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Old February 27th, 2013, 12:32 AM   #21
Oslo2022
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Urbanista1 View Post
wonderful start to a very promising thread.

btw, you said that all the castle interiors are original as they were removed for safekeeping after 1939 invasion. where did you read this so that I can confirm the veracity of this statement? thanks?
http://www.zamek-krolewski.pl/?page=1253

W czasie II wojny światowej Zamek Królewski symbolizował stosunek władz niemieckich do materialnych zabytków kultury polskiej i jako taki został gruntownie zniszczony: wskutek bombardowań lotniczych i ostrzału artyleryjskiego we wrześniu 1939 (zginął wtedy kustosz zbiorów zamkowych Kazimierz Brokl), następnie wskutek sprzecznych z normami prawa międzynarodowego konfiskat zabytkowego i niezabytkowego wyposażenia, wreszcie ok. 10-13 IX 1944, w czasie powstania warszawskiego, Niemcy wysadzili jego ruiny. Wobec planów zniszczenia wynoszone były z Zamku potajemnie przez polskich muzealników i konserwatorów (Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie, Zarząd Miejski Warszawy, Towarzystwo Opieki nad Zabytkami Przeszłości) elementy dekoracji i wyposażenia wnętrz, które stanowią obecnie część wyposażenia, będąc zarazem źródłową podstawę powojennej odbudowy.

Po zakończeniu II wojny światowej zachowane elementy architektoniczne oraz dokumentacja źródłowa pozwalały planować odbudowę Zamku. Wielu jednak ludziom, należącym do sfer opiniotwórczych, wydawało się, iż przywrócenie dawnego architektonicznego i urbanistycznego status quo jest niemożliwe z ekonomicznego punktu widzenia. Również wielu architektów skłonnych było wykorzystać zniszczenie miasta do swobodnego projektowania, odchodzącego od tradycyjnych układów urbanistycznych. Kontrowersje na temat odbudowy zabytków dzieliły też środowisko konserwatorów. Zwyciężyło jednak stanowisko prof. Jana Zachwatowicza, ówczesnego generalnego konserwatora, który stwierdził, iż poczucie odpowiedzialności wobec przyszłych pokoleń domaga się odbudowy tego, co nam zniszczono, odbudowy pełnej, świadomej tragizmu popełnianego fałszu konserwatorskiego.
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Old February 27th, 2013, 06:27 AM   #22
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Warsaw Post-War Reconstruction to Present

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Old February 27th, 2013, 10:12 AM   #23
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Plac Teatralny - Theatre square

One of Pre-War Warsaw´s most important squares. The origins of the square dates back to the beginning of the 19th century, when a small square was established in 1818. In 1825-1832 the Great Theatre building was constructed. When the city administration was relocated to the Jabłonowski Palace (city hall), the square became a centre of city life. Various patriotic demonstrations took place there, including at the time of the January Uprising and the Revolution of 1905. Both demonstrations were bloodily crushed by Russian authorities. In September 1939 the civilian defense of the city was located in the city hall and commanded by President of Warsaw, Stefan Starzyński.


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/18/18258.jpg


https://fbcdn-sphotos-c-a.akamaihd.n...95589308_o.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/315/315078.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/7/7315.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/353/353360.jpg
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Old February 27th, 2013, 10:39 AM   #24
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Teatr Wielki - Grand theatre (national Opera and ballet scene)

For more than 170 years the Teatr Wielki (Grand Theatre) in Warsaw has been Poland’s largest opera and ballet institution. Designed by the Italian architect Antonio Corazzi, the theatre was built between 1825 and 1833 in order to host the national opera, ballet and drama companies that were active at that time in Warsaw. As Poland underwent various partitions up to 1918, the institution fulfilled the crucial role of upholding the tradition and cultural heritage of a country that had disappeared from the world map. The company produced works by Polish composers and choreographers. In particular it premiered Stanisław Moniuszko’s operas, among others The Haunted Manor and Halka and after Poland regained its independence, the theatre held the world premiere of Paderewski’s Manru and Szymanowski’s King Roger.


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/180/180715.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/120/120437.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/167/167199.jpg

Interiors:

http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/84/84743.jpg

After the renovation in 1900:

http://img835.imageshack.us/img835/2...130328kl10.png





Next post, city hall and the great President of pre-war Warsaw, Stefan Starzyński
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Old February 27th, 2013, 12:21 PM   #25
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Ratusz - City hall

First constructed in 1773-1785 for Antoni Barnaba Jabłonowski by Jakub Fontana and Dominik Merlini.

In 1817-1819 it was reconstructed for the purpose of becoming the city hall, taking the role of the dismounted Old City Hall.

In 1863 the palace was damaged by the fire set up by demonstrating Polish patriots in the wake of January Uprising. In 1864-1869 it was reconstructed in the Neo-Renaissance style. The characteristic tower was added to the building at that time. During the Polish Defensive War of 1939 the city hall served as the headquarters of the civilian defense of Warsaw.


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/274/274808.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/23/23079.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/231/231668.jpg

The city hall during the 1930´s

http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/380/380016.jpg


https://fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.n...37600126_o.jpg


http://img.audiovis.nac.gov.pl/PIC/PIC_1-A-3437-1.jpg

Panorama of pre-war Warsaw as seen from the city hall tower


Let´s enter the city hall!

Interiors: (Not reconstructed after WWII)

Schody Wielkie - Great stairway

http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/t...usz_schody.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/213/213491.jpg

Hala Poczekalna - Waiting room

http://img853.imageshack.us/img853/6...130227kl09.png

Sala Wielka - Great hall

http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/t...usz_balowa.jpg


http://img18.imageshack.us/img18/678...130227kl09.png


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/t..._balowa_03.jpg

City council meeting in the great hall

http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/t..._balowa_01.jpg

Sala Sztandarowa - Banner hall

http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/349/349856.jpg
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Old February 27th, 2013, 01:23 PM   #26
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Stefan Starzyński - The last and greatest President of pre-war Warsaw



Stefan Starzyński, born August 19, 1893 in Warsaw.

In the years 1929-30 and 1931-32 he was the deputy minister of treasury. In 1930 he became a member of the Polish Sejm for a three years period as a member of the Nonpartisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government (BBWR). He was also a deputy president of Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego, one of the biggest Polish banks.

In the early 1930s Warsaw had a huge hole in its budget. The city's development had been halted by a lack of funds while the population continued to grow rapidly. On August 1, 1934, Starzyński was chosen by the Sanacja régime to become the president of Warsaw, and was given special powers. Local authorities were disbanded and Starzyński became responsible only to central government.

At first Starzyński was viewed by the majority of Varsovians as yet another Sanacja stooge imposed on a city that mostly supported the opposition. But he soon gained popularity, even among his former enemies. He initiated a plan for fast-track reform of the financial system. The money saved thanks to these reforms was reinvested in public works that reduced unemployment. He managed to electrify the suburbs of Wola and Grochów, pave all the major roads out of Warsaw, and to connect the city centre with the newly-built northern district of Żoliborz through a bridge over the northern railway line. These actions earned him the nickname "president of the suburbs".

He became popular among the inhabitants of borough of Śródmieście (city centre) for his action of planting trees and flowers along the main streets. Starzyński also ordered the creation of a huge park in Wola and several minor green areas in other parts of the city. During his presidency Warsaw was also enlarged to the south. The area of former airfield on Pole Mokotowskie in the borough of Mokotów was cut in two parts by Aleje Niepodległości (Avenue of Independence), nowadays one of the main streets of Warsaw. Among the most important facilities opened during his presidency were the National Museum, new building of the city library, new building of his alma mater, now renamed to Warsaw School of Economics and the Powszechny theatre, which became one of the most influential scenes of Warsaw. Other initiatives of Starzyński include complete reconstruction of boulevards along the Vistula and partial reconstruction of the barbican in the Old Town area.

In 1934 he was chosen as president of Warsaw for a four-year term. On December 18, 1938 he was elected in democratic elections for his second term. Starzyński held his office until World War II broke out.

During his presidency:
- 2,000,000 km˛ of paved roads were built
- 44 schools were opened
- National Museum was built
- 2 major parks were opened to the public (one of them is now a National Reserve)
- Construction of Warsaw Metro started


http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_kvG193SY59...52C+1929+r.jpg



Stefan Starzyński in the City hall




After the start of Polish Defensive War of 1939 Starzyński, refused to leave Warsaw together with other state authorities and diplomats on September 4, 1939. Instead he joined the army as a major of infantry. The Minister of War shortly before his departure created the Command of the Defense of the Capital with general Walerian Czuma as its commander. On September 7, the forces of 4th German Panzer Division managed to break the Polish lines near Częstochowa and started their march towards Warsaw. Most of the city authorities withdrew together with a large part of the police forces, fire fighters and military garrison. Warsaw was left with only four battalions of infantry and one battery of artillery. The Headquarters of general Czuma had barely any forces to organize the defense of the city. Also, the spokesman of the garrison of Warsaw issued a communique in which he ordered all young men to leave the city.

To counter the panic that started in Warsaw, general Czuma appointed Stefan Starzyński as the Civilian Commissar of Warsaw. Starzyński started to organize the Civil Guard to replace the evacuated police forces. He also ordered all members of the city's administration to retake their posts. In his daily radio releases he asked all civilians to construct barricades and anti-tank barriers at the outskirts of Warsaw. According to many sources from the epoch his daily speeches were a crucial factor in keeping the morale of both the soldiers and the civilians high during the Siege of Warsaw. Starzyński commanded the distribution of food, water and supplies as well as fire fighting brigades. He also managed to organise shelter for almost all civilian refugees from other parts of Poland and houses destroyed by German aerial bombardment. Before the Siege ended he became the symbol of the defence of Warsaw in 1939.

On September 27 the commanders of the besieging German forces demanded that Starzyński be present during the signing of the capitulation of Warsaw. Before the capitulation he was offered to leave the city several times. The pilot of the prototype PZL.46 Sum plane that managed to escape from internment in Romania and landed safely in besieged Warsaw offered himself to evacuate Starzyński to Lithuania. He was also proposed to go underground and receive plastic surgery in order to escape the city. He refused.

After the Germans entered the city on September 28, 1939, Starzyński was allowed to continue his service as the president of Warsaw. He was active in organisation of life in the occupied city as well as its reconstruction after the German terror bombing campaign. At the same time he became one of the organizers of Służba Zwycięstwu Polski, the first underground organisation in occupied Poland that eventually became the Armia Krajowa. Among other things he provided it with thousands of clean forms of ID cards, birth registry forms and passports. Those documents were later used in validation of false identities of many members of the resistance.

On October 5, he was arrested by the Gestapo and, together with several other prominent inhabitants of Warsaw, held hostage as a warrant of safety of Adolf Hitler during a parade of victory held in Warsaw. The following day all of them were released. On October 27, 1939 he was again arrested by the Gestapo and imprisoned in the Pawiak prison. In December he was yet again offered to escape, but he again refused claiming that it would be too costly to those involved in his escape.

His fate remains unknown. According to the most probable version he was transferred to Moabit prison in Berlin and then to Dachau concentration camp where he died. However, several accounts assume that he was either transferred to a potash mine in Baelberge or that he was held hostage in Warsaw until the outbreak of the Warsaw Uprising. The most probable date of his death is October 17, 1943 (shot to death in the Dachau concentration camp).
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Old February 27th, 2013, 04:37 PM   #27
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This thread is so awesome and makes me want to cry at the same time. Awesome photos and histories. Keep em' coming!!!
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Old February 27th, 2013, 06:06 PM   #28
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Ulica Bielańska - Bielańska street

Moving from Theatre square over to Bielańska street


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/t...atralny_08.jpg




http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/26/26565.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/241/241553.jpg
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Old February 27th, 2013, 06:27 PM   #29
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Bank Polski - Bank of Poland (Ulica Bielańska 10)

When Poland regained its independence in 1918, it was lacking a central bank. Following the State Treasury Repair Act of January 11, 1924, minister Władysław Grabski created a new Bank of Poland (Bank Polski, Warsaw) as a joint stock company. Its stock was soon raised from the initial 100,000,000 złotych to 150 million, split onto 1.5 million shares. The bank was independent of the government of Poland, though it carried out its monetary policies.

Polish Zloty in the interwar years


http://numistat.pl/wp/wp-content/upl...9dzywojnia.jpg



As the main shareholder, the President of Poland had the right to name the chairman and deputy chairman of the bank's board of trustees.
Prior to the Polish Defensive War of 1939 against Third Reich and Soviet Union, all of the gold reserves (57.000 kg) were evacuated from Poland to the Banque de France (Paris) and then most of it to London and Canada.

The old building at Bielańska-Street Nr. 10 was very badly damaged by German forces during the Warsaw uprising in August 1944.


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/118/118080.jpg



Interiors:



Operational hall






http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/14/14814.jpg

Vault - Polish gold reserves

http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/362/362986.jpg

Next post: Nalewki street and an introduction to Jewish Warsaw
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Old February 27th, 2013, 08:21 PM   #30
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Oslo, you deserve an award for all this research. Great work.

I wish they would rebuild that park in front of Theater Square. It was such a classy place. I think there's a parking lot there now.

Are the interiors of the theater and the Ratusz (city hall) similar to what they used to be?
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Old February 27th, 2013, 08:24 PM   #31
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I agree, the parking area in front of the theater takes away from the atmosphere. Those old pics with the greenery in front make the whole building look more attractive, IMO.
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Old February 27th, 2013, 08:55 PM   #32
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Quote:
Originally Posted by rychlik View Post
Oslo, you deserve an award for all this research. Great work.

I wish they would rebuild that park in front of Theater Square. It was such a classy place. I think there's a parking lot there now.

Are the interiors of the theater and the Ratusz (city hall) similar to what they used to be?
Unfortunately, the theater is much larger now than before the war (extensions in the 1960´s), while the city hall is recently rebuilt (1990´s) but is no longer home to Warsaw´s city council (which is a shame) but the headquarter of one of Poland´s largest banks. (CitiBank Bank Handlowy). The interior in the reconstructed city hall was not recreated and is thereby modern bank offices.
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Old February 27th, 2013, 09:40 PM   #33
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Ulica Nalewki/Nalewki street - An introduction to Jewish Warsaw (This street no longer exist in post-war Warsaw)



Before World War II, Warsaw was a major center of Jewish life and culture in Poland. Warsaw's prewar Jewish population of more than 350,000 constituted about 30 percent of the city's total population. The Warsaw Jewish community was the largest in both Poland and Europe, and was the second largest in the world, second only to New York City.

If Warsaw (Muranow borough) was the Jewish capital of Europe, then Nalewki street was making up its heart. If you wanted to feel the pre-war jewish spirit of Warsaw, then you had to visit jewish Warsaw´s answer to the Royal way. Cafees, shops in backyard streets, hotels, small and large synagogues, Kosher restaurants and jewish museums. This and much more could be found in the most bustling and important street in Jewish Warsaw.

Film about Jewish Warsaw in 1939


The street was stretching from Simons passage and Warsaw´s Arsenal (Dluga Street) going along the Krasinski garden and passing the most important landmarks of jewish Warsaw and stretching all the way up to Plac Muranowski (Muranowski Square).

Stretch Dluga - Krasinski gardens

http://naszastolica.blox.pl/resource/Nalewki_2b.jpg


http://bi.gazeta.pl/im/86/b4/bc/z123...z-Simmonsa.jpg

Warsaw Arsenal

http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/d...dluga_1938.jpg

Stretch along the Krasinski gardens

http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/n...alewki_012.jpg

Krasinski gardens


http://www.studiop2.pl/starawarszawa...inskich_02.jpg


http://www.studiop2.pl/starawarszawa...inskich_03.jpg


http://www.studiop2.pl/starawarszawa...inskich_04.jpg

Backyard "shopping street"

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/220/220380.jpg


http://www.stacjamuranow.art.pl/files/nalewki.jpg


http://www.ushmm.org/lcmedia/photo/l...e/05/05543.jpg


http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-tYnOYXx4Td...1-G-5867-4.jpg

Moving further up Nalewki street.

Stretch Nowolipy - Gesia street

http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/n...alewki_013.jpg


http://fotopolska.eu/foto/129/129874.jpg

Stretch Gesia street - Franciszkanska street

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/26/26560.jpg

Stretch Franciszkanska sreet - Plac Muranowski (Muranowski square)

http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/n...nalewki_05.jpg


http://fotopolska.eu/foto/115/115591.jpg


http://www.sztetl.org.pl/getfile2.ph...y=800&id=20542

Next post: Plac Muranowski - Muranowski square
I will be making seperate posts about pre-war Warsaw´s rich Jewish cultural and commercial life, the most important synagogues, Jewish theaters etc.
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Old February 28th, 2013, 04:11 AM   #34
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Old February 28th, 2013, 08:58 AM   #35
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What palace is this? Never seen it before.

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Old February 28th, 2013, 04:49 PM   #36
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http://www.warszawa1939.pl/index_arc...wskiego_4&r3=0
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Old February 28th, 2013, 09:11 PM   #37
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amazing work! really enjoy reading it and looking at the pictures, many I've never seen before.
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Warsaw Post-War Reconstruction to Present

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Old February 28th, 2013, 09:38 PM   #38
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Plac Muranowski - Muranowski square

It was the most regular square in pre-war Warsaw. On the four sides of buildings tightly around, until 1914 it was a bustling marketplace. As in the films of Fellini - between the stalls, embossing with people at a snail's pace pushed from trams.

The Square was some kind of an extension of the Nalewki street flowing like a river into the sea. Today, it is difficult to even determine where it is located - is more or less where Anders street connects with the Stawki street.

Jewish Warsaw. Muranowski square

In 1686 near present-day monument to the Fallen and Murdered in the East, once stood the baroque palace Murano - owned by architect Joseph Simon Bellotti. In 1761 it became the property of architect James Fontana, and in the 80s in the Eighteenth century the Crown I.M. metrykanta Słomińskiego and from that moment the palace began to fall into disrepair. With time, the palace is laid out in front of a rectangular square. In the words of historian Eugene Szwankowski, in the early years of the last century there where tenement houses, a brewery and a few wooden mansions. In 1818 the square became a horse market, and here serveral circus performances where played by the Jewish theater.

The square was connected directly with Mila street, Muranowska street, Pokorna Street, Sierakowska street and Przebieg street. The area around Sierakowska and Pokorna were mainly inhabited by wealthier business owners engaged in the leather industry (manufactures of small leather goods, artificial flowers etc.)

In the mid-nineteenth century, the horse market was replaced by a bazaar.

Prior to 1914, the marketplace, ironically located right next to a police station, was taken over by criminals. Merchants complained that "gangs of thieves were forcing on them fixed charges, threatening to otherwise beaten and destroy their garnishment.

In 1909, the square was connected with the Muranow tram line, which soon caused problems as it had to squeeze way between the market stalls. Muranowski Square, which gradually grew to the rank of the central point of the Jewish district, ceased to exist – like the whole area itself – in 1943 after the fall of the Ghetto Uprising. A few houses which survived were burned down during the Warsaw Uprising in 1944. The last traces of the square disappeared in 1950s.


http://bi.gazeta.pl/im/48/3e/bd/z124...u-usunieto.jpg


http://kolejkamarecka.pun.pl/_fora/k...1212669430.jpg


http://www.kolejkamarecka.pun.pl/_fo...1288900916.jpg

[IMG]http://i38.************/aqqyo.jpg[/IMG]
http://i38.************/aqqyo.jpg

[IMG]http://i33.************/358cfnb.jpg[/IMG]
http://i33.************/358cfnb.jpg


http://www.sztetl.org.pl/getfile2.ph...y=800&id=20530

Next post: The Warsaw citadel - The most northern point in our tour around pre-war Warsaw.
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Last edited by Oslo2022; May 12th, 2013 at 11:59 PM.
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Old March 1st, 2013, 04:29 AM   #39
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Oslo2022 View Post
Ulica Nalewki/Nalewki street - An introduction to Jewish Warsaw (This street no longer exist in post-war Warsaw)



Before World War II, Warsaw was a major center of Jewish life and culture in Poland. Warsaw's prewar Jewish population of more than 350,000 constituted about 30 percent of the city's total population. The Warsaw Jewish community was the largest in both Poland and Europe, and was the second largest in the world, second only to New York City.

If Warsaw (Muranow borough) was the Jewish capital of Europe, then Nalewki street was making up its heart. If you wanted to feel the pre-war jewish spirit of Warsaw, then you had to visit jewish Warsaw´s answer to the Royal way. Cafees, shops in backyard streets, hotels, small and large synagogues, Kosher restaurants and jewish museums. This and much more could be found in the most bustling and important street in Jewish Warsaw.

Film about Jewish Warsaw in 1939


The street was stretching from Simons passage and Warsaw´s Arsenal (Dluga Street) going along the Krasinski garden and passing the most important landmarks of jewish Warsaw and stretching all the way up to Plac Muranowski (Muranowski Square).



Oh God - this is heartbreaking. The Jews of Warsaw in 1939. They could not know what would happen in a few months.

No one in Poland, Jewish or Christian, could know


Almost everyone in that video will be dead within three or four years.
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Old March 1st, 2013, 03:20 PM   #40
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Cytadela Warszawska - Warsaw Citadel

The Citadel was built by personal order of Tsar Nicholas I after the 1830 November Uprising. Its chief architect, Major General Johan Jakob von Daehn (Ivan Dehn), used the plan of the citadel in Antwerp as the basis for his own plan (the same that was demolished by the French later that year). The cornerstone was laid by Field Marshal Ivan Paskevich, de facto viceroy of Congress Poland.

The fortress is a pentagon-shaped brick structure with high outer walls, enclosing an area of 36 hectares. Its construction required the demolition of 76 residential buildings and the forcible resettlement of 15,000 inhabitants.

Work on it commenced May 31, 1832, on the site of a demolished monastery and of the estate of Fawory. Officially it ended May 4, 1834, to mark the 18th birthday of Russian Crown Prince Alexander, for whom it was named. In reality, however, the fortress was not completed until 1874. The cost of construction came to 11 million rubles (roughly 8.5 tonnes of pure gold or 128 million euro at today's' prices), a colossal sum by 19th-century standards, and was borne entirely by the city of Warsaw and the Bank of Poland, as yet another punishment for the failed uprising.


Russian artillery and walls, seen from inside
In peacetime, some 5,000 Russian troops were stationed there. During the 1863 January Uprising, the garrison was reinforced to over 16,000. By 1863 the fortress housed 555 artillery pieces of various calibers, and could cover most of the city center with artillery fire.

104 prison casemates were built, providing cells for 2,940, mostly political, prisoners. Most notably, is included the Tenth Pavilion. The list of Poles imprisoned and/or executed there up through World War I reads like a Who's Who of notable patriots and revolutionaries. They include persons as diverse as Apollo Korzeniowski, writer, political activist and father of Joseph Conrad; Romuald Traugutt, leader of the 1863 January Uprising; Jarosław Dąbrowski, later military chief of the 1871 Paris Commune; Feliks Dzierżyński, a leader of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and founder of the Cheka secret police; the Marxist theoretician and revolutionary, Rosa Luxemburg; the future Marshal of Poland, Józef Piłsudski; Piłsudski's political archrival, Roman Dmowski; and Eligiusz Niewiadomski, assassin of Poland's first president, Gabriel Narutowicz.

The Citadel's Tenth Pavilion has, since 1963, served as a museum.
Well before the turn of the 19th to 20th century, it was apparent that such traditional fortifications had been made obsolete by modern rifled artillery. The Tsarist authorities had planned in 1913 to raze the fortress, but the process had not begun before the outbreak of World War I.

In 1915 Warsaw was occupied by German forces with little opposition from the Russian garrison, which abandoned the fortress and withdrew east. The Germans blew up several of its structures, but the main part of the Citadel remained intact and German forces performed a mass execution of 42 people in 1916.

After Poland regained her independence in 1918, the Citadel was taken over by the Polish Army. It was used as a garrison, infantry training center, and depot for materiel.


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/367/367308.jpg

Pavillon number 1

http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/c...d/pawilon1.jpg

Pavillon number 2

http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/c...d/pawilon2.jpg

Pavillon number 3 (main one)


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/c...d/pawilon3.jpg




http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/c...awilon3_01.jpg

The notorious Pavillon X

http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/c...wilon10_01.jpg


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/c...wilon10_02.jpg

Marshall Pilsudski´s cell

http://img600.imageshack.us/img600/9854/384369.jpg

Bielanska Gate

http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/c...elanska_01.jpg


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/c.../bielanska.jpg

Kosciol Sw. Jerzego - St. George church

http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/c...ld/kosciol.jpg

The execution gate

http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/c...stracen_07.jpg


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/c...stracen_16.jpg


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/c...stracen_15.jpg

Next post: Back to Jewish Warsaw, Zamenhof street.
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