
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Last edited by kaspis; December 12th, 2012 at 09:07 PM.
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Old December 12th, 2012, 08:54 PM   #139
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Bravo, Kaspis.
P.S. Resize the last photo.

Also, it is impossible when visiting, e.g. Pažaislis monastery, huge Trakai castle, after seeing interiors of the Vilnius university, etc.

Pažaislis in Kaunas. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pažaislis_Monastery

http://www.travel.lt/turizmas/select...&inlanguage=en

image hosted on flickr

http://www.flickr.com/photos/iksiukasan/4660573244/

image hosted on flickr

http://www.flickr.com/photos/iksiukasan/4660553280

image hosted on flickr

http://www.flickr.com/photos/iksiukasan/4660542510
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Old December 12th, 2012, 08:59 PM   #140
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"But are there 200 000 today? "

So why Lithuanians are voting in favour of Electoral Action of Poles in Lithuania, which received 5.83% of votes, 8 seats in the Seimas at the 2012 election?
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