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Old March 8th, 2013, 09:10 PM   #61
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these pictures are startling.
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Warsaw Post-War Reconstruction to Present

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Old March 9th, 2013, 09:30 PM   #62
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Plac Saski/Pilsudskiego - Saxon/Pilsudski square

The Piłsudski Square (Polish: Plac Marszałka Józefa Piłsudskiego), previously Saxon Square, is the largest square of Poland's capital, located in the Warsaw city centre. The Square is named for Marshal Józef Piłsudski who was instrumental in the restoration of Polish statehood after World War I.

Over the centuries, the square has been named successively as the Saxon Square (Plac Saski) after Poland's Saxon kings with the Saxon Palace standing adjacent to the square, but destroyed in World War II; then the Piłsudski Square (after Józef Piłsudski) during Second Polish Republic; then briefly, the Adolf Hitler Platz during Germany's World War II occupation of Warsaw; and, after 1946, the Victory Square (Polish: Plac Zwycięstwa) in honor of Poland's and her allies' victory in World War II. At present, it is again called the Piłsudski Square.

The Square has been the scene of many historic events over the centuries. Important guests of Warsaw and Poland have been officially welcomed there. The Military parades were held at the Square since the 19th century Partitions. From the 1890s to the 1920s, the Tsarist Alexander Nevsky Cathedral stood there also, until it was dismantled in newly independent Poland.

Overview of the square as seen in 1920-1921

http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/13/13019.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/238/238428.jpg

Overview in the 1930´s

https://fbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.n...78944159_n.jpg

1930´s:

http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/p...d/plac_018.jpg


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/p...ld/plac_11.jpg


http://img15.imageshack.us/img15/2632/placsaski.jpg


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/p...d/plac_016.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/316/316138.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/113/113116.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/26/26367.jpg


http://www.studiop2.pl/starawarszawa...c_saski_12.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/136/136393.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/110/110413.jpg

Even this ******* visited Pilsudski square (1939)

http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/14/14773.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/213/213378.jpg

Marshall Józef Piłsudski

Józef Piłsudski, 5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman—Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal" (from 1920), and leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic. From mid-World War I he had a major influence in Poland's politics, and was an important figure on the European political scene. He is considered largely responsible for the creation of the Second Republic of Poland in 1918, 123 years after the Partitions.

Under Piłsudski, Poland annexed Vilnius from Lithuania following Żeligowski's Mutiny but was unable to incorporate most of his Lithuanian homeland into the newly resurrected Polish State.
Early in his political career, Piłsudski became a leader of the Polish Socialist Party. Concluding, however, that Poland's independence would have to be won by force of arms, he created the Polish Legions. In 1914 he anticipated the outbreak of a European war, the Russian Empire's defeat by the Central Powers, and the Central Powers' defeat by the western powers.

When World War I broke out, he and his Legions fought alongside the Austro-Hungarian and German Empire's to ensure Russia's defeat. In 1917, with Russia faring badly in the war, he withdrew his support from the Central Powers.

From November 1918, when Poland regained independence, until 1922 Piłsudski was Poland's Chief of State. In 1919–21 he commanded Poland's forces in the Polish-Soviet War. In 1923, with the Polish government dominated by his opponents, particularly the National Democrats, he withdrew from active politics. Three years later, he returned to power with the May 1926 coup d'état, and became the de facto ruler of Poland. An Italian fascist ambassador to Warsaw described him as "a liberal democrat in the clothes of an old-world knight". From then until his death in 1935, he concerned himself primarily with military and foreign affairs.

For at least thirty years until his death, Piłsudski pursued, with varying degrees of intensity, two complementary strategies, intended to enhance Poland's security: "Prometheism", which aimed at breaking up, successively, Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union into their constituent nations; and the creation of an Intermarum federation, comprising Poland and several of her neighbors. Though a number of his political acts remain controversial, Piłsudski's memory is held in high esteem by his compatriots.


http://m.ocdn.eu/_m/998132b32391928b...1a6f9,21,1.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/129/129357.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/385/385367.jpg

Next post: Palac Bruhla - Bruhl Palace
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Old March 10th, 2013, 01:30 PM   #63
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Pałac Brühla - Brühl Palace (Ministry for Foreign Affairs)

The palace was built between 1639-42 by Lorenzo de Sent for Crown Grand Chancellor Jerzy Ossoliński in Mannerist style. It was built on the plan of elongated rectangular with two hexagonal towers at garden side of the building.

The palace was adorned with sculptures - allegory of Poland above the main portal, four figures of kings of Poland in the niches and a statue of Minerva crowning the roof. Possible inspiration to palace's upper parts pavilion with characteristic roof was Bonifaz Wohlmut's reconstruction of Belvedere in Prague, 1557-1563.


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/365/365391.jpg

After the Chancellor's death the property was inherited by his daughter Helena Tekla Ossolińska, wife of Aleksander Michał Lubomirski, Starost of Sandomierz (from whom it takes its name). Later, between 1681–96, it was rebuilt and remodeled by Tylman Gamerski and Giovanni Bellotti for Prince Józef Karol Lubomirski - Aleksander Michał's son.
In 1750, Heinrich von Brühl bought the palace as a residence. Between 1754-59 it was rebuilt according to designs by Johann Friedrich Knöbel and Joachim Daniel von Jauch.

The palace was enhanced and covered with a mansard roof. Two outbuildings were added to the palace complex surrounding a triangular courtyard that sometimes served as a parade ground. From that time the palace was known as the Brühl Palace.

On 27 May 1787, the Palace played a key role in a plot by Russian ambassador to Poland, Otto Magnus von Stackelberg. He derailed yet another Polish policy which seemed threatening to Russia. With few major wars in the past decades, the economy of the Commonwealth was improving, and its budget had a notable surplus. Many voices said that the money should be spent on increasing the size, and providing new equipment for, the Polish army. However, as a large Polish army could be a threat to the Russian garrisons controlling Poland, von Stackelberg ordered his proxies in the Permanent Council to spent the money on a different goal: for the huge sum of 1 million zloty's (representing most of the surplus), the Council bought the Brühl Palace - and promptly donated it to 'Poland's ally', Russia, to serve as Russia's new embassy.

At the end of the eighteenth century, Dominik Merlini gave the interior a neoclassical look.

During 1932-37 the palace was adapted for use as the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the new Polish Republic. The architect this time was Adam Pniewski, who added a new modern building and modernized the interiors of all the buildings in the palace complex.

It was deliberately and completely destroyed by the Germans on December 18, 1944 (during World War II)


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/p..._bruhla_31.jpg


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/p..._bruhla_10.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/9/9069.jpg


http://img543.imageshack.us/img543/5...przedwojna.png


http://www.klasa11.webd.pl/main/represje/bruhl.jpg


http://img515.imageshack.us/img515/2883/0501k.jpg


http://img21.imageshack.us/img21/6836/0502o.jpg


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/p..._bruhla_37.jpg


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/p..._bruhla_05.jpg

Backside (from Freta street):

http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/84/84898.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/251/251983.jpg


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/p...o/old/79_1.jpg

Next post: Pałac Saski - Saxon Palace
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Old March 10th, 2013, 02:40 PM   #64
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Tiaren View Post
Warsaw sure was a great city, but I honestly doubt that. Especially comparing it with Rome...
You are right, nevertheless Warsaw was one of the biggest cities in Europe before the war - in 1939 it had 1,3 mln inhabitants - more or less same size like Madrid or Rome at that times.
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Old March 10th, 2013, 06:00 PM   #65
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Just a few degrees to the left...


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Old March 10th, 2013, 10:33 PM   #66
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Pałac Saski - Saxon Palace

The Saxon Palace had originally been a private palace of the Morsztyn family (Pałac Morsztynów), then had been purchased and enlarged by the first of Poland's two Saxon kings, August II (reigned in Poland 1697–1706 and 1709–33).


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/p.../old/palac.jpg

In the early 19th century, the Saxon Palace housed the Warsaw Lyceum in which Frederick Chopin's father taught French, living with his family on the palace grounds. The baroque Palace was remodeled in 1842.


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/p...go/old/126.jpg

After World War I, the Saxon Palace served as the seat of the Polish General Staff. In 1925, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier was established within the colonnade-topped arcade that joined the Palace's two symmetric wings.

The Palace continued to be sandwiched between the Saxon Garden, to its rear, and the Saxon Square in front (which would be renamed Piłsudski Square after the Marshal's death in 1935).

It was in this building that the German Enigma machine cipher was first broken in December 1932 and then read for several years prior to the General Staff Cipher Bureau German section's 1937 move to new, specially designed quarters near Pyry in the Kabaty Woods south of Warsaw.

During World War II, the Saxon Palace was blown up in december 1944 by the Germans as part of the planned destruction of Warsaw after the collapse of the Warsaw Uprising in 1944.




http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/p...c_saski_10.jpg


https://fbcdn-sphotos-a-a.akamaihd.n...92393360_o.jpg


https://fbcdn-sphotos-c-a.akamaihd.n...09074177_o.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/316/316138.jpg


http://www.studiop2.pl/starawarszawa...c_saski_03.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/369/369537.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/370/370104.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/368/368870.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/371/371363.jpg

One more thing...
Please support the initiative to rebuild the Saxon palace and Bruhl palace (Saski 2018)!
https://www.facebook.com/Saski2018




http://img189.imageshack.us/img189/8509/warsaw.jpg

Next post: Grób Nieznanego Żołnierza - Tomb of the unknown soldier
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Old March 10th, 2013, 11:01 PM   #67
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Grób Nieznanego Żołnierza - Tomb of the unknown soldier

In 1923, a group of unknown Varsovians placed, before Warsaw's Saxon Palace and the adjacent Saxon Garden, a stone tablet commemorating all the unknown Polish soldiers who had fallen in World War I and the subsequent Polish-Soviet War. This initiative was taken up by several Warsaw newspapers and by General Władysław Sikorski. On April 4, 1925, the Polish Ministry of War selected a battlefield from which the ashes of an unknown soldier would be brought to Warsaw. Of some 40 battles, that for Lwów was chosen. In October 1925, at Lwów's Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów, three coffins were exhumed: those of an unknown sergeant, corporal and private. The coffin that was to be transported to Warsaw was chosen by Jadwiga Zarugiewiczowa, mother of a soldier who had fallen at Zadwórze and whose body had never been found.

On November 2, 1925, the coffin was brought to Warsaw's St. John's Cathedral, where a Mass was held. Afterward eight recipients of the order of Virtuti Militari bore the coffin to its final resting place beneath the colonnade joining the two wings of the Saxon Palace. The coffin was buried along with 14 urns containing soil from as many battlegrounds, a Virtuti Militari medal, and a memorial tablet. Since then, except under German occupation during World War II, an honor guard has continuously been held before the Tomb.


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/366/366846.jpg

Ceremony of the burying of the coffins (veterans of the January Uprising 1863 are displayed)

http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/102/102306.jpg

The Tomb was designed by the famous Polish sculptor, Stanisław Kazimierz Ostrowski. It was located within the arcade that linked the two symmetric wings of the Saxon Palace, then the seat of the Polish Ministry of War. The central tablet was ringed by 5 eternal flames and 4 stone tablets bearing the names and dates of battles in which Polish soldiers had fought during World War I and the Polish-Soviet War (1919–21). Behind the Tomb were two steel gratings bearing emblems of Poland's two highest Polish military decorations — the Virtuti Militari and Cross of Valor.
During the 1939 invasion of Poland, the building was slightly damaged by German aerial bombing, but it was quickly rebuilt and seized by the German authorities. After the Warsaw Uprising, in December 1944, the palace was completely demolished by the Wehrmacht. Only part of the central colonnade, sheltering the Tomb, was preserved.
After the war, in late 1945, reconstruction began. Only a small part of the palace, containing the Tomb, was restored by Henryk Grunwald. On 8 May 1946 it was opened to the public. Soil from 24 additional battlegrounds was added to the urns, as well as more tablets with names of battles in which Poles had fought in World War II. However, the communist authorities erased all trace of the Polish-Soviet War of 1920, and only a few of the Polish Armed Forces' battles in the West were included. This was corrected in 1990, after Poland had regained its political autonomy.


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/20/20073.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/350/350751.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/18/18569.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/13/13659.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/122/122542.jpg

Next post: Ogrod Saski - Saxon Gardens
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Old March 10th, 2013, 11:24 PM   #68
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As I understood near Saxony palace was ortodox church and it was demolished during interwar?
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Old March 11th, 2013, 12:02 AM   #69
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Exactly, the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was consecrated in 1912 en demolished in the mid 1920s.

After Poland regained its independence in 1918, the fate of the cathedral was the subject of an intense debate for a number of years. It was perceived by the Polish inhabitants of Warsaw as a symbol of Russian domination and hence was very unpopular, and while some considered it a great work of architecture that should be preserved, the Stefan Batory University Arts Faculty estimated it as having little artistic value...
In the end, despite a few protests, it was demolished in 1924–1926, along with all but two Orthodox churches in Warsaw. Adding to the political and nation-wide character to the destruction of the largest Orthodox Cathedral in interwar Poland, the Warsaw magistrate issued public bonds to "give a chance to every Pole to take part in the action." The bonds were backed by the value of the materials recovered during demolition.

from Wikipedia
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Old March 11th, 2013, 12:21 AM   #70
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Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Warsaw

The cathedral was designed by distinguished Russian architect Leon Benois, and was built between 1894 and 1912. When it was finally completed, it was 70 metres in height, at that time, the tallest building in Warsaw. It was demolished in mid-1920s by the Polish authorities.


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi..._1910-e_02.jpg


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...8Aerial%29.jpg
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Old March 11th, 2013, 12:57 AM   #71
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Quote:
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Exactly, the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was consecrated in 1912 en demolished in the mid 1920s.

[i]After Poland regained its independence in 1918, the fate of the cathedral was the subject of an intense debate for a number of years. It was perceived by the Polish inhabitants of Warsaw as a symbol of Russian domination and hence was very unpopular, and while some considered it a great work of architecture that should be preserved, the Stefan Batory University Arts Faculty estimated it as having little artistic value...
In the end, despite a few protests, it was demolished in 1924–1926, along with all but two Orthodox churches in Warsaw.
Four, to be precise. Still, a pity that the rest haven't survived
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Old March 11th, 2013, 01:43 AM   #72
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It was a great looking church but very out of place.
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Old March 11th, 2013, 04:13 PM   #73
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Ogrod Saski - Saxon Gardens

The Saxon Garden was originally the site of Warsaw fortifications, "Sigismund's Ramparts," and of a palace built in 1666 for the powerful aristocrat, Jan Andrzej Morsztyn. The garden was extended in the reign of King Augustus II, who attached it to the "Saxon Axis", a line of parks and palaces linking the western outskirts of Warsaw with the Vistula River.

The park of the adjoining Saxon Palace was opened to the public on 27 May 1727.[4] It became a public park before Versailles (1791), the Pavlovsk Palace, Peterhof Palace and Summer Garden (1918), Villa d'Este (1920), Kuskovo (1939), Stourhead (1946), Sissinghurst (1967), Stowe (1990), Vaux-le-Vicomte (1990s), and most other world-famous parks and gardens.

Saxon garden right before it became a public park.

http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/s...od_09_1726.jpg

Initially a Baroque French-style park, in the 19th century it was turned into a Romantic English-style landscape park. Destroyed during and after the Warsaw Uprising, it was partly reconstructed after World War II.

The garden was a typical example of the Baroque extension of formal vistas inspired by the park of Versailles. The park starts from the back façade of the palace, flanking a long alley with many sculptures. The central avenue lead directly to the palace, as was usual in French parks of the era.

Following the completion of the Saxon Palace, the surroundings were included in the structure. The Brühl Palace and The Blue Palace, as well as the pavilion known as The Great Salon, were all raised or rebuilt during the initial construction of Saxon Establishment during the reign of Augustus II. A baroque flower garden with pieces of turf, flower beds, hedges and trees was created.

These gardens extended the central axis of a symmetrical building façade in rigorously symmetrical axial designs of patterned parterres, gravel walks and formally-planted bosquets. The parterres were laid out from 1713 by Joachim Heinrich Schultze and Gothard Paul Thörl from 1735.


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...u_Saskiego.JPGS

Interwar years:

http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/s...d_017_1897.jpg

Sandstone statues, a part of the rich collection of sculptures removed to Saint Petersburg after recapturing the city by Marshal Suvorov in 1794, and placed in the Summer Garden. According to the 1745 plan of the Saxon Garden there were 70 postuments in the Garden, and in 1797 there were only 37 sculptures left; only 20 of them have been preserved until our times. Four of these sculptures were completely destroyed during the blowing up of the Saxon Palace in 1944, but they were later reconstructed.[5] Included are groups of sculptures, including Arithmetic, Astrology, Bacchus, Flora, Geography, two sculptures identified as Glory, Instruct, Intelligence, Intellect, Justice, Medicine, Military Architecture, Painting, Poetry, Rationality, Science, Sculpture, Venus and Winter. They were generally made before 1745 by anonymous Warsaw sculptors under the direction of Johann Georg Plersch.

Fountain
With an elaborately carved plaque resting on a shell form basin supported by a scrolled bracket, is often used by dating couples as their meeting place. It was established in 1855. The fountain is the centrepiece of gardens designed by the 19th-century designer Henryk Marconi and also one of most precious urban symbols of Warsaw.


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/159/159980.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/338/338911.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/147/147978.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/371/371364.jpg


https://fbcdn-sphotos-c-a.akamaihd.n...93341028_n.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/273/273749.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/8/8996.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/173/173259.jpg

Water Tower
In the northwest part of the Saxon Garden, is situated by the ornamental lake surrounded by willows. This classicist water tower in the shape of a Roman monopteros was modelled on the Temple of Vesta in Tivoli. It was designed in 1852 by the architect Henryk Marconi.


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/f...res/03908v.jpg


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/s...d/ogrod_02.jpg

Summer Theatre
A popular summer variéte theatre, existed between 1870 and 1939. It was under Stanisław Moniuszko's "rule" at the Teatr Wielki that the wooden Summer Theatre was built in the Saxon Garden, between the Water Tower building and the Blue Palace by Aleksander Zabierzowski. From then on, summer performances from the Warsaw theatres were shown there every year. At the time, the Summer Theatre could seat an audience of 1,065. Helena Modjeska and Pola Negri made several appearance there. The theatre burned in September 1939 following a direct hit by an incendiary bomb and was never restored.


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/19/19207.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/353/353979.jpg


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/saski/old/184.jpg

Palm House
Modeled after Victorian glass and iron structures in England, was built in 1894. It was created specifically for the exotic palms being collected and introduced to Europe in the 19th century. The elegant design, with its unobstructed space for the spreading crowns of the tall palms, was a perfect marriage of form and function. The structure was destroyed during the Warsaw Uprising and Planned destruction of Warsaw and was never restored.


http://www.warszawa1939.pl/zdjecia/s...anzeria_03.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/21/21798.jpg

Structures destroyed in the 19th century

The Great Salon
Situated on the axis in the center of the Saxon Garden, was intended simply to provide a suitable end to the main garden axis. It was constructed after 1720 according to Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann's design. The building was opened to the garden by semicircular porte-fenętres and oculuses. A terrace above the ground level of the building was enclosed by an attic decorated with vases; also, two outhouses from both sides were added. The Great Salon was demolished in 1817.

The Iron Gate
The Iron gate was a part of The Saxon Establishment, which itself had a shape of a pentagon covered an area of around 17 ha. The gate was constructed according to Joachim Daniel von Jauch's design after 1735,[11] together with other buildings of the Saxon Axis border, like Mounted Crown Guards barracks, a wall with bastions from the south and west, or the Blue Palace. It was embellished with cartouches with Polish and Lithuanian Coats of Arms. The Gate was demolished in 1821.


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/265/265107.jpg

Iron gate

http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/265/265106.jpg

Next post: Ulica Krolewska - Krolewska street
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Old March 12th, 2013, 12:45 AM   #74
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September 1939!!

















https://www.facebook.com/PreWarWarsaw
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Last edited by rychlik; March 12th, 2013 at 12:54 AM.
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Old March 12th, 2013, 12:50 AM   #75
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Quote:
Originally Posted by rychlik View Post
Great images, Rychlik!

Here are some few more.

New town

https://fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.n...37937803_n.jpg

Saxon Palace

https://fbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.n...51604315_o.jpg

Bruhl Palace

https://fbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.n...71208671_o.jpg
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Nĺ er det lenge siden 1952!

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Old March 12th, 2013, 01:10 AM   #76
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Old March 12th, 2013, 01:21 AM   #77
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Old March 12th, 2013, 01:24 AM   #78
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Old March 12th, 2013, 02:41 AM   #79
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Remarkable, poignant photos.
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“In keeping silent about evil, in burying it so deep within us that no sign of it appears on the surface, we are implanting it, and it will rise up a thousand fold in the future. When we neither punish nor reproach evildoers we are thereby ripping the foundations of justice from beneath new generations.”

“The meaning of earthly existence lies not, as we have grown used to thinking, in prospering but in the development of the soul.”
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"We are more closely connected to the invisible than to the visible"

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Old March 12th, 2013, 05:34 AM   #80
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New trams imported from Belgium.
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