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Old December 10th, 2013, 02:07 PM   #641
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Quote:
Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post
First democratic parliamentary elections were held in Poland on 5 November 1922, with Senate elections held a week later on 12 November.
The second one.

The first were on Jan 26, 1919.
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Old December 10th, 2013, 06:02 PM   #642
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Two more maps from 1922 elections:

Union of Town and Village Prolletariat (Communists)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...tion,_1922.PNG

Christian Union of National Unity (Right), accurate results in constituencies
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-yGEVMsO-v4...kali+kraju.bmp
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Buk Miłosław Szamotuły
Barcelona Budapeszt Grodno Kowno Madryt Moskwa Ukraina
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Old December 12th, 2013, 12:28 AM   #643
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Whenever there is a break in nationalistic bickering, this thread is actually interesting and educational.
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Old December 12th, 2013, 01:03 PM   #644
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Let's take a closer look at Polesie voivodeship (yellow colour on the map below)...


The official 1931 census
Tutejszy ("Locals") 707,088 (62.4%)
Poles 164,106 (14.5%)
Jews 112,966 (10%)
Belarusians 75,338 (6.7%)
Ukrainians 54,047 (4.8%)
Other 18,394 (1,6%)

Tutejszy (Belarusian: Тутэйшыя, Tutejsi, literally meaning "locals", "from here") was a self-identification of rural population in mixed-lingual areas. Tutejszy dialects are described as a mix of languages, Belarusian, Polish and Ukrainian.

Examples of Tutejszy language in regions influenced by Polish language (Latin alphabet):
"Oj, najechała hołota
z poleskoho bołota.
Jak sieli – woła zjeli,
na stole ni kryszeczki
pod stołem ni kryszeczki."

"Winuszuju tebe
Panie nowym żytom
Ciepłym letom...
Daj Boże kob nowoho dożdali
Żywy, zdorowy, Boży dar spożywali."

"Moj muż w Amerycy,
pracuje w fabrycy.
Oj, szczo won pracuje?
Żelazo walcuje."

"W Ameryce żywu,
dwie żonki maju:
odnu w Amerycy,
druhu w rodnom kraju."

"Tebe Boha wysławlajem
Tobie Wiecznu cześć oddajem
Tebe w sełom świecie głosim
I o łaski ludziam prosim.

Boże Tebe my nehodny
Boroni nas po wsie leta
Naszy semji, naszy dieti
Ochraniaj do końca świeta.

Naszy pieśni po wiek wieków
Sławić budut Tebe Panie
A modlitwa nasza wierna
Nechaj nigdy ne ustane.

O mój Boże wierym Tobie
I wsio wiedem my pro Tebe
Wsiu nadzieju w Tobie majem
Za wsio Tebe wychwalajem.

Tobie Boże kłaniajemsa
Na Twoju wolu zdajemsa
Ty stworyw Ty odkupiw
Ty wsio życie nam oświeciw."
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Old December 12th, 2013, 05:49 PM   #645
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"Dzikie pola" (film directed by Józef Lejtes, 1932)






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Old December 13th, 2013, 01:43 PM   #646
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Group of people from Polesie paid a visit to President of Poland Ignacy Mościcki (Warsaw, 1935)


Kids from Polesie with a gift for Ignacy Mościcki (Warsaw, 1938)


Association of Eastern Poland development


Pupils from Polesie public schools in Warsaw
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Old December 15th, 2013, 11:23 AM   #647
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President of Poland Ignacy Mościcki during his visit to Estonia, 1930










Prince Takamatsu Nobuhito in Warsaw, 1930








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Old December 16th, 2013, 12:16 PM   #648
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Old December 16th, 2013, 11:51 PM   #649
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Wołyń Voivodeship area is highlighted in blue on the map below...


The official 1931 census
Ukrainians 1,426,900
Poles 346,600
Jews 205,500
Germans 46,900
Other 59,600

Henryk Józewski - voivode of Wołyń between 1928 and 1938. He advocated a broad autonomy for Ukrainian self-governance in Wołyń, promoted Ukrainians to administrative posts, and sought to ensure their fair representation in the government. In education, he supported the teaching of the Ukrainian language and argued for the introduction of Ukrainian as the local official language. He founded the Institute for the Study of Nationality Affairs and educational society for the Orthodox (which expanded to 870 chapters in Wołyń), subsidized Ukrainian reading societies (by 1937, it had 5,000 chapters), and sponsored Ukrainian Theater.


Members of Wołyńskie Zjednoczenie Ukraińskie (Volhynian Ukrainian Alliance) in Warsaw. Its programme called for democracy, a separation of church and state, and equality for all citizens.


* Population of Poland in 1931 (if Wołyń Voivodeship would've been autonomy separated from Poland)
Total 30,177,000
Poles 22,102,723 (73.2%)
Jews 2,617,001 (8.7%)
Ukrainians 1,995,200 (6.6%)
Rusyns 1,018,900 (3.4%)
Belarusians 989,900 (3.3%)
Tutejszy 707,100 (2.3%)
Germans 694,100 (2.3%)
Other 52,076 (0.2%)
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Old December 17th, 2013, 12:11 PM   #650
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Volhynian folk




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Old December 17th, 2013, 12:20 PM   #651
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Hop plantation in Wołyń




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Old December 18th, 2013, 02:48 PM   #652
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If you like numbers, rough estimates of the population of Poland in 1931 (if all disputed territories including Zaolzie, Free City of Gdansk, East Prussia and Silesia plebiscite areas were placed under a Polish administration)...
Poles - 23,061,545 (66.8%)
Ruthenians (Rusyns, Poleszuks, Ukrainians, etc.) - 4,441,000 (12.9%)
Jews - 2,822,501 (8.2%)
Germans - 2,371,532 (6.9%)
Belarusians - 989,900 (2.9%)
Tutejszy - 707,100 (2.0%)
Other - 144,337

Total - 34,537,915

Poles in Europe (map prepared by Eugeniusz Romer in 1939)


Red - over 50%
Light red - below 50%
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Old December 19th, 2013, 09:49 PM   #653
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Polish Autonomous Districts (called in Russian "полрайоны", polrajony, an abbreviation for "польские районы", "Polish raions") were national raions in the interbellum period possessing some form of a national autonomy in the Soviet Union.



The possibility of granting autonomy to Polish-populated areas of the Soviet Union was discussed during the Polish-Soviet war by key persons involved in the Provisional Polish Revolutionary Committee. In 1925 it was decided that a district would be created in Soviet Ukraine, where, according to the 1926 survey, 476,435 Poles lived (there were a total of 782,334 Poles in the Soviet Union).

Marchlewszczyzna was the Polish Autonomous District in Soviet Ukraine created on 22 March 1925, with its capital at the town of Marchlewsk (known before and after as Dołbysz or Dowbysz, presently Довбиш - Dovbysh in Ukraine), located some 120 kilometers from the eastern border of the Second Polish Republic. It was named after a Polish bolshevik Julian Marchlewski.

In the initial years of the district's existence, local Poles enjoyed limited autonomy, with 55 Polish-language schools, 80 reading rooms and a Polish daily Marchlewszczyzna Radziecka (Soviet Marchlewszczyzna).



At the same time, its inhabitants were subject to intense communist propaganda. Polish grammar rules, regarded as bourgeoisie, were changed, however, the district lacked educated people. The majority of its inhabitants were Polish peasants, faithful Roman Catholics, who were not interested in communism and its slogans. Therefore, such persons as Tomasz Dąbal, were brought there to indoctrinate the locals in atheism. An organization, named the Polish Anticatholic Section was founded, but all efforts were fruitless, as the Poles did not give up their faith.

Initially, ethnic Poles made around 70% of district's population, which in 1926 totalled around 41,000. Other inhabitants were Ukrainians (20%), Germans (7%) and Jews. In 1930, after several adjacent villages were added to Marchlewszczyzna, the population grew to 52,000, with Poles still making 70%. It has been estimated that the district consisted of around 100 villages, settlements and smaller towns.

Video

Dzierżyńszczyzna was a Polish Autonomous District in Soviet Belarus, near Minsk and close to the Soviet-Polish border of the time. It was created on March 15, 1932, with its capital at Dzierżyńsk (Dzyarzhynsk, Dzerzhynsk, formerly known as Kojdanava Polish: Kojdanów). It was named after the bolshevik Feliks Dzierżyński.

Similarly to Marchlewszczyzna, limited Polish autonomy in the area was a real fact, with Polish-language schools, libraries and institutions. At the same time, the inhabitants were subject to intensive communist propaganda. Religious life was suppressed, and the campaign of collecivization, carried out in mid-1930s, met resistance of local Polish peasants. Unlike Marchlewszczyzna, which was the real center of Polish cultural life in the Soviet Union, Dzierżyńszczyzna's influence was limited.

Eventually, Marchlewszczyzna was disbanded in 1935 at the onset of the Great Purge and most of the administration was executed. In the following years, many men were shot (some sources, such as Russian organization Memorial put the number of the murdered Poles at 111,091), women and children deported to Kazakhstan and other remote areas of the Soviet Union. More than 50,000 Poles were executed in places like Kurapaty or Vinnitsa, many others were executed or starved in Kazakhstan. Dzierżyńszczyzna existed three years longer; it was disbanded in 1938. According to Polish sources, up to 70,000 Poles from Soviet Ukraine were forcibly resettled in Kazakhstan in late 1930s. Also, around 20,000 Poles were then deported from Soviet Belarus.
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Old December 21st, 2013, 01:36 PM   #654
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Restoration of Dubno Castle (now Ukraine)




More: link1, link2
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Old December 22nd, 2013, 01:08 PM   #655
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Kura's Fraternity

Lwów




Kraków


Poznań




The Brotherhood/Society was founded in the 13th century as Kura's Fraternity and later was also know as the Shooting Society. It was comprised of craftsmen and merchants whose responsibility was to defend Polish cities against the numerous and always threatening invaders. Almost every large Polish maintained such a defensive militia. They had favored permission from the royal court to wear the finery of the nobility and landed gentry (szlachta), which was not allowed for the other townspeople. They trained first with bow/arrow, then the crossbow, and finally with firearms.

The name designation of Rooster is derived from the targets used by the Brotherhood in shooting contests. Early on live chickens and roosters were used as targets and this practice eventually evolved to the shooting at a wooden rooster (kura) figure. And this is how the original name "Kura's Fraternity" was established, because 'kura' means 'rooster' in colloquial Polish. The association with Rooster became even more apropos with the introduction of firearms since the shape of the hammerlock strongly resembled a rooster/****'s head. So when the hammerlock was pulled back in preparation for firing, the descriptive term used was to "****' the firearm" hence the moniker connection with Rooster.

From its very founding, the Brotherhood has been dedicated to the proactive participation in the multifaceted civic life and rituals of major cities and the fostering of religious traditions of the Catholic Church. Specific major objectives include the construction of appropriate monuments, the founding of commemorative plaques, the bestowing of its coveted Brotherhood awards, and to create special and unique flags, banners and standards.





Gold plated silver chain from the 15th century
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Old December 25th, 2013, 12:17 AM   #656
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Merry Christmas and Happy New Year!!

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Old January 9th, 2014, 02:19 PM   #657
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Stefan Batory University (Uniwersytet Stefana Batorego) in Wilno

The university was founded in 1578 as the Jesuit Academy of Wilno (Alma Academia et Universitas Vilnensis Societatis Iesu) by the King of Poland & Grand Duke of Lithuania, Stefan Batory, who granted it equal status with the Jagiellonian University. The first rectors of the academy were Polish Jesuits, Jakub Wujek and Piotr Skarga, who invited many scientists from various parts of Europe and expanded the library, with the support of King Zygmunt August & sponsorship of aristocracy.

In the aftermath of the Third Partition of Poland (1795) and the November Uprising (1830–1831), the university was closed down and suspended its operation until 1919.

Invitation to the Opening Ceremony of re-established university (1919)




Józef Ziemacki, first Honorary Rector of the re-activated university in 1919






Franciszek Smuglewicz Hall after renovation


The Anniversary celebrations




Kazimierz Sławiński receives Doctorate Honoris Causa


Zoological museum












Medical graduates


Student ID




More: #170

PS. I have over 1500 photos from another trip to my beloved Portugal, in my opinion one of the most beautiful countries in Europe. Stay tuned...
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Old January 12th, 2014, 10:50 PM   #658
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Jan Kazimierz University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jana Kazimierza) in Lwów was the third biggest academic center of the country (after the University of Warsaw and the Jagiellonian University in Kraków). The university was founded on January 20, 1661 when King Jan II Kazimierz of Poland issued the diploma granting the city's Jesuit Collegium (whose first rector was Polish Jesuit, Adrian Radzimiński), founded in 1608, "the honour of the academy and the title of the university". In 1758, King August III of Poland granted it equal status with the Jagiellonian University.

After Partitions of Poland, when Lwów was annexed by Austria, the Society of Jesus was dissolved by the government in Vienna. The school was renamed into Theresianum, i.e. State Academy. Twelve years later, Emperor Joseph II officially granted it a university status, with four departments - theology, philosophy, law and medicine. In 1805 the university was closed, as Austria, then involved in the Napoleonic wars, did not have sufficient funds to support it. The university reopened in 1817; officially Vienna described it as an act of mercy, but reasons were different. The Austrian government was well-aware of the pro-Polish policies of Russian Emperor Alexander I and they wanted to counterbalance it. In 1848, when pan-European revolution reached Lwów, students of the university created two organizations - the Academic Legion and Academic Committee - demanding that the school be re-polonized. The government in Vienna answered with force, and on November 2, 1848, center of the city was shelled by the troops of General Hammerstein striking buildings in the university, especially the library. Soon afterwards, curfew was established and the university was temporarily closed. The school was reopened in January 1850, with limited autonomy. In 1874, there were 59 classes in Polish, 13 in Latin, 11 in German and 7 in Ruthenian. In 1906, there were 185 classes in Polish, 19 in Latin and 5 in German.

The university was re-activated after WW1, on the 8th November 1919, as Jan Kazimierz University.





French polonist Paul Cazin receives Doctorate Honoris Causa




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Old January 14th, 2014, 01:02 PM   #659
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Wilno (architectural details)








Procession




Photographs by Jan Bułhak
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Old January 17th, 2014, 11:54 AM   #660
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Poznań






















In 1930, the first trolley bus in Poland occurred on the streets of Poznań. Its 2km long route started in the Śródka Market, and went through Bydgoska, Zawady and Główna Streets up to Wiejska and back to Śródka Market, via Krańcowa and Główna Streets.



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