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Old September 28th, 2012, 01:01 PM   #1
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Palazzo in fortezza (fortified palace) in the Kingdom of Poland

Palazzo in fortezza (fortified palace) in the Kingdom of Poland.

The idea of ​​this type of structure was born during the Renaissance in Italy (hence the Italian name), and spread across Europe. This type of construction flourished at the end of the 16th and 17th century in the Kingdom of Poland.

Baranów Sandomerski Castle

The Baranów Sandomerski Castle is a Mannerist castle located in the town of Baranów Sandomierski in the Subcarpathian Voivodship, south-eastern Poland. It is one of the most important Mannerist structures in the country. The castle is commonly known as the "little Wawel".

History
The castle was built around the years 1591–1606 in the style of Poland's Mannerism with richly decorated attics, side towers and arcade courtyard for Andrzej and Rafał Leszczyński (1526–1592) of the Wieniawa coat of arms. It is believed to be the work of a famous Italian architect, Santi Gucci, the court artist of king Stephen Báthory. In about 1620 the castle was surrounded by bastion fortifications and in 1625 its chambers were adorned with early Baroque decorations executed by the eminent stucco decorator Giovanni Battista Falconi. By the end of the 17th century, the castle came into the possession of the Lubomirski family through marriage. Prince Józef Karol Lubomirski wedded its owner, Princess Teofila Ludwika Zasławska in 1683, and rebuilt her principal residence by way of commissioning the royal Dutch-Polish architect Tylman van Gameren (Tylman Gamerski) from the court of Jan III Sobieski, who converted the castle, added the western wing gallery and embellished the interiors with profuse late-baroque stucco decorations. The gallery housed their collection of art. Notably, almost two centuries later, all works of art were destroyed in massive fires, first in 1848 (with the entire library) under Krasicki family and finally in 1898 under Dolańskis.

Castle in Baranów Sandomierski passed successively into the possession of families: Wiśniowiecki, Sanguszko, Lubomirski, Małachowski, Potocki and Krasicki. In 1867 it was acquired by Feliks Dolański. The structure was restored by subsequent owner Stanisław Dolański after a fire in 1898. Under the direction of Kraków architect Tadeusz Stryjeński some changes were carried out in the layout. During this reconstruction one of the chambers on the ground floor was adopted as chapel and decorated in art nouveau style. Stained-glass windows by Józef Mehoffer and an altar with a painting of Jacek Malczewski Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception were major features of the interior. The castle remained in the possession of the Dolański family till the outbreak of World War II. Due to war damages the castle was renovated by the State in the years 1959–1969, under the guidance of professor Alfred Majewski. The building's sponsorship was turned over to state-run Sulphur Mines and "Siarkopol" plant in nearby Tarnobrzeg.



















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Old September 28th, 2012, 01:48 PM   #2
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Podhorce Castle

It is a residential castle-fortress located in the village of Pidhirtsi (Polish: Podhorce) in Lviv (Polish: Lwów) Oblast (now Ukraine).

History
It was constructed by Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan between 1635–1640 by order of the Polish Grand Crown Hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski. The castle was part of the Kingdom of Poland and it was regarded as the most valuable of palace-garden complexes. It has not been established who designed the complex, that, most probably, was planned by Italian architect Andrea del Aqua, who also designed the fortress in nearby Brody for bellicose Koniecpolski. Hetman Koniecpolski wrote in his memoirs that he wanted to own a place for relaxation, but the castle location made it impossible. In 1648 it was attacked by Ukrainian Cossacks during Khmelnytskyi Uprising, although they could not capture the complex, what proved its fortress characteristcs. Three years later the Cossacks returned and failed again. After this event, Koniecpolski's son Aleksander repaired damages and strengthened the fortification improving security credited to resisting numerous Tatar and Turkish inroads that took place in a period of second half of 17th century.

In 1682, Stanisław Koniecpolski, grandson of the original builder and owner, decided to devise the castle with surrounding estates to Jakub Ludwik Sobieski. Five years later, Jakub Sobieski coming back from the campaign against the Ottoman Turks at Kamieniec Podolski hosted his parents, Polish King Jan III Sobieski and his French wife Marie Casimire Louise, in the castle. A description of the Podhorce complex made by one of Sobieski's courtiers, François d’Aleyrac, has been preserved: "This castle is undoubtedly the most beautiful in Poland, and in other countries, it would also be regarded unique."

In 1725 Konstanty Sobieski, younger brother of Jakub, sold the castle to the Great Crown Hetman Stanislaw Rzewuski. After hetman Rzewuski's death, the complex was inherited by his son, Wacław, who also was the owner of the nearby Olesko Castle. Wacław Rzewuski made Podhorce his permanent residence. He ordered that a third floor to be added as well as a church (1788); he opened a theater.

Wacław Rzewuski was vividly interested in all things connected to Polish King Jan III Sobieski. He purchased such items as Sobieski's sword used in the Battle of Vienna, booty taken by the king after the battle as well as a marble table on which, according to the legend, Sobieski was baptized . In 1767 Rzewuski went to Warsaw to participate in the debates of the Sejm. Arrested by the Russians and sent to Kaluga, he never returned to Podhorce. After the Partition of Poland, 1772, the castle became part of Austria remaining in the ownership of Rzewuski family (Seweryn Rzewuski and his descendants), although precious collections were partially auctioned by the Austrian-imposed administrator, and the grand interior damaged when Wacław was imprisoned by Russians. Until 1869 the complex still belonged to the Rzewuski family, here they hosted emperor Franz Josef I, and here Euzebiusz Slowacki, the father of Juliusz Slowacki was born. Last male descendant of hetman Wacław Rzewuski, count Leon Rzewuski, being childless, devised the castle to prince Wladyslaw Sanguszko. During World War I, the castle was captured by the Russians, who did not destroy it, but looted most of the precious items from it. In the summer of 1915 Pidhirsti became headquarters of the Fifth Austrian-Hungarian Corps. As it was located on the front line, threat of destruction by Russian artillery was real. Fortunately, General Aleksei Brusilov decided to spare the complex, however it was ransacked again by the Russians. Russian soldiers destroyed its interior: walls, tiles and floors. In the Polish-Soviet War the castle was damaged again, and after the conflict, it became part of the Tarnopol Voivodeship (Second Polish Republic), belonging to prince Roman Sanguszko, who was the last Polish owner of the castle.

In the Polish September Campaign of 1939, following Nazi and Soviet aggression on Poland, anticipating loss of property, Prince Sanguszko packed most of the valuables, took them to Romania, and later to Săo Paulo in Brazil, where he created a fund. After World War II, Soviet authorities opened in the complex a Tuberculosis sanitarium. In February 1956 the castle almost completely burned down, including valuable paintings; the fire lasted for three weeks, leaving behind only walls and $12 million in damages.













Crimson Room


Knights Room


Chapel


Yellow Room


Golden Room


Green Room


Mirror Room


Chinese Room


Jan III Sobieski Bedroom
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Old September 28th, 2012, 02:02 PM   #3
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Łańcut Palace/Castle

It is a 17th-century palace in Łańcut, Poland. It now houses a large museum. The castle is situated in the centre of the town and constructed in the style of a grand aristocratic palace-residence.

History
The site was originally occupied by castle built by Stanisław Lubomirski in 1629–42. The owner secured the services of architect Matteo Trapola and the stuccoist Giovanni Battista Falconi, in order to build a fortified residence.

In the second half of the 18th century, Izabela Lubomirska, née Czartoryski, converted the castle into the present palace complex. She extended it and had the interiors remodelled. Another reconstruction occurred in 1894–1903 in the style of French Neo-baroque.

During its history, it has been the home of the noble Polish Pilecki, Stadnicki, Lubomirski, and Potocki families. The palace is currently a museum particularly well known for its large collection of historic carriages. In the castle grounds there is a park with the little romantic castle, a coachhouse with a collection of carriages and a guest-house in the English style.



















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Old September 28th, 2012, 02:53 PM   #4
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To be continued (Rzeszow, Nowy Wisnicz and few more)...

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Old September 28th, 2012, 04:37 PM   #5
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WOW, the interior pictures of Podhorce blew me away, I've never seen those before. Great thread, keep em coming.
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Old September 28th, 2012, 06:04 PM   #6
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Krzyżtopór Castle (still in ruins )

It was the largest magnate’s residence in Europe (!!) before the erection of the Palace of Versailles. Krzyżtopór (also known as Krzysztopor) is a castle located in the village of Ujazd, Iwaniska commune, Opatów County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in southern Poland.

History
It was originally built by a Polish nobleman and Voivode of Sandomierz, Krzysztof Ossoliński (1587-1645). It is unknown when the construction of this impressive fortress began. Krzysztof Ossoliński’s father, Jan Zbigniew Ossoliński, gave him the village of Ujazd in 1619; however, first documented proof of the construction of the castle comes from 1627, when it was yet incomplete. The nobleman probably finished it in 1644, having spent the gigantic sum of 30 million Polish złotys on the work. Unfortunately, Ossoliński did not enjoy it for long, as he died suddenly the next year in Kraków.

The castle was inherited by Ossoliński’s son Krzysztof Baldwin Ossoliński, who died in 1649 in the Battle of Zborów. After his death, the formidable complex was purchased by the family of the Denhoffs, then by the Kalinowskis.

In 1655, during the Swedish invasion of Poland, the castle was captured by the Swedes, who occupied it until 1657, pillaging the entire complex. The damage to the structure was so extensive that after the Swedes’ withdrawal it was not rebuilt, as it was deemed too costly. Several noble families (the Morsztyns, the Wiśniowieckis and the Pacs) lived in the best preserved, western wing, but the castle otherwise remained in ruins.

In 1770, during the Bar Confederation, Krzyżtopór, defended by the Confederate units, was seized by the Russians, who completed the building's ruin. Reportedly, last known inhabitant of the complex, Stanisław Sołtyk, lived there in the years 1782-1787, after which time Krzyżtopór has been deserted.

During the Second World War the complex was again ransacked. A partial remodeling took place in 1971, and in 1980 the Polish Ministry of Internal Affairs decided to rebuild it for use as a rest area for officers. This work was halted in 1981, when martial law was imposed in Poland.













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Old September 28th, 2012, 06:22 PM   #7
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as much as I disapprove of the accumulation of massive wealth in a few hands, these complexes were such important repositories of culture and history, precursors of today's museums in many ways...and they would have almost all become that evebtually if they had survived.
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Warsaw Post-War Reconstruction to Present

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Old September 28th, 2012, 09:17 PM   #8
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Interesting thread with great pics (as always), RS_UK-PL.
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Old September 29th, 2012, 01:41 AM   #9
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Same here RS_UK-PL , many thanks.
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Old September 29th, 2012, 12:00 PM   #10
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Nowy Wiśnicz Castle

It is a castle located in a small town in Bochnia County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland.

History
The Wiśnicz Castle was built in the second half of the 14th century by Jan Kmita, who held the Polish noble coat of arms Szreniawa. The castle originally had an irregular shape, four wings and three towers. Around the fortress, they erected an earth fortification with two gates. After the death of the original owner of the castle, it passed into the hands of the Lubomirski family. Stanislaw Lubomirski made reconstructions to the castle in the Baroque style, with bastion fortifications. Then the castle with four towers crowned Wiśnicki, there was also added a mortuary chapel and the crypt of Lubomirski. During the Swedish invasion, the castle surrendered without a fight to the invaders, mainly because of the absence of the commander of the army, which was housed within the castle. The attacker did ​​considerable damage and plundered the most valuable equipment. After the withdrawal of the Swedes, the castle was returned into the hands of the Lubomirski family. However, at that time their tenure did not regain its original standard. The next family and estate managers in Wiśnicz Nowy were the Sanguszkowie, followed by Potocki, and Zamoyski. During the partition, the castle again declined, and in 1831, a great fire broke out, and the castle was completely abandoned. In 1901 the Assembly of the Lubomirski Families bought the castle from its current owner, Maurycy Straszewski, and engaged in the restoration work interrupted by the World War II.

Thanks to the efforts of the conservators restoration were continued from 1949. The castle has virtually retained its form set up in the 17th century. In the residential building the consecutive styles coexist, whereas the pentagonal outer wall is homogeneous in style. Especially magnificent and a testimony to its designer’s talent and skill, is the baroque gate in the north outer wait. Erected, as the castle itself, ”AD REIPUBLICAE ORNAMENTUM” (to be an ornament of the Republic/Poland).











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Old September 29th, 2012, 12:40 PM   #11
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del

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Old September 29th, 2012, 01:00 PM   #12
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Rzeszów Castle

It is a castle/palace located in southeastern Poland.

History
The construction of the castle was begun by the end of 16th century by the then owner of Rzeszów - Mikołaj Spytek Ligęza. In the second half of 17th Century the Lubomirski family extended the castle and surrounded it with a stone wall with bastions. Its today’s shape is the result of the last reconstruction at the turn of 19th and 20th century. There is a Court and the Public Prosecutor's Office in this building now.













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Old September 29th, 2012, 01:26 PM   #13
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Wiśniowiec Palace

It is a palace located in the Ternopil (Polish: Tarnopol) Oblast (now Ukraine).

History
The complex is located on the site of an ancient castle, which was erected in 1395. The place was well chosen - the castle was located on a steep hill, where from the south and west it would have been unassailable. A stone castle was reconstructed several times, and the final plan and its defense system formed in 1640 to the Castle served as a reliable protection nest Wiśniowiecki from Tatar raids. In April 1542 the Tatar raid 25000th hordes led by Khan Megli-Girei ended in failure - the Tatars were defeated at the village Łopuszno near the Wiśniowiec. It is known that in the defeat of the Tatars participated and Prince Dymitr Wiśniowiecki, celebrated in songs like Bajda.

In 1640 the old castle building did not meet the requirements of time and Prince Jeremi Wiśniowiecki began construction of a large well-fortified castle. Wiśniowiec castle was enlarged and rebuilt by the new rules of fortification. Now it was square in terms of an earthen castle with four bastions in the corners, three sides protected by moats. That is how the final layout and the defense system of the stone castle. Since the middle of 17th century to the beginning of the 18th century castle has repeatedly passed into the hands of the Cossacks, Tatars, Turks and Swedes. In 1705, after a major destruction process of fortification was renewed. The last of the dynasty, Wiśniowiecki, the king of Poland - Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki - rebuilt the ruined ancestral castle of the palace.











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Old July 21st, 2014, 12:38 AM   #14
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Zamek w Nieświeżu

Nieśwież - Białoruś. Do roku 1533 właścicielami Nieświeża i istniejącego tu drewnianego zamku byli Kiszkowie, a następnie od Anny z Kiszków miejscowość przeszła na własność jej synów Mikołaja Radziwiłła "Czarnego" i jego brata Jana. W 1551 r. tutaj zostały sprowadzone radziwiłłowskie archiwa, a w 1586 r. cały majątek został zamieniony w ordynację. W 1582 marszałek wielki litewski Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł (Sierotka) na ruinach dawnych fortyfikacji rozpoczął budowę monumentalnego renesansowo-barokowego zamku na planie kwadratu, projektu Jana Marii Bernardoniego. Budowla została ukończona w 1604, z wyjątkiem galerii, które dobudowano pół wieku później. Na jej 4 narożnikach zbudowano ośmiokątne wieże. Zespół pałacowy był przebudowywany i odbudowywany wiele razy na przestrzeni wieków - w stylu baroku, klasycyzmu, neogotyku. Po raz pierwszy pałac został obrabowany przez Rosjan w 1657 roku. W 1706 podczas III wojny północnej, armia króla szwedzkiego Karola XII zajęła posiadłość i zniszczyła fortyfikacje. Kilka lat później Radziwiłłowie sprowadzili niemieckich i włoskich architektów, którzy odnowili i powiększyli zamek. Ciekawą postacią zamieszkująca dobra nieświeskie był Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (Panie Kochanku), przeciwnik Stanisława Augusta Poniatowskiego, znany z przepychu i rozpustnego życia. Antoni Zaleski udekorował żółte fasady budynku barokowymi stiukami. Odbudowano XVI-wieczne bramy zamkowe, a dwupoziomową wieżę strażnicy zwieńczono hełmem. W ten sposób trzy oddzielne budowle otaczające centralny dziedziniec zostały połączone w jedną całość ( źródło Wikipedia )


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