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Old October 11th, 2013, 09:15 PM   #521
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In some photos, when you're talking about history of churches, palaces in current Belarus, you forgot to mention that these parts were part of Grand Duchy of Lithuania and churches, palaces were built by Lithuanian nobles from XIV c. - XVIII c. For example Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł (Mykolas Kristupas Našlaitėlis) was Court Marshal of Lithuania from 1569, Grand Marshal of Lithuania from 1579, castellan of Trakai from 1586, voivode of Trakai Voivodeship from 1590, voivode of Vilnius Voivodeship from 1604 and Starost of Šiauliai.


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Manifestations in Wilno and Kraków (1938)



(...)
So many true Lithuanians (the likes of Piłsudski & Żeligowski) in pre-War Wilno...
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Old October 11th, 2013, 10:36 PM   #522
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So many true Lithuanians (the likes of Piłsudski & Żeligowski) in pre-War Wilno...
So? Are you are so stupid, or you really dislike word "Lithuanian" and what this meeting has simmilar with Vilnius baroque or Grand Duchy of Lithuania?

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Originally Posted by katsuma View Post

PS. I don't like cheeky Lithuanians.
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Old October 11th, 2013, 10:41 PM   #523
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Why not Polish-Lithuanian nobles? Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł was a son of Polish noble lady (Anna Kiszka), married Elżbieta Szydłowiecka and contributed to the ongoing Polonisation of the Grand Duchy, influencing other Lithuanian nobles to follow him in adopting Polish culture – its fashion, customs and language. He founded the first printing office which was publishing exclusively in the Polish language.
I Agree that he could be Polish-Lithuanian, but not only Polish.
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Old October 12th, 2013, 10:13 AM   #524
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So many true Lithuanians (the likes of Piłsudski & Żeligowski) in pre-War Wilno...
Let's not forget, there are still many descendants of Polish-Lithuanians living in the Wilno region...

They need Polish support...
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Old October 12th, 2013, 12:39 PM   #525
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The Armenian Cathedral of the Assumption of Mary in Lwów (founded in 1363), now Ukraine


The figure of Saint Christopher (erected in 1726) and epitaph of Łazarz Tobiasz Augustynowicz from the 17th century










The 650th Anniversary of Armenian Cathedral


Some notable Poles of Armenian descent:
- Kajetan Abgarowicz (1856-1909) — writer
- Fr. Karol Antoniewicz (1807-1852) — Catholic priest, Jesuit and poet
- Teodor Axentowicz (1853-1938) — painter
- Anna Dymna (1951- ) — actress
- Zbigniew Herbert (1924-1998) — poet and essayist
- Fr. Tadeusz Isakowicz-Zaleski (1956- ) — Catholic priest, shepherd of the Armenian Rite faithful in southern Poland, historian, charity worker and independence activist during communist rule
- Jerzy Kawalerowicz (1922-2007) — film director
- Robert Maklowicz (1963- ) — journalist
- Krzysztof Penderecki (1933- ) — composer
- Fr. Grzegorz Piramowicz (1753-1801) — Catholic priest, educator and philosopher
- Juliusz Słowacki (1809-1849) — poet, one of the "Three Bards" of Polish literature — a major figure in the Polish Romantic period, and the father of modern Polish drama
- Szymon Szymonowic (1558-1629) — poet
- Abp. Józef Teodorowicz (1864-1938) — Armenian Catholic Archbishop of Lwów, renowned for his religious and social work.

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Old October 12th, 2013, 03:50 PM   #526
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So? Are you are so stupid, or you really dislike word "Lithuanian" and what this meeting has simmilar with Vilnius baroque or Grand Duchy of Lithuania?
Are you losing temper and start calling me names?

I have said it dozens of times and will be saying a hundred more, if necessary: the interwar & present-day (Baltic) Lithuanian states have blatantly attempted to appropriate the only legacy of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, but you will not succeed in doing so, as Poland and Belarus are claiming its heritage too.

And let me remind you that this thread is about Poland in the Interbellum, whose territory also included the city of Wilno, which after WW1 had only 2% of Balto-Lithuanian inhabitants. So I'd suggest you to refrain from pointless remarks and enjoy the great pics being posted here.

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Let's not forget, there are still many descendants of Polish-Lithuanians living in the Wilno region...

https://fbcdn-sphotos-a-a.akamaihd.n...14784216_o.jpg

They need Polish support...
They do indeed.
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Old October 12th, 2013, 07:06 PM   #527
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(...)
Some architects proposed also very interesting projects how to end up this church:
Do you know perhaps whose project was it? The higher spire me no gusta, but the smaller spire above transept rocks
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Old October 13th, 2013, 10:09 AM   #528
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Grodno, now Belarus




One of the oldest preserved Roman Catholic churches in Grodno (founded by Polish nobleman Krzysztof Wiesiołowski and his wife, Polish noble lady Aleksandra Sobieska in 1634)


The city was inhabited by Roman Catholics (6x churches + 5x demolished during Partitions of Poland), Jews (2x synagogues) and Protestants (1x church).
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Old October 13th, 2013, 11:42 AM   #529
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Some examples of Gothic Orthodox architecture...

Małomożejków, now Belarus (built at the beginning of 16th century)


Synkowicze, now Belarus (founded by Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski in first half of the 16th century)


Roman Catholic Church in Czernawczyce (founded by Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł in 1583), now Belarus
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Old October 13th, 2013, 03:55 PM   #530
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Let's not forget, there are still many descendants of Polish-Lithuanians living in the Wilno region...

They need Polish support...
Yes need...Most of them voted for Soviet Union during referendum for Independent Lithuania in 1991. Huge part of them who call themselves as "Pole" use Russian language.
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Old October 13th, 2013, 05:00 PM   #531
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Old October 14th, 2013, 03:31 PM   #532
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President of US Herbert Hoover visits Poznań




Monument in honour of Romuald Traugutt in Prużana (1930), now Belarus


The 400th Anniversary of Stefan Batory's birth (Grodno, 1933), now Belarus


President of Poland unveils memorial plaque at the Grodno Castle


Relics of Joachim Lelewel were brought to the city of Wilno (1929)


The ceremony in Wilno Cathedral
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Old October 16th, 2013, 11:49 PM   #533
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The Kosów spa (now Ukraine) was founded in 1891 by doctor Apolinary Tarnawski.


Here, in 1911, one of the first units of the Polish Scouting and Guiding Association was created by Kazimierz and Witold Lutosławski, and Olga Drochnowska. Kosów attracted top names of the interbellum Poland. The spa was visited, among others, by Roman Dmowski, Ignacy Daszyński, Wojciech Korfanty, Gabriela Zapolska, Juliusz Osterwa, Maria Dąbrowska, Melchior Wańkowicz, Xawery Dunikowski, Karol Adwentowicz, Leon Schiller, Stanisław Dygat, Józef Pankiewicz, Lucjan Rydel.









Folkways of Poland: Costumes, Crafts, Dances
http://collections.ushmm.org/search/catalog/fv1503

PS. Kosów was located 10km from the Polish-Romanian border.
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Old October 17th, 2013, 12:35 PM   #534
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Biały Słoń (White Elephant) - Astronomical and Meteorogical Observatory built in the years 1936-1938. It was located 2028 metres above the sea level (the highest-elevated, permanently inhabited, building in Poland).







School in Dora (now Ukraine)


Żabie (now Ukraine)


Legionnaires from Żabie in Warsaw


New school in Żabie


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Old October 17th, 2013, 01:51 PM   #535
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Polish State Basalt Quarry in the easternmost regions of interbellum Poland
http://www.britishpathe.com/video/th...y/query/Quarry

Workers' houses


Director Leonard Szulkowski


Plywood factory in Orzew (~65 km from the Polish-Soviet border), now Ukraine




Sawmill in Orzew


Oil refinery in Bitków, now Ukraine




Potassium factory in Kałusz, now Ukraine




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Old October 18th, 2013, 01:15 PM   #536
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Polish minority in Kaunas (Polish: Kowno), capital city of Republic of Lithuania


Polish Newspaper "Dzień Kowieński"


After the coup d'état in 1926, when to power came nationalists led by Antanas Smetona (who formed authoritarian and nationalistic government, by some described also as fascist) it was decided to forbade Lithuanians attend Polish schools. Children from mixed families should also attend Lithuanian schools. Many Poles in Lithuania in passports were signed as Lithuanians (they had to change their non-Lithuanian names), therefore they also were forced to attend Lithuanian schools, since then the number of schools gradually decreased to 9 in 1940. In 1936 a new law was passed that allowed a student to attend Polish school only if both parents were Poles. Antanas Smetona strove to adapt the concepts of Italian fascism to Lithuanian conditions. Dictatorial regime used terror to suppress the left-wing trade unions, and other workers’ organizations. He advocated the idea of national unity, class cooperation, and the "people’s leader", which was to be based on a national elite. During the late years of his dictatorship, he attempted to turn Lithuania into a protectorate of Nazi Germany. In 1940, under conditions of a growing popular movement, Antanas Smetona fled to Germany.

Polish Adam Mickiewicz gymnasium in Kaunas after the attack led by nationalists (1930)


Polish students


According to official census of 1923, there were 65,600 Poles living in the Kaunas region (unofficially the number was much higher).

Reaction to Lithuanian nationalism were protests in Polish cities...

Katowice


Wilno


Kraków
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Old October 19th, 2013, 10:24 AM   #537
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Sarny (near the Polish-Soviet border), now Ukraine...

Summer camp


New houses in Polish manor style


Modern Roman Catholic Church


New school
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Old October 19th, 2013, 02:08 PM   #538
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Polish minority in Kaunas (Polish: Kowno), capital city of Republic of Lithuania
http://img.audiovis.nac.gov.pl/PIC/PIC_1-Z-798-1.jpg

Polish Newspaper "Dzień Kowieński"
http://img.audiovis.nac.gov.pl/PIC/PIC_1-Z-802.jpg

After the coup d'état in 1926, when to power came nationalists led by Antanas Smetona (who formed authoritarian and nationalistic government, by some described also as fascist) it was decided to forbade Lithuanians attend Polish schools. Children from mixed families should also attend Lithuanian schools. Many Poles in Lithuania in passports were signed as Lithuanians (they had to change their non-Lithuanian names), therefore they also were forced to attend Lithuanian schools, since then the number of schools gradually decreased to 9 in 1940. In 1936 a new law was passed that allowed a student to attend Polish school only if both parents were Poles. Antanas Smetona strove to adapt the concepts of Italian fascism to Lithuanian conditions. Dictatorial regime used terror to suppress the left-wing trade unions, and other workers’ organizations. He advocated the idea of national unity, class cooperation, and the "people’s leader", which was to be based on a national elite. During the late years of his dictatorship, he attempted to turn Lithuania into a protectorate of Nazi Germany. In 1940, under conditions of a growing popular movement, Antanas Smetona fled to Germany.

Polish Adam Mickiewicz gymnasium in Kaunas after the attack led by nationalists (1930)
http://img.audiovis.nac.gov.pl/PIC/PIC_1-Z-799-2.jpg

Polish students
http://img.audiovis.nac.gov.pl/PIC/PIC_1-Z-799-1.jpg

According to official census of 1923, there were 65,600 Poles living in the Kaunas region (unofficially the number was much higher).

Reaction to Lithuanian nationalism were protests in Polish cities...

Katowice
http://img.audiovis.nac.gov.pl/PIC/PIC_1-P-2797-1.jpg

Wilno
http://img.audiovis.nac.gov.pl/PIC/PIC_1-P-2801.jpg

Kraków
http://img.audiovis.nac.gov.pl/PIC/PIC_1-P-2798-10.jpg
For example my grand-futher had Polish surname and changed it into Lithuanian version and it was popular at this time not because as you say it was optional.
Polish schools were closed in response to the repression of the Polish regime in Vilnius area against local Lithuanians. than..These photos as you called "Reaction to Lithuanian nationalism"DD
pictures were probably made in 1938 when Poland presented the an ultimatum to Lithuania threatening military action in not occupied territory of Lithuania when Polish soldier was shot by Lithuanian frontier-guard when he entered the territory of Lithuania in Trasninkai:

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Incident at Trasninkai, Lithuania


In the early morning hours of Friday March 11 on the demarcation line in the village of Trasninkai near Merkinė, Lithuanian border police officer Justas Lukoševičius was on a routine patrol when he heard two, then three shots. He informed his superior officer, Vaitkus, who in turn instructed Lukoševičius to investigate the matter. Upon returning to the scene, he spotted a Polish soldier running in the bushes, apparently in the direction of Polish territory. Lukoševičius called for him to halt. Instead, the Pole fired one round in his direction from the bushes. Lukoševičius returned the fire with four rounds. Six rounds were subsequently fired at Lithuanian police officers who had gathered at the scene.
A search uncovered Stanislaw Serafin, a recent recruit to the Korpus Ochrony Pogranicza (KOP - Border Defense Corps), who was lying in the bushes mortally wounded. He was brought to Trasninkai where he died later that morning.
http://wwii-realtime.blogspot.com/20...lithuania.html

Lithuania accepted the ultimatum in order to avoid war. In this ultimatum Poland requested that Lithuania would recognize Vilnius as part of Poland. If Lithuania at that time would not have been accepted ultimatum Poland would become country who started second WW.
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Old October 20th, 2013, 01:04 PM   #539
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Gothic Roman Catholic Church in Felsztyn (built in the 15th century, rebuilt after WW1 by W.Zarzycki and A.Sidor) and Gothic tower (from the 14th century with Renaissance attic), now Ukraine

Shortly after WW1


In the 1930s


Gothic tomb of Mrs Herburt (from 1495) and Polish Renaissance sepulchral art sleeping pose, Krzysztof Herburt (1558)


Bishop Walenty Herburt (1572)


Tomb of the Herburt family (1580)


* The town was founded by the Herburt family (originally from Moravia), which settled in Kingdom of Poland and quickly assimilated into Polish society. They were authors of several books published in the 16th century (written in Latin and Polish).
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Old October 21st, 2013, 12:18 AM   #540
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Polish State Basalt Quarry in the easternmost regions of interbellum Poland
And here you've got the building, which was covered with black Wołyń's basalt (level 0 and +1, the rest is cladded with clinker): Ministry of Transportation, arch. Rudolf Świerczyński, Warsaw, 1927-31.

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