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Old August 13th, 2014, 07:00 PM   #761
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Pomorzany Castle



More: link & recent video

Pomorzany is one of the easternmost pre-12th century Old-Polish toponyms (see place names established by West Slavic Lendians, highlighted in blue below)...


The location of Pomorzany

Source

Archaeological excavations on the site of Lwów city in 1977 showed Lendian settlement that existed in the 9th-10th century. In 1031 the region was conquered from King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland by prince Yaroslav the Wise. The second wave of Polish settlement in that region (and even more southeastwards) began in the 14th century, after incorporation by Casimir III the Great, King of Poland (by inheritance from prince Bolesław Jerzy II of Mazovia, who owned territory sinca ca.1323). Halicz became the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese in 1367, one of the first archbishops was blessed Jakub Strzemię (1340-1409).

Roman Catholic Church in Buszcze near Brzeżany (founded by Polish settlers in 1399)

Source & more churches

In the 14th century, during the second wave of Polish settlement in the western parts of today's Ukraine, 22 Roman Catholic parishes were established. The number of parishes has risen to 87 in the 15th century, 122 in the 16th century and 189 in the following century. Before 1772, 41 Roman Catholic churches (!) existed in Lwów alone. More: link1, link2, link3, link4, link5 & recent videos (link1, link2).

The earliest preserved text ("Ortyle magdeburskie") in Polish southeastern borderlands dialect was commissioned by Mikołaj Gołogórski (Polish noble, founder of the castle in Gołogóry in 1452) in Lwów region in ca.1450. According to scholars research, Polish southeastern borderlands dialect existed for at least 100 years before that text appeared.
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Old August 14th, 2014, 04:18 PM   #762
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When it comes to the northeastern regions of the Second Polish Republic...


Union of Krewo (1385) and Union of Horodło (*) signed on 2 October 1413 signified the beginnings of Polonization of the Grand Duchy of Litva and its Ruthenian and Baltic languages and culture. In 1517, Maciej Miechowita reported that "in the villages they speak Lithuanian, but most use the Polish language" (he meant probably the nobility of the GDL). But, he added, this is because "the priests are preaching in Polish" (Catholic bishops and clergy of Litva mostly originated from Poland - Andrzej Jastrzębiec, as well as earlier missions were usually carried out by the Polish friars - Wit). Augustyn Rotundus, born in Wieluń (Poland) historiographer of the Grand Duchy of Litva, in 1576 wrote, "now the Lithuanian language remained only among the peasantry, other adopted the language of the Poles".

The earliest map of Litva with the Polish-written names is attached to Ptolemy's Geography that was published in Rome in 1507. The map was prepared by Bernard Wapowski, during Erazm Ciołek's (**) procession stay in Rome in 1505 (place names like "Kofno" and "Wylno" (***) were used earlier in books written by Jan Długosz).

Source

* There are only 2 families with direct descendants from the boyars who were adopted during the Union of Horodło, Niemirowicz-Szczytt and Radziwiłł. All members of the Niemirowicz-Szczytt family (descendants of Jan Niemira of Wsielub; see Iszkołdź and Wsielub) live in Poland nowadays, while members of the Radziwiłł family spread around the world. More about the Union of Horodło - link.
Interesting fact - probably one of the most important Polish princely noble families (Czartoryski) are descendants of the Grand Duke of Litva Olgierd's son, Konstantyn (ca.1330-1390).
** Erazm Ciołek became the secretary of the Grand Duke of Litva, Alexander in 1494, and with his support was granted numerous church benefices (Canon, Dean, Provost of Wilno).
*** Polish name "Wilno" appeared for the first time in a Latin document from 1325 (link).

According to scholars, Polish northeastern borderlands dialect began to form in the 15th century, maybe even earlier. The earlierst bible translated into Polish was commissioned by Sophia (princess of Halshany in Litva, wife of Władysław II Jagiełło, King of Poland) in 1433. The first printing office that was publishing books exclusively in Polish was established by the GDL's noble, Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł, in Brześć Litewski in 1553. All those events happened before the famous Union of Lublin.

Roman Catholic Church in Iszkołdź (founded by the GDL's Polonized noble Mikołaj Niemira in 1472)



More photos: link
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Old August 18th, 2014, 03:42 PM   #763
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Territorial evolution of the Republic of Poland:
The First Polish Republic - 522,000 km2 (1791-1793)
The Second Polish Republic - 388,634 km2 (1921-1938); 389,720 km2 (1938-1939)
The Third Polish Republic - 312,679 km2 (1989-)

Map of Poland (1939)

* Click on the image to enlarge

In ca.1580, Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (not including the GDL and fief territories) had a total area of 568,000 km2 (source).
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Old August 26th, 2014, 06:52 PM   #764
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"Neo-Uniate" Church

The "Uniate" Church is an old and important part of the Catholic Church in Poland. Its communities, which originally belonged to the Greek (Byzantine) rite, adopted reunion with the See of Rome by signing in 1596 an agreement (the "Union") at the city of Brześć Litewski (presently in Belarus), and from that time on were called the "Uniate" Church. The "Uniate" Church took on certain characteristics of the Latin rite in matters of organization, structure, theology and liturgy. This process also affected Church architecture and furnishings as well the manner of dress. With the Synod of Zamość in 1720, Polish language was introduced into the "Uniate" church services and sermons (*), previously prayers were provided in Old Church Slavonic. After the Partitions of Poland, the "Uniate" Church was systematically absorbed by the Russian Orthodox Church, and in 1839 abolished with the Synod of Polotsk. The ecclesiastical integration of people living in the Eastern Borderlands into the Russian Orthodox church was a fundamental part of depolonization and russification process. In Chełm region the "Uniate" eparchy due to the high number of opponents was dissolved only in 1875. In 1905 Tsar Nicholas II granted religious freedom in the Russian Empire in the wake of the revolution earlier that year. Approximately 233,000 people who were against the process of depolonisation in the Chełm region took advantage of this to withdraw from the Russian Orthodox Church and become Roman Catholics. After 1918 a parallel pro-Catholic, "Neo-Uniate" movement sprang up within the borders of the now independent Poland. Many of the former "Uniate" parishes (destroyed during the Partitions of Poland and taken over by Orthodox clergy) desired a return to the Catholic Church. In 1937, 71 priests of the Byzantine-Slavonic rite served in what was then Eastern Poland. A large number of parishes ministered to some 20,000 faithful.

"Synod of Zamość" (book published in Wilno in 1785) and photos of "Neo-Uniate" clergy, churches and faithful






Wilno diocese
Albertyn 1925
Byteń 1937
Fasty 1937
Synkowicze 1925
Świsłocz 1936
Wilno 1937
Żelwiany 1937

Pińsk diocese
Bobrowicze 1932
Delatycze 1925
Horodno 1927
Kołki 1938
Kuraszewo 1925
Lubieszów 1935
Ołpień 1926
Pińsk 1936
Stołpce 1937
Torokanie 1932
Zburaż 1932

Podlasie diocese
Biała Podlaska 1939
Bubel Stary 1925
Dokudów 1928
Hola 1925
Kijowiec 1925
Kodeń 1932
Kostomłoty 1927
Kośna 1936
Połoski 1925
Szostka 1931
Terespol 1926
Zabłocie 1926

Łuck diocese
Cechów 1928
Dubieczno 1927
Gaje Lewiatyńskie 1937
Humniszcze
Kowel 1929
Kraska
Kuskowice Wielkie 1937
Łuck 1937
Miatyń 1937
Równe
Tutowce 1937
Zastawne
Żabcze 1928

Lublin diocese
Grabowiec 1937
Hołubie 1937
Horodło 1937
Pawłów

* Interesting fact - at the Synod of Łęczyca in 1285, the Roman Catholic Church hierarchy, under the leadership of Jakub Świnka, Archbishop of Gniezno, decided that school rectors in Poland should know the native language, Church offices should be offered only to speakers of Polish, and the Confiteor should be said in Polish.
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Old September 1st, 2014, 03:14 PM   #765
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Postage stamps (i.e., Wilno, Lwów, Warszawa, Poznań, Kraków, Gdańsk, most important events in Poland's history)






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Old September 1st, 2014, 08:00 PM   #766
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very nice collection...makes me want to take up stamp collecting again.
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Warsaw Post-War Reconstruction to Present
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Old September 10th, 2014, 10:08 PM   #767
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Bonus Some of the oldest Polish books printed in the major cities of the northeastern (Wilno, 1576) and southeastern (Lwów, 1581) territories of the Second Polish Republic...
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Old September 12th, 2014, 12:21 PM   #768
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The Battle of Kostiuchnówka was a World War I battle that took place July 4–6, 1916, near the village of Kostiuchnówka (now Kostyukhnivka, Ukraine) and the Styr River, then part of the Russian Empire. It was a major clash between the Russian Army and the Polish Legions (part of the Austro-Hungarian Army) during the opening phase of the Brusilov Offensive.

Polish forces, numbering 5,500–7,300, faced Russian forces numbering over half of the 46th Corps of 26,000. The Polish forces were eventually forced to retreat, but delayed the Russians long enough for the other Austro-Hungarian units in the area to retreat in an organized manner. Polish casualties were approximately 2,000 fatalities and wounded. The battle is considered one of the largest and most vicious of those involving the Polish Legions in World War I. Piłsudski in his order of July 11, 1916 wrote that "the heaviest of our current fights took place in the recent days."






Cemetery in the 1930s


* Legia Warsaw was formed between 5 and 15 March 1916 during military operations in World War I on the Eastern Front in Kostiuchnówka, as the main football club of the Polish Legions.
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Old September 15th, 2014, 07:04 PM   #769
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Funeral of a famous Polish Catholic priest, chief of the Union of Poles in Germany Bolesław Domański in Zakrzewo, Germany (1939)



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Old September 18th, 2014, 01:21 PM   #770
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In addition to the post #739...

Буквар. Перша книжечка для народных школ. (Bukvar. Perša knyžečka dlja narodnŷch škol.) published in 1935


As a result of ethnic cleansing, expulsions during and after WW2 many dialects of the Polish, Rusyn, etc. languages that existed for hundreds of years are nearly extinct or had been wiped out completely.
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Old September 18th, 2014, 09:41 PM   #771
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Old September 19th, 2014, 05:48 PM   #772
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This map visualizes data from the 1926 First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union, showing the percentages of residents categorized as ethnically Polish in each district (raion) of the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic.


The western parts of the USSR belonged to the First Republic of Poland before 1793. In the 19th century, most of the land was still owned by the Polish nobility. Poles were forming significant minorities in the eastern Podole, e.g. Kamieniec Podolski since the 14th century and in Winnica, Berdyczów, Żytomierz, etc. since the 16h century.

Kamieniec Podolski


Polish Market Square in Kamieniec Podolski was established in 1374, Polish Town Hall and some Roman Catholic churches in the city date back to the 14th-15th century.

See also...link and link2
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Old September 26th, 2014, 01:52 PM   #773
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Wolne Miasto Gdańsk/Freie Stadt Danzig travel guides:
1921
1927
1928

One of the best pre-war books about Gdańsk (also available in English) - LINK
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Old September 27th, 2014, 05:42 PM   #774
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More: link1, link2
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Old September 29th, 2014, 07:23 PM   #775
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Grand Duchy of Litva? So Maybe Kingdom of Polska, or Kingdom of Lenkija?
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>> MY PHOTO THREAD ABOUT LITHUANIA
>>MY PHOTOS FROM KLAIPĖDA (MEMEL)
>>> OLD LITHUANIA



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Old September 29th, 2014, 09:55 PM   #776
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La Pologne (1937)







































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Old September 30th, 2014, 05:17 PM   #777
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Amazing, really, how French language was popular before WWII.
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Old September 30th, 2014, 06:48 PM   #778
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Silesian Voivodeship (1937)























































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Cuda Polski Śląsk (book about the region) - LINK

Cieszyn and Zaolzie - LINK
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Old October 1st, 2014, 12:51 PM   #779
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Poles in Opole/Oppeln Silesia, Germany















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Old October 5th, 2014, 01:10 PM   #780
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Pre-war book about Opole/Oppeln Silesia - LINK


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