daily menu » rate the banner | guess the city | one on oneforums map | privacy policy | DMCA | news magazine | posting guidelines

Go Back   SkyscraperCity > World Forums > Architecture > European Classic Architecture and Landscapes

European Classic Architecture and Landscapes All related to historical buildings and landscapes of the old world.



Global Announcement

As a general reminder, please respect others and respect copyrights. Go here to familiarize yourself with our posting policy.


Reply

 
Thread Tools
Old April 28th, 2014, 02:43 PM   #721
Puritan
Registered User
 
Puritan's Avatar
 
Join Date: Nov 2011
Posts: 396
Likes (Received): 1616

90 years ago ...

The złoty was reintroduced as Poland's currency by Władysław Grabski in 28.04.1924, following the hyperinflation and monetary chaos of the years after World War I.

Early in 1924 financial reforms of devised by politician/economist Władysław Grabski were instituted. The Bank Polski was proclaimed as the new central bank of Poland. The marka was exchanged for a new, gold-based currency, the złoty, at the rate of 1,800,000 marek to 1 złoty.

*The złoty literally means golden/gulden.


Bank of Poland in Warsaw




Bank of Poland in Kraków


Bank of Poland in Bydgoszcz


Bank of Poland in Łódź


Bank of Poland in Rzeszów


Bank of Poland in Brześć nad Bugiem (today Brest,Belarus)


Bank of Poland in Gdynia


Władysław Grabski


source: wikimedia commons; www.audiovis.nac.gov.pl
__________________
Puritan no está en línea   Reply With Quote

Sponsored Links
Old May 1st, 2014, 11:11 AM   #722
RS_UK-PL
Registered User
 
RS_UK-PL's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2012
Location: R-L1029
Posts: 2,301
Likes (Received): 3392

Palace in Rychcice (now Ukraine)








__________________

Don Vito KurDeBalanz, loloo, mar04 liked this post
RS_UK-PL no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 2nd, 2014, 01:25 AM   #723
rychlik
BANNED
 
Join Date: Feb 2008
Posts: 6,809
Likes (Received): 6603

This is just in Polish.







https://www.facebook.com/TheBestOfPo...ream?ref=br_tf
__________________

Urbanista1, loloo liked this post

Last edited by rychlik; May 3rd, 2014 at 01:17 AM.
rychlik no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 2nd, 2014, 09:07 PM   #724
dexter2
Pijcie portera z BŁ!
 
dexter2's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2009
Location: Łódź
Posts: 17,643
Likes (Received): 18859

Those stupid people excluded Łódź again... This is getting ridiculous.

What's the source of this?
__________________

Bo gdzie byś nie był i jak by cię nie przyjęli
Nigdy nie będziesz się czuł jak na Obiecanej Ziemi

Łódź - Remonty kamienic i zabytków - 2010, 2011, 2012
Łódzkie absurdy drogowe - ŁAD na Facebooku!

NYC & EastCoast USA!

lancu liked this post

Last edited by dexter2; May 2nd, 2014 at 09:12 PM.
dexter2 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 3rd, 2014, 01:18 AM   #725
rychlik
BANNED
 
Join Date: Feb 2008
Posts: 6,809
Likes (Received): 6603

From a Facebook page. I sourced it now.
rychlik no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 4th, 2014, 04:01 PM   #726
JanVL
Registered User
 
JanVL's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2012
Location: Antwerpen/Poznań
Posts: 5,734
Likes (Received): 81860

3rd may festivities in the Interbellum

http://tvnwarszawa.tvn24.pl/informac...l#!prettyPhoto







































































__________________
JanVL no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 16th, 2014, 10:04 PM   #727
Puritan
Registered User
 
Puritan's Avatar
 
Join Date: Nov 2011
Posts: 396
Likes (Received): 1616

Automotive industry in II Polish Republic - collage vel hotchpotch

General Motors factory in Warsaw, 1928






Chevrolet commercial, Warsaw


Chrysler commercial, Warsaw


Polish Fiat 508, Poznań 1929


Buick, Warsaw 1938


"Lilpop, Rau and Loewenstein" factory in Warsaw, 1939


Poznań, 1930


Petrol station in Warsaw, 1925


Cadillac, Warsaw 1939


*
Planned motorway network


source: wikipedia, nac.gov.pl, oldtimery.com
__________________

JanVL, RS_UK-PL, arac, catcha, meeting and 6 others liked this post
Puritan no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 21st, 2014, 04:43 AM   #728
rychlik
BANNED
 
Join Date: Feb 2008
Posts: 6,809
Likes (Received): 6603

Old and New Poland






https://www.facebook.com/groups/69141925912/photos/
__________________

Rombi, smugler, loloo, ziMer liked this post
rychlik no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old June 3rd, 2014, 09:48 PM   #729
RS_UK-PL
Registered User
 
RS_UK-PL's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2012
Location: R-L1029
Posts: 2,301
Likes (Received): 3392

Wawrzyniec Ludwik Rey's palace in Psary (now Ukraine)


Palace of the Gołuchowski family in Łowczyce (now Ukraine)


Palace of the Ledóchowski family in Smordwa (now Ukraine)


More palaces and manors - link
__________________

smugler, loloo, mar04 liked this post

Last edited by RS_UK-PL; June 5th, 2014 at 06:05 PM.
RS_UK-PL no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old June 4th, 2014, 01:58 AM   #730
rychlik
BANNED
 
Join Date: Feb 2008
Posts: 6,809
Likes (Received): 6603

Geopolitics
George Friedman

The Intermarium

Following World War I, Poland re-emerged as a sovereign nation. The Russians had capitulated to Germany in 1917 and signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918, which ceded a great deal of territory, including Ukraine, to Germany. With Germany's defeat, Brest-Litovsk lost its force and the Russians tried to regain what they had given away in that treaty. Part of that was Poland. In 1920, a climactic battle took place in Warsaw, when an army led by Polish Gen. Jozef Pilsudski, who had struck an alliance with Ukraine that couldn't work, blocked a Soviet invasion.

Pilsudski is an interesting figure, a reactionary in some ways, a radical in others. But it was his geopolitical vision that interests me. He was, above all else, a Polish nationalist, and he understood that Russia's defeat by Germany was the first step to an independent Poland. He also believed that Polish domination of Ukraine -- an ancient ploy -- would guarantee Poland's freedom after Germany was defeated. His attempt to ally with Ukraine failed. The Russians defeated the Ukrainians and turned on Poland. Pilsudski defeated them.

It is interesting to speculate about history if Pilsudski had lost Warsaw. The North European Plain was wide open, and the Soviets could have moved into Germany. Undoubtedly, the French would have moved to block them, but there was a powerful Communist Party in France that had little stomach for war. It could have played out many different ways had Pilsudski not stopped the Russians. But he did.

Pilsudski had another idea. Germany was in shambles, as was Russia, but both would be back. An alliance in place before they revived would, in Pilsudski's mind, save the region. His vision was something called the Intermarium -- an alliance of the nations between the seas built around Poland and including Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Finland and the Baltic states. This never came to be, but if it had, World War II may never have happened or could have played out in a different way. It is an idea that has been in my mind of late, thinking about what comes after NATO and ambitious concepts of European federation. Pilsudski's Intermarium makes a kind of logical if not historical sense. It is not historical because this borderland has always been the battleground for others. It has never formed together to determine its fate.

The Russian-German Relationship

In many ways, this matter doesn't rest in these states' hands. It depends partly on what Russia wants and plans to do and it depends on what Europe wants and plans to do. As always, the Intermarium is caught between Russia and Europe. There is no southern European power at the moment (the Austro-Hungarian empire is a memory), but in the north there is Germany, a country struggling to find its place in Europe and in history.

In many ways, Germany is the mystery. The 2008 and Greek economic crises shocked the Germans. They had seen the European Union as the solution to European nationalism and an instrument of prosperity. When the crisis struck, the Germans found that nationalism had reared its head in Germany as much as it had in other countries. The Germans didn't want to bail out the Greeks, and the entire question of the price and value of the European Union became a central issue in Germany. Germany has not thought of itself as a freestanding power since 1945. It is beginning to think that way again, and that could change everything, depending on where it goes.

One of the things it could change is German-Russian relations. At various times since 1871 and German re-unification, the Germans and Russians have been allies as well as mortal enemies. Right now, there is logic in closer German-Russian ties. Economically they complement and need each other. Russia exports raw materials; Germany exports technology. Neither cares to be pressured by the United States. Together they might be able to resist that pressure. There is a quiet romance under way between them.

And that rivets my attention on the countries I am visiting. For Poland, the specter of a German-Russian entente is a historical nightmare. The last time this happened, in 1939, Poland was torn apart and lost its sovereignty for 50 years. There is hardly a family in Poland who can't name their dead from that time. Of course, it is said that this time it would be different, that the Germans are no longer what they were and neither are the Russians. But geopolitics teaches that subjective inclinations do not erase historical patterns. Whatever the Poles think and say, they must be nervous although they are not admitting it. Admitting fear of Germany and Russia would be to admit distrust, and distrust is not permitted in modern Europe. Still, the Poles know history, and it will be good to see what they have to say -- or at least how they say it. And it is of the greatest importance to hear what they say, and don't say, about the United States under these circumstances.

http://www.stratfor.com/weekly/20101...ntent=readmore

Read more: Geopolitical Journey, Part 2: Borderlands | Stratfor
Follow us: @stratfor on Twitter | Stratfor on Facebook
__________________

Euzebi, smugler liked this post
rychlik no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old June 4th, 2014, 12:42 PM   #731
RS_UK-PL
Registered User
 
RS_UK-PL's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2012
Location: R-L1029
Posts: 2,301
Likes (Received): 3392

"The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999" (by Timothy Snyder)
Quote:
The National Democrats' gift of Minsk, Kamieniec Podolski, Berdyczów and surrounding lands to the Bolsheviks at Riga in 1921 left hundreds of thousands of Poles, many of them friendly to the idea of a federal Polish-Lithuanian-Belarusian state, in the tender care of Moscow. Most Soviet Poles would be deported to Siberia or Kazakhstan (* or killed) in the 1930s. The National Democrats' renunciation also reduced Poland's potential East Slavic populations by perhaps two million and potential Jewish populations by hundreds of thousands.
"Moje wspomnienia" (by Wincenty Witos)
Quote:
Najciężej i najprzykrzej zarazem było z delegacjami polskiej ludności, która miała pozostać po stronie rosyjskiej. Delegacje owe przychodziły z Kamieńca Podolskiego, Mińska, Berdyczowa, przekradając się z narażeniem życia i błagając z płaczem, żeby ich Polska nie dawała na pastwę bolszewickim katom...
PS. More about Polish Autonomous Regions in the Soviet Union here and Poles in Europe map.
__________________

Urbanista1, smugler liked this post

Last edited by RS_UK-PL; June 13th, 2014 at 01:12 PM.
RS_UK-PL no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old June 12th, 2014, 05:59 PM   #732
RS_UK-PL
Registered User
 
RS_UK-PL's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2012
Location: R-L1029
Posts: 2,301
Likes (Received): 3392

Please see regions inhabited by "autochtone" Poles (former German citizens) majority or significant minority according to the 1950 census below.
__________________

Rombi liked this post

Last edited by RS_UK-PL; June 13th, 2014 at 01:14 PM.
RS_UK-PL no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old June 14th, 2014, 11:00 AM   #733
RS_UK-PL
Registered User
 
RS_UK-PL's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2012
Location: R-L1029
Posts: 2,301
Likes (Received): 3392

According to Ukrainian, Belarusian and Lithuanian nationalists' myth (strengthened by Soviet historiography and propaganda) Second Polish Republic was the main enemy of their nations. The fact is that between the late 1920 and 1939 less than 100 people died in anti-Polish attacks, while only in recent months death toll in Ukraine is officially over 5,000 (unofficially 20,000+) and more than 814,000 (confirmed by UNHCR) Ukrainian citizens, mostly ethnic Russians, have fled Ukraine for Russia, while other 260,000 have been internally displaced.

The largest radical groups UVO and OUN (Ukrainian nationalists) in Poland between 1921 and 1939 carried out 63 known assassinations: 36 Ukrainians (among them one communist), 25 Poles, 1 Russian and 1 Jew. In both, annexation of majorly Polish Wilno (1920) and Zaolzie (1938) regions by Poland there were overall less than 20 casualties (the numbers are extremely low due to the great support for joining Poland among local population). In comparison, when ethnically German Sudetenland was incorporated by Germany in 1938, 121 soldiers lost their lives.

At the same time, during Polish Operation of the NKVD (1937–38) in the Soviet Union 111,091 Poles have been executed (statistical extrapolation increases the number of Polish victims in 1937–1938 to around 200–250,000) and over 100,000 expelled from their homes (link). It was the largest ethnic shooting and deportation action during the Great Terror.
__________________

catcha, Urbanista1, WB2010 liked this post

Last edited by RS_UK-PL; September 2nd, 2014 at 06:57 PM.
RS_UK-PL no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old June 14th, 2014, 05:42 PM   #734
Urbanista1
Here and Now
 
Urbanista1's Avatar
 
Join Date: Sep 2006
Posts: 7,426
Likes (Received): 5284

Even by today's standards the second republic was a multi-cultural paradise. There were tensions, there were Zionists, and Ukrainian and Lithuanian nationalists who had some legitimate grievances at least territorially as their national consciousness emerged. Unfortunately during the war their plight was far worse as we know, but even after the war Soviet Russia quashed any nationalist aspirations very effectively. Although the new Soviet republics in Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltics including Lithuania bore ethnic names on the surface and allowed some folk dancing and culture, aggressive russification in the guise of sovietisation began. That's why there are so many Russians in the Baltic states now, they were moved in to replace Balts moved out to gulags or killed. Most of the elites in Estonia, Ukraine and especially Belarus were sent to gulags/death camps in Siberia and many were killed during the interwar period already. Stalin already wiped out most of the Belarusian intelligentsia before the war in a brutal campaign against the reviving Belarusian culture - The Soviet Russian KGB murdered up to 250,000 in the Kurapaty forest in Belarus in the late 30's. My own grandfather was murdered by the KGB for being Polish, nothing else, outside Kiev in the late 30's. Ukrainians suffered the most, especially peasant farmers known as kulaks both during Holodomor and post war during Stalin's second Great Terror in 1945-1953 where hundreds of thousands, maybe millions perished in the name of creating a homo sovieticus. People should understand that while Poland was not perfect it was never autocratic nor ethnically chauvinistic on a large scale. It's a striking contrast comparing Poland interwar II Republic with what was happening just to the east to those same ethnic groups in the Soviet Union. Just to be clear this was not due to an inate hatred towards these ethnic groups by ethnic Russians, this was the madman Stalin's paranoia and his nightmarish dream to create one people.
__________________
ten rząd wstrząsa podstawami naszej państwowości i funkcjonowania społeczeństwa. Natomiast większość społeczeństwa śpi, nie zwraca uwagi, co się dzieje i trzeba je z tego snu obudzić - Piotr S


Warsaw Post-War Reconstruction to Present
Urbanista1 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old June 15th, 2014, 12:49 AM   #735
Mruczek
Warrior of Excel
 
Mruczek's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2008
Location: Outside Blue Banana
Posts: 10,441
Likes (Received): 13466

Quote:
Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post
According to Ukrainian, Belarusian and Lithuanian nationalists' myth (strengthened by Soviet historiography and propaganda) Second Polish Republic was the main enemy of their nations. The fact is that between 1921 and 1939 less than 100 people died in anti-Polish attacks, while only in recent months the number of casualties in Ukraine is about 400. The largest radical groups UVO and OUN (Ukrainian nationalists) between 1921 and 1939 carried out 63 known assassinations: 36 Ukrainians (among them one communist), 25 Poles, 1 Russian and 1 Jew. At the same time, during Polish Operation of the NKVD (1937–38) in the Soviet Union 111,091 Poles have been executed (link). It was the largest ethnic shooting and deportation action during the Great Terror.
The fact that national policy of the Second Republic towards minorities wasn't particulartly wise is rather obvious. Although this relatively brutal policy towards minorities was quite typical for pre-war Europe, unfortunately.

On the other hand, comparing Poland (after all, more or less civilised, European country) with the Stalinist despotic Soviet Union is insulting and stupid. Comparing pre-war Poland with today's Ukraine, where civil unrest (and in some areas something close to the civil war) and foreign invasion is underway, is just stupid.
__________________
We shape our buildings; thereafter they shape us. Winston Churchill
Z archiwum Mruczka:
Buk Miłosław Szamotuły
Barcelona Budapeszt Grodno Kowno Madryt Moskwa Ukraina

mar04 liked this post
Mruczek no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old June 15th, 2014, 05:28 PM   #736
RS_UK-PL
Registered User
 
RS_UK-PL's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2012
Location: R-L1029
Posts: 2,301
Likes (Received): 3392

Poster from 1937, the comparison of the situation of Polish minority in Germany and German minority in Poland


More: link
__________________

Urbanista1, loloo liked this post

Last edited by RS_UK-PL; June 15th, 2014 at 06:36 PM.
RS_UK-PL no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old June 29th, 2014, 12:35 PM   #737
RS_UK-PL
Registered User
 
RS_UK-PL's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2012
Location: R-L1029
Posts: 2,301
Likes (Received): 3392

Aerial photos...

Krzemieniec


Łuck
__________________

Last edited by RS_UK-PL; June 29th, 2014 at 12:42 PM.
RS_UK-PL no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old June 29th, 2014, 06:54 PM   #738
Puritan
Registered User
 
Puritan's Avatar
 
Join Date: Nov 2011
Posts: 396
Likes (Received): 1616

End of the school year ...

Katowice, 1930


Kraków, 1930


Warsaw, 1927


Warsaw, 1930


Warsaw, 1932


Warsaw, 1939


The long awaited summer holidays

Poznań, 1936


Katowice, 1934


Kraków, 1938


source: www.audiovis.nac.gov.pl
__________________
Puritan no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 2nd, 2014, 07:37 PM   #739
RS_UK-PL
Registered User
 
RS_UK-PL's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2012
Location: R-L1029
Posts: 2,301
Likes (Received): 3392

Vlach-Rusyn Gorals dominated area is highlighted in green on the map below...

















Source

International Tourism Poster Exhibition (Amsterdam, 1933)


A mountain hut


Hutsuls from Żabie area


Hutsul Museum in Żabie (built between 1935 and 1938, link)


Hutsul kids at school in Żabie


More photos - #497, #498, #499, #500, #511, #533, #534, #558, #612

Polish history of the Hutsul region
__________________

Last edited by RS_UK-PL; July 3rd, 2014 at 06:32 PM.
RS_UK-PL no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 3rd, 2014, 08:52 PM   #740
Mruczek
Warrior of Excel
 
Mruczek's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2008
Location: Outside Blue Banana
Posts: 10,441
Likes (Received): 13466

This art deco font (on the posters) is very sexy
__________________
We shape our buildings; thereafter they shape us. Winston Churchill
Z archiwum Mruczka:
Buk Miłosław Szamotuły
Barcelona Budapeszt Grodno Kowno Madryt Moskwa Ukraina
Mruczek no está en línea   Reply With Quote


Reply

Tags
history, poland, polska, stipson

Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off

Related topics on SkyscraperCity


All times are GMT +2. The time now is 04:59 PM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.11 Beta 4
Copyright ©2000 - 2017, vBulletin Solutions Inc.
Feedback Buttons provided by Advanced Post Thanks / Like (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2017 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

vBulletin Optimisation provided by vB Optimise (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2017 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

SkyscraperCity ☆ In Urbanity We trust ☆ about us | privacy policy | DMCA policy

Hosted by Blacksun, dedicated to this site too!
Forum server management by DaiTengu