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Old October 4th, 2013, 02:04 PM   #501
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Roman Catholic Church in Iwieniec (built in 1702-1705, 16km from the Polish-Soviet border), now Belarus

* The first Roman Catholic Church was founded in 1524.

Iwieniec gmina employees


President of Poland Ignacy Mościcki visits Iwieniec


The town was inhabited by Roman Catholics (2x churches) and Jews (1x synagogue).

Roman Catholic Church in Iwie (built in 1491-1495), now Belarus


Oil refinery in Horodyszcze, now Belarus


ORP "Horodyszcze" and ORP "Warszawa" on Prypeć river (both ships were built by Gdańsk Shipyard)


Railway line Woropajewo-Druja under construction


The opening ceremony in Woropajewo (1932), now Lithuania


New narrow gauge rail route Kobylniki-Narocz (1937), now Belarus


The opening ceremony of a new railway line in Druskieniki (1934), now Lithuania




The Rejtan family Mortuary Chapel in Hruszówka, now Belarus


Tadeusz Rejtan memorial
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Old October 4th, 2013, 05:18 PM   #502
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The ceremony of re-opening the Ogiński Canal (built by Michał Kazimierz Ogiński in 1765-1783, destroyed in WW1, rebuilt in the 1920s), now Belarus


Witold Staniewicz (Minister of Agriculture) and Jędrzej Moraczewski (Minister of Public Labour)








Dredging vessel "Nur"


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Old October 6th, 2013, 04:14 AM   #503
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Polish-Soviet border in Kołosowo, now Belarus








Some road signs in Mir near the border, now Belarus


Baranowicze (~60km from the Polish-Soviet border), now Belarus


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Old October 7th, 2013, 08:08 PM   #504
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The Polish Orthodox Church (Polish: Polski Autokefaliczny Kościół Prawosławny) was established in 1924 to accommodate Orthodox Christians in Poland, who were majority in some parts of easternmost Poland.


Members of Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople in Warsaw


Procession


Ławra Poczajowska (the most visible Orthodox centre in the Second Polish Republic)





* Mikołaj Potocki (Starost of Kaniów, benefactor of the Ławra Poczajowska) was buried here.









Molytwa by Platon Kostecki (written in Ruthenian language in the 19th century):
"Wo imia Otca i Syna
To nasza molytwa:
Jako Trojca, tak jedyna
Polszcza, Rus' i Lytwa.
Switiat' krowiu pobratani
Try rody welyki
Jak trojs'wicznyk na Jordani
U rukach wladyki.
Jedna w Boha Korolewa
Molyt' za namy
Z Czestochowy, Poczajewa
I z nad Ostrej Bramy.
Jednow my z'yjem nadijew,
Wspilnaja nam slawa,
Wsim zariwno mylyj Kijew,
Wilno i Warszawa.
Hej, krakows'ki dzwoniat' dzwony,
Switom holos czuty,
Z hrobow klyczut' Jahajlony,
Piasty, Korybuty:
Wo imia Otca i Syna
To nasza molytwa:
Jako Trojca, tak jedyna
Polszcza, Rus' i Lytwa."


Members of Synod of the Orthodox Church in the Royal Castle with President of Poland Ignacy Mościcki (Warsaw, 1930)
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Old October 7th, 2013, 09:11 PM   #505
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The Anniversary of November Uprising in Włodzimierz Wołyński, now Ukraine






The Sea Festival


Dożynki




Manifestation of support for Poles in Germany (1929)


Roman Catholic church in Włodzimierz Wołyński


The city was inhabited by Orthodox Christians (3x churches) and Roman Catholics (2x churches + 1 demolished during Partitions of Poland).

One of the oldest Roman Catholic churches in easternmost Poland (founded by King of Poland Władysław Jagiełło), now Ukraine

* The Gothic church in Luboml was built in 1412 in a place of wooden Roman Catholic temple. In the 17th century Baroque elements have been added.
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Old October 8th, 2013, 03:28 AM   #506
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Prosp View Post
Only partially. In 1920 there was domination of so-called national style (tautinis stilius), but for a quite short period of time. It wasn't based entirely on barocco or Renaissance. This thing was more common in Vilnius (see Antakalnio school), only there were just a few buildings built and at the moment not very acknowledged as a good example of architecture of that time (they're in the shadow of Kaunas, especially when the "rumours" say that Kaunas can get Unesco status). Thats kinda sad, 'cause Vilnius obviously lacks of good interwar architecture.
More or less, during interwar Lithuania, there were more details taken from the folk culture (for instance, stylised svastikas-suns etc. this "trend" actually came from Kalevala / Finland) rather then barocco/Renaissance. Well, there were some projects (for instance arch.Dubeneckis) where you can find particularly a la barocco, but those projects weren't executed or realised in some parts. Actually, functionalism was the main style. Later (1930) some details/elements of "national Lithuanian style" reflected on interior, facade details.
Lithuanian 1930 architecture was based on Germany, Usa, Italian and paricularly on Nordic style (see Baltoscandinava idea). Mainly influence came from these countries (for instance, some projects were made together with famous Finnish architects), because majority of architects had attended universities outside Lithuania and those countries with all their "architecture fashion/trends" became essential in attempts to create "something own".
Talking about church architecture. Well, there were a few projects. Wooden church architecture in Lithuania remained more popular. But you know, we have never been good christians with strong interest in religious matters so the number of new built church is...not so big compared to other type of public building Therefore during interwar period were only about five church projects. In Kaunas - only Christ Resurrection Church, but it was designed absolutely in functionalism (some projects resembles eclectism(?)) style. All churches architectural projects and design were based on functionalism.
I see there are plenty of similarities with our architecture and also some differences (it seems we had less Scandinavian influences, whereas more Dutch de Stijl). It's really fascinating to compare the artistic trends common in interwar Poland and interwar Lithuania
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Old October 8th, 2013, 12:53 PM   #507
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One of the Roman Catholic centres in easternmost Poland, Krzemieniec (now Ukraine)








National Independence Day




Dożynki




Ceremonies in honour of Juliusz Słowacki in Krzemieniec


President of Poland Ignacy Mościcki visits ruins of the Krzemieniec Castle


The city was inhabited by Roman Catholics (2x churches), Orthodox Christians (1x church + 1x monastery which were taken over from Roman Catholics during Partitions of Poland), Eastern Catholics (1x church) and Jews (1x synagogue).
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Old October 9th, 2013, 11:38 AM   #508
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Ołyka (~80km from the Polish-Soviet border), now Ukraine

The Radziwiłł family palace (built by Prince Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł in 1540–1564, Renaissance elements added by Albrecht Stanisław Radziwiłł in 1640, Baroque changes by Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł in 1740-1760)


The Collegiate church (built in 1635-1640)



* The founder of the church, Albrecht Stanisław Radziwiłł (1595-1656) was buried here.

President of Poland with Prince Janusz Franciszek Radziwiłł (Polish nobleman and Sejm deputy, the rightful owner of Ołyka, lineal descendant of Prince Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł) after visit in the church


The Roman Catholic Cathedral in Łuck (founded by King of Poland Zygmunt III Waza, Marcin Szyszkowski and Paweł Wołucki, built in 1616-1639), now Ukraine

* The first Roman Catholic church and monastery in Łuck have been founded by King of Poland Władysław Jagiełło in 1390.
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Old October 9th, 2013, 09:56 PM   #509
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One can get impression, that the only valuable substance in the Kresy Wschodnie were churches and magnate's palaces
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Old October 9th, 2013, 11:12 PM   #510
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Any pictures would be highly appreciated. Feel free to post all you've got
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Old October 9th, 2013, 11:16 PM   #511
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Jaremcze, now Ukraine






President of Poland takes part in a hunt in Dawidgródek woods (now Belarus)

* On the photo above: President Ignacy Mościcki, Prince Hieronim Radziwiłł, Princess Izabela Róża Radziwiłł, Jan Głogowski, Benedykt Jan Tyszkiewicz, Zygmunt Gużewski, Jerzy Wołkowicki, Adrian Carton de Wiart, Adam Remigiusz Grocholski, Benedykt Władysław Tyszkiewicz, Paweł Potocki, Prince Karol Mikołaj Radziwiłł and Michał Mościcki.





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Old October 10th, 2013, 11:26 PM   #512
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Very rare examples of Gothic architecture in eastern Poland...

Roman Catholic Church in Drohobycz (founded by King of Poland Władysław Jagiełło in 1392), now Ukraine






Renaissance tomb monument of Katarzyna Ramułtowa from 1574

Inscriptions: "ONA THO KATHARZINA DOMV / BĘDĄC PRZEDTI MACZIEIA ZON / SKTORE WSTANIE MALESKI GDI WSZ / PRĘDKO YA SMIERC WSTAW... / POTIM ZAFRIMARCZILA TI ZALOBNEM / RAMVLTHE CZERZI LATHA THA / BĘDĄC ZE WSECH CZNOTH SWIETIH IEMV / IPRZEZ WS EKI WIEK WIECIEC IVSZ / PORWAL.. CZASZ DO ONICH TRA ROZW / GDZIE ZE WSITKICH KLOPOTOW... / ... IEY SPOKOIE ... W TE"



Frescos from 1790-1793




Roman Catholic Church in Nowe Miasto (founded in 1463), now Ukraine


Gravestone from 1513 with Janina coat of arms






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Old October 11th, 2013, 02:49 AM   #513
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Mruczek View Post
I see there are plenty of similarities with our architecture and also some differences (it seems we had less Scandinavian influences, whereas more Dutch de Stijl). It's really fascinating to compare the artistic trends common in interwar Poland and interwar Lithuania
I assume that interwar architectural trends were more or less similar in all countries, only had a bit different "elements". Let's take for example functionalism. There was not much place left for creativity - functionalism is quite "limited" style if we look very straight-forward.
National revival style in interwar Lithuania was developed by two, maybe three architects (Mykolas Songaila - he designed many buildings in S.Peterbourgh), Vladimiras Dubeneckis (was influenced by GDL/Vilnius style, baroque and classicism (one good example - you can find some ideas/proposals). They were prominent figures back then. Those national revival "elements" were very noticeable on interior or exterior facade (mythological subjects, folk elements etc., in Dubeneckis case You can find his attempts to "resemble" Gedeminas Tower layout or smth like that), but there were no common notion - all architect had their own minds: one emphasised on folk elements, other - on baroque...
Nordic fashion was understandable. Many buildings were created together or based on the works of Finnish architecture traditions (i.e. Y. Waskinen; P. Blomstedt et cetera), therefore they left very strong mark. Even though that many architects were young in their age back then and to work alongside with experienced and prominent wolfs...
This "fashion" deliberately, intentionally or not, continued later - particularly in postwar modernism (we say "soviet-style" only when we're talking about chronology; architecture from 1960-1990 extremely differs from ones from other USSR or commie countries (examples)).
In Vilnius, there was one very interesting project (I am speaking from my subjective point) designed by - afaik - famous Polish architect - Jerzy Sołtan. And yet Dutch de Stijl influence is really noticeable (particularly in some other smaller objects). Did not though about that earlier...
There were also some very interesting projects in Gediminas avenue, but they were not realised. Sometimes people interested in architecture wonder why in interwar one church, designed by Vrublesvki, was not finnished taking into account polish religious...Sad, because there was organized several competition to end up his project, but after WWII the remnants of church was eventually "demolished" (actually architect Mačiulis saved first "floor"/foundaition of the church.. just in case... ). Some years ago Vilnius city municipality considered to restore this church, but it seem there are no needs atm.
here is one website - autc.lt. You can find out some projects from interwar.

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Old October 11th, 2013, 03:15 AM   #514
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I assume that interwar architectural trends were more or less similar in all countries, only had a bit different "elements". Let's take for example functionalism. There was not much place left for creativity - functionalism is quite "limited" style if we look very straight-forward.
Of course, but it could've been done the other way: brick expressionism, for example, such as in Amsterdam or Hamburg, is virtually non-existent in Warsaw or Kaunas.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Prosp View Post
National revival style in interwar Lithuania was developed by two, maybe three architects (Mykolas Songaila - he designed many buildings in S.Peterbourgh), Vladimiras Dubeneckis (was influenced by GDL/Vilnius style, baroque and classicism (one good example - you can find some ideas/proposals). They were prominent figures back then. Those national revival "elements" were very noticeable on interior or exterior facade (mythological subjects, folk elements etc., in Dubeneckis case You can find his attempts to "resemble" Gedeminas Tower layout or smth like that), but there were no common notion - all architect had their own minds: one emphasised on folk elements, other - on baroque...
Nordic fashion was understandable. Many buildings were created together or based on the works of Finnish architecture traditions (i.e. Y. Waskinen; P. Blomstedt et cetera), therefore they left very strong mark. Even though that many architects were young in their age back then and to work alongside with experienced and prominent wolfs...
I am wondering, is Great Crisis influence also visible in cities architecture in Lithuania: i.e. national revival in 1920s, minimalist functionalism in 1930s. In Poland it is certainly visible. I am also wondering if change of architectural fashion in Lithuania was precipitated by changing generation of architects: in Poland "young" (i.e. born 1890-1905) were followers of new trends and "old" (i.e. born 1860-90) had 3 options: change their style (sometimes drastically, like Rudolf Świerczyński, b. 1883, about 1928 twisted from national revival to so called "half-modernism" (http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plik:Wa...omunikacji.jpg), remain the last Mohicans (such as Marian Lalewicz, who remained faithful to Petersburger academic classicism) or die
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Old October 11th, 2013, 12:49 PM   #515
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In some photos, when you're talking about history of churches, palaces in current Belarus, you forgot to mention that these parts were part of Grand Duchy of Lithuania and churches, palaces were built by Lithuanian nobles from XIV c. - XVIII c. For example Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł (Mykolas Kristupas Našlaitėlis) was Court Marshal of Lithuania from 1569, Grand Marshal of Lithuania from 1579, castellan of Trakai from 1586, voivode of Trakai Voivodeship from 1590, voivode of Vilnius Voivodeship from 1604 and Starost of Šiauliai.
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Old October 11th, 2013, 01:52 PM   #516
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Mruczek View Post
Of course, but it could've been done the other way: brick expressionism, for example, such as in Amsterdam or Hamburg, is virtually non-existent in Warsaw or Kaunas.



I am wondering, is Great Crisis influence also visible in cities architecture in Lithuania: i.e. national revival in 1920s, minimalist functionalism in 1930s. In Poland it is certainly visible. I am also wondering if change of architectural fashion in Lithuania was precipitated by changing generation of architects: in Poland "young" (i.e. born 1890-1905) were followers of new trends and "old" (i.e. born 1860-90) had 3 options: change their style (sometimes drastically, like Rudolf Świerczyński, b. 1883, about 1928 twisted from national revival to so called "half-modernism" (http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plik:Wa...omunikacji.jpg), remain the last Mohicans (such as Marian Lalewicz, who remained faithful to Petersburger academic classicism) or die
The Great Depression had less influence mainly we're not very industrialized country. During Great Crisis we were more interested to attract lithuanian architects who were working outside of Lithuania therefore from ±1918-1923 architecture could be described as a sort of experiments.
Afaik, there were no conflicts between generations. Main reason was very simple - some old wolfs died in '1935, others - academics - twisted their style into functionalism (because there was a common strategy how to develop Kaunas, in what architecture manner), so they focused on functionalism, except in some cases M.Songaila (btw, he was actually very faithfull to Petersburger academic classicism and it reflects from LT bankas branches projects)) sometimes proposed very pompous projects (i.e School of Commerce). I would rather say it was like a cooperation - young architects worked together with an old ones on some projects (as a group). That was because we lacked of architects, many of them finished their studies in Germany, USA, Italy only in 1935 and yet it was more easier to invite Finnish, Estonian architects to participate in competitions...


Probably You will more interested in Vilnius interwar. Here is some projects from interwar Vilnius, created by Polish architects (dunno were they posted here):

Church projects by Vivuslki. Wasn't finished during interbellum; later demolished. (project dates before WW1)


Some architects proposed also very interesting projects how to end up this church:


2.
Architects: Stanisław Murczyński, Jerzy Sołtan.
Ligonių kasų pastatas (bezpieczalnia Społeczna w Wilnie)
From "Architektura i Budownictwo" 1938 Nr.11-12 p.398-400







Now it is a Fluxus Ministery, which serves for Jurgis Mačiūnas/George Mačiūnas avantgarde ideas.
Photo by Romas (@************)


3. Former PKO Bank HQ in Vilnius (now - SEB Bank)
Architects Zbigniew Puget, Juliusz Żorawski
From "Architektura i Budownictwo" 1938 Nr. 11-12, psl. 396-398


4. Former BGK bank building
Architects: Stanisław Gałęzowski, Jerzy Pankowski. Ant pastato skulptūra (skulpt. Tadeusz Godziszewski), viduje freskos (prof. Ludomir Sleńdziński)
From "Architektura i Budownictwo" 1938 Nr. 11-12, psl. 395-397;




Not realized project -
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Old October 11th, 2013, 02:19 PM   #517
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were built by Lithuanian nobles
Why not Polish-Lithuanian nobles? Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł was a son of Polish noble lady (Anna Kiszka), married Elżbieta Szydłowiecka and contributed to the ongoing Polonisation of the Grand Duchy, influencing other Lithuanian nobles to follow him in adopting Polish culture – its fashion, customs and language. He founded the first printing office which was publishing exclusively in the Polish language.
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Old October 11th, 2013, 02:46 PM   #518
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Why not Polish-Lithuanian nobles? Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł was a son of Polish noble lady (Anna Kiszka), married Elżbieta Szydłowiecka and contributed to the ongoing Polonisation of the Grand Duchy, influencing other Lithuanian nobles to follow him in adopting Polish culture – its fashion, customs and language.
Actually he doesn't have very good reputation atm, nor he had in XVI-XVII cent. He became a Catholic and quite fanatical one while all his family members or majority of them remained Protestants. Jesuits in Lithuania were always considered negatively, particularly between local peasants (their actions against old pagan customs in XVII century were...too radical). Event though all members of GDL Senate (noble families), except one, in XVI were Protestants...
His attempts to influence nobles to follow "more western" customs are not very bad (i.e. that time in present day LT territory, many nobles still were like "barbarians" speaking in terms of beards, haircut, jewelry etc.), but his pro-fanatisim was the main reason why he did not manage to attract many nobles, except some rus-origin...
Fashion and customs were similar back then. There was always sort of competition between nobles from Crown and from GDL on these matters.
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Old October 11th, 2013, 03:33 PM   #519
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in XVI were Protestants...
The list of Calvinist nobles (among them famous Jan Łaski and Mikołaj Rej). Reformation reached Poland in the 1520s.

One of the largest and most important Protestant churches in Poland, Cieszyn...


Congress of Protestant/Evangelical Youth in Katowice (1937)
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Old October 11th, 2013, 06:37 PM   #520
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del
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