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Old January 28th, 2014, 10:49 PM   #121
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Poznań Bishops’ Palace in Ciążen

The bishops of Poznań were granted property by Duke Przemysł. There are 14th-century records of a defensive bishops’ residence. The present palace was erected between 1760 and 1768, with the finishing touches being added at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. It was most likely designed by an architect from Warsaw’s Jakub Fontana circle, probably Jˇzef Sacco.

The establishment was meant to consist of a complex of buildings behind two cours d’honneur. The palace on the high right bank of the Warta and a regular horticultural establishment exploiting the natural terrain, were all that was built. The palace is an impressive three-storey building with mansard roofs on a rectangular plan.
The front and rear elevations have been accentuated along an axis and the outermost parts have flat fake projections with pediments filled with sculptural decorations.

The interior has a two-bay room arrangement. The ground floor has a spacious vestibule in the middle of the front part and a salon in the rear row of rooms. The superb stuccoed walls and ceiling rims still survive in the two salons on the residential level. Rococo motifs and ornaments interlaced with scenic and architectural themes were used here.

Ciążeń was the summer residence of the Poznań bishops until 1818. Following the confiscation of church property, ownership passed to Count Wacław Gutakowski, a lieutenant in Napoleon’s chevau-lÚgers who had married Jˇzefa Grudzińska, the sister of Joanna, wife of Grand Duke Konstantin. The state assumed ownership in 1924. It now houses a branch of the University Library (with the largest Masonic collection in Europe*) and the Artists Retreat of the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, as well as guest rooms.


author: Robert Jacek Tomczak
wikimedia commons


author: Robert Jacek Tomczak
wikimedia commons


author: iwmali
polskaniezwykla.pl


author: iwmali
polskaniezwykla.pl


author: Aleksandra Warczyńska
http://regionwielkopolska.pl/


author: Aleksandra Warczyńska
http://regionwielkopolska.pl/

*
The library in the Poznań Bishops’ Palace in Ciążeń numbers some 80,000 volumes. This would not be so extraordinary were it not that they are the largest collections of Masonic literature in Europe. The collections originally came from Silesian and Pomeranian libraries and were discovered in Sława, near Wschowa, after hostilities ceased in 1945. Thay and were then transferred to the Adam Mickiewicz University Library in Poznań. The collections found their way to Ciążeń in the 1970s. They comprise roughly 40% of all collections of Freemasonry literature from before 1933. The oldest part of the collection is made up of 17th-century writings. The next oldest has thousands of timeless pieces from the 18th century and the remaining, largest, part contains 19th century writings.
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Old April 20th, 2014, 02:52 PM   #122
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Elected monarchs and Kings of the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth



Union of Lublin 1569 established the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth




Henryk Walesy (King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania) 1573-1575




http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...ryk_Walezy.jpg

Stefan Batory 1576-1586 (King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania)




http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...od_Pskowem.jpg

Zygmunt III Waza/Sigismund III Vasa (King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania 1587-1632)





After the great Victory at Klushyno in 1610


Wladyslaw IV Waza (King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania 1632-1648)





Jan II Kazimierz Waza (King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania 1648- 1668/abdication)





Failed to stop the Swedish deluge and foresaw afterwards the danger and the possibilites of Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki (King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania 1669-1673)





Jan III Sobieski (King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania 1674-1696)





Victory in Vienna and salvage of christian Europe(1683)


August II the strong (King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania 1697-1706 and 1709-1733 One of the most controversial monarchs of the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth





Stanislaw Leszczynski (King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania 1704-1709) Rival of August II who was ultimately forced to abdicate, also seen as the last King who tried to save the Commonwealth from the upcoming partitions.





August III (King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania 1733-1763) Weakened the Commonwealth as a military power and fragmented its power, but strengthened the economy and the reconstruction of the country after the swedish deluge





Stanislaw August Poniatowski (Last king of Poland and last Duke of Lithuania 1764-1795)





The final royal election in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1764


The constitution of III may 1791


The end (Partitions 1772-1795)




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Old April 20th, 2014, 03:24 PM   #123
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Palace of the Krakow Bishops - Kielce, Poland
Crown of the kingdom of Poland


The residence of the Krakˇw (Cracow) Bishops in the city of Kielce, was founded by bishop Jakub Zadzik, Great Crown Chancellor. The structure, erected between 1637 and 1644, was covered with a high-storey twin roofs and accomplished with towers on the corners.

Its symmetrical, tripartite plan, loggias, towers and interior layout refer to the Royal residences dating back the 1620s and 1630s, including Ujazdˇw Castle and the Villa Regia. The design of the palace is attributed to Tommaso Poncino of Lugano (ca. 1570–1659), author of numerous works of sacred and secular architecture in Krakˇw, Łowicz, Warsaw, Bright Mountain as well as in the Holy Cross region.

Initially before the palace was a courtyard enclosed by walls with ceremonial gateway from the city, the rear garden, called Italian, an orchard, all surrounded by a wall with embrasures and 2 bastions. One of the bastions was later converted into a gunpowder tower. The whole complex including the Collegiate Church, cour d'honneur, palace, garden and tower was aligned with a Bernardine Monastery on Karczˇwka hill (established 1624–1628).

The palace was expanded in the 18th century and converted into a French-style residence entre cour et jardin. One-storey wings were erected on both sides of the courtyard, one of them was connected by an indoor porch with the collegiate and a seminary of the Holy Trinity Church, funded by the bishop Konstanty Felicjan Szaniawski. The garden was embellished with French-style greenhouses, while large stables, coach houses, riding school, a granary and a brewery were erected in the palace complex.

After the nationalization of bishop's estates in 1789, the palace was the seat of various institutions - the Main Directorate of Mining (1816–1827) and the country's first technical university - Mining Academy and later the seat of the Kielce province authorities (1867–1914).

During the Second Republic the 17th-century cupolas on the towers, removed in the 19th century, were restored. The interior space was reconstructed - the 18th-century ceilings were removed exposing beam ceilings and friezes. Between 1919–1939 and 1945–1970 the palace housed the Provincial Office. The structure was converted into a museum in 1971.


http://ocdn.eu/images/pulscms/Nzk7MD...5348998788.jpg


http://swietokrzyskie.travel/data/mp...m_maciazek.jpg


http://gory-swietokrzyskie.eu/wp-con...rakowskich.jpg


http://www.polskaniezwykla.pl/pictur...nal/283327.jpg

Interiors

http://mnki.pl/userfiles/images/muze...326888732_.jpg


http://kielce.travel/data/mp/_itszcz...m_maciazek.jpg


http://swietokrzyskie.travel/data/mp...arodowego2.jpg


http://mnki.pl/userfiles/images/wnet..._img_3594a.jpg


http://mnki.pl/userfiles/images/wnet..._img_3564a.jpg


http://mnki.pl/userfiles/images/wnet..._img_3601a.jpg


http://mnki.pl/userfiles/images/wnet..._img_3457a.jpg

Bonus: Cathedral next to the Bishops Palace

http://kielce.travel/data/mp/_itszcz...m.maciazek.jpg


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...j_20060513.jpg

Interiors

http://www.galeriaswietokrzyska.wici...jk-wzg-17a.jpg


http://images32.fotosik.pl/353/6e0d19dcee8d64ea.jpg


http://jacekkowalczyk.pl/data/mp/_ad...m_maciazek.jpg


http://www.wrota-swietokrzyskie.pl/i...=1363081145194
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Old April 25th, 2014, 12:47 PM   #124
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Świrz Castle - Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, now Ukraine



It was originally built by the Świrski noble family in the 15th century. Inside the castle is a small church dating from 1546. The stronghold was completely rebuilt in the 17th century at the behest of its new owner, Count Aleksander Cetner (Przerowa coat of arms). It is believed that General Paweł Grodzicki was responsible for the modernisation of the castle's fortifications.

Though surrounded on all sides by moats, lakes, and marshes, the fort was taken by the rebellious Cossacks on several occasions. In 1648, the Turks set it on fire; they were less successful during the Lwˇw raid of 1672. The castle was heavily damaged during WW1, reconstruction works were completed in 1926.









Main Gate




Coat of arms of Aleksander Cetner (Przerowa) and Anna Zamoyska (Jelita)


Roman Catholic Church (founded by Andrzej Świrski, Szaława coat of arms, in 1546; now converted into Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church)


Portal with the foundation plaque (Szaława coat of arms below); tombstone of Gabriel Świrski (1550-1593)


More photos: LINK
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Old April 25th, 2014, 02:18 PM   #125
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Jazłowiec - Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, now Ukraine



First written records come from the 15th century, naming Jazłowiec as the property of the Jazłowiecki noble family (Abdank coat of arms). Later, Jazłowiec was property of the Czurył, Wolski, Bełżecki, Odrzywolski, Koniecpolski, Lubomirski, Poniatowski and Błażowski families.

Jazłowiec Castle (built in the 15th-16th century)




Portal with Abdank, Dębno, Ciołek and some destroyed coat of arms


In ca.1905


Jazłowiec Palace (built by Stanisław Koniecpolski between 1644 and 1659, rebuilt by Poniatowski family in the 18th century)




Main entrance with coat of arms of Stanisław Poniatowski (Ciołek), Konstancja Czartoryska and Order of the White Eagle


In ca.1905


Roman Catholic Church (built between 1589 and 1590, destroyed in 1945)




Portal with the foundation plaque and coat of arms of the founder, Mikołaj Jazłowiecki; tomb effigy of Mikołaj Gomˇłka


More photos: LINK
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Old April 25th, 2014, 04:07 PM   #126
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Międzybˇż - Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, now Ukraine



The construction of massive stone fortifications began in 1511. The Sieniawski family (Leliwa coat of arms), owners of Międzybˇż built a dam across the Southern Bug river to provide a defensive lake, and a rhomboid Międzybˇż Castle with four towers. The state-of-the-art fortifications made Międzybˇż one of the strongest military sites in the region and led to the rise of its prosperity in the next three centuries. In 1593 Adam Sieniawski gave the town Magdeburg rights. In the mid-16th century the Zasławski noble family turned Międzybˇż into an impregnable fortress. They used Międzybˇż as their base from which to defend the southern borders from the incursions of the Ottoman Turks and Crimean Tatars.

In 1648 the Cossack uprising led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky (Chmielnicki) captured the town 3 times and held the region for the period of 1 year. King of Poland Jan Kazimierz and Khmelnitsky negotiated a treaty in 1649, however the hostilities continued in 1651 and 1653. In 1657 the Hungarian Prince Rßkˇczi took the city, ceding it to the Turks in 1672. It remained under their administration until 1682. Weakened by the Cossack uprising, Podolia was invaded and occupied by Turkey in 1672. Międzybˇż became part of the Turkish Ejalet of Kamieniecki as "Mejibuji" and was a sanjak centre. In 1682, Międzybˇż was recaptured by the Poles under Jan III Sobieski. However, Poles didn't regain full control until 1699 because the town was frequently ravaged by ongoing struggles between the Poles and Turks.

After Międzybˇż was recaptured from the Turks, it went through what many consider its golden age during the 17th and 18th centuries. Under the Sieniawski family and later the Czartoryski family, the town prospered. Międzybˇż successfully defended itself from several Haidamak attacks. By the mid-18th century, Międzybˇż was the seat of power in Podolia Province. It had a population of nearly 5,000.

In 1792, Międzybˇż fell into Russian hands during the second partition of Poland. The Czartoryski family continued to own the town until Prince Adam Czartoryski was forced into exile in 1831.

Drawing from the 19th century






Międzybˇż Palace (built by the Sieniawski family in the 16th century)


Roman Catholic Chapel (built between 1581 and 1586 by Rafał Sieniawski)
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:09 PM   #127
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Pomorzany - Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, now Ukraine

First fortress was built between 1340 and 1350 by Mikołaj Świnka. Since the 15th century it was owned by the Sieniński family, palace expanded by Jan Sieniński in the second half of the 16th century. The estate suffered badly at the hands of the Cossacks and Turks (1675, 1684) but Jan III Sobieski invested in the restoration in order to make Pomorzany one of his country residences. Sobieski's death in 1696 was followed by another long period of decline. A real change came about in the castle's fortunes when, in 1789, Erasm Pruszyński started transforming the dilapidated building into a modern residence. He had the barbican gate, three towers and several wings of the old structure torn down, however. Before WW2, Pomorzany was owned by the famous Potocki family. Following the September Campaign, the building was adapted for use as a school, but it was finally abandoned to rot in the late 1970s.







Portal with plaque and coat of arms of the Sobieski family


Pre-war photo


Reconstruction


More photos: LINK
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:39 PM   #128
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Brzeżany - Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, now Ukraine



The castle was built on an island in the Złota Lipa river in the 1530s and 1540s by Mikołaj Sieniawski as the main residence of the Sieniawski magnate family. In 1630, the castle's fortifications were expanded. It was so well fortified that neither Khmelnitsky's Cossacks (in 1648 and 1648) nor the Turks (in 1675) succeeded in taking it.

In 1655, it was surrendered to the Swedes without a fight. After Maria Zofia Sieniawska's marriage to August Aleksander Czartoryski, the castle passed to the Czartoryski family (1726), then to the Princes Lubomirski (1778) and to the Counts Potocki (1816). After partitions of Poland, the ramparts have been removed, moat filled and military garrison liquidated. Stanisław Potocki (1824-1887) renovated the castle partially in 1861 and in 1876 r. he ordered renovation of the church. The castle was heavily damaged during WW1 and WW2.



Brzeżany castle in the second half of the 19th century


Main Gate with coat of arms of Mikołaj Sieniawski (Leliwa) and the White Eagle




Pre-war photos - LINK
More photos - LINK2
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Old April 25th, 2014, 06:54 PM   #129
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Obroszyn - Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, now Ukraine



The Baroque palace in Obroszyn (summer residence of Lwˇw Archbishops) was built by Jan Skarbek in 1730. Damaged during WW1, restored by Bronisław Wiktor in 1922.


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Old April 26th, 2014, 11:44 AM   #130
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Map of castles and fortifications in today's Ukraine built between the 15th and 18th centuries...


Interactive map: LINK
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Old April 26th, 2014, 12:02 PM   #131
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Quote:
Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post
Świrz Castle - Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, now Ukraine
Quote:
Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post
Pomorzany - Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, now Ukraine
Hope those won't fall apart. Look so astonishing...
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Old April 26th, 2014, 01:43 PM   #132
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Czerwonogrˇd - Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, now Ukraine



Czerwonogrˇd Baroque palace was built by the Potocki family in the first half of the 18th century. It was devastated during WW1 (the renovation works were nearly completed during the interbellum) and WW2.



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Old April 26th, 2014, 01:57 PM   #133
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Laszki Murowane - Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, now Ukraine



The castle was built by the Tarło family in the first half of the 16th century. Between 1592 and 1815 property of the Mniszech family. It was partially dismantled in the 19th century, then almost completely destroyed during WW1 and WW2.



Pre-war photos (ca.1905)


Mniszech and Topˇr coat of arms


Now


* Marina Mniszech - a Polish noblewoman, a Russian Tsarina and a prominent warlord during Russia's Time of Troubles was born here.

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Old April 26th, 2014, 03:31 PM   #134
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Palace of the Krakow Bishops - Kielce, Poland
Crown of the kingdom of Poland


The residence of the Krakˇw (Cracow) Bishops in the city of Kielce, was founded by bishop Jakub Zadzik, Great Crown Chancellor. The structure, erected between 1637 and 1644, was covered with a high-storey twin roofs and accomplished with towers on the corners.




More photos: http://www.lighting.philips.pl/proje...elce_palac.wpd
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Old April 27th, 2014, 11:58 AM   #135
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Satanˇw - Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, now Ukraine



The first castle was founded by Piotr Odrowąż in the first half of the 15th century. After death of the last male member of the Odrowąż family (Stanisław Odrowąż in the first half of the 16th century), the property was owned by the Sieniawski family until the 18th century. Destroyed by Tatars in 1523, rebuilt in the 16th century. Destroyed again by Cossacks in 1651, renovated between 1700 and 1724. The castle was almost completely demolished in the 19th-20th century.



Coat of arms of the Sieniawski family (Leliwa)


Renovation of Satanˇw castle plaque
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Old April 27th, 2014, 12:56 PM   #136
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Podzameczek - Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, now Ukraine



The castle was built by Jan Buczacki in ca.1600. Podzameczek castle was destroyed by Ottoman army in 1672 and never fully rebuilt. The property was occupied until the end of the 18th century, largely dismantled in the 19th century.

Podzameczek in ca.1905




Gate with Jelita coat of arms

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Old April 27th, 2014, 01:03 PM   #137
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Zasław - Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, now Ukraine



The first castle was built by Jerzy Ostrogski (who changed his name to Zasławski) in 1466. Zasław was property of the Zasławski family until 1676. Later, it was owned by the Lubomirski family and since 1703 by the Sanguszko family (who rebuilt the palace in Baroque style). In 1870 the complex was sold by Roman Sanguszko to Russian government and converted into Russian army barracks. Neglected palace since the late 19th century is now in ruins.

Zasław palace in ca.1870




Now

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Old April 27th, 2014, 01:57 PM   #138
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Żˇłkiew - Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, now Ukraine



Żˇłkiew Castle was founded by Stanislaw Żˇłkiewski (Lubicz coat of arms) as his fortified residence. Construction began in 1594 and was mostly completed in 1606.

The castle had a typically Serlian entrance arch and was encircled by moats (up to 17 meters in width). One wing of the building accommodated the arsenal and stables; another was immediately contiguous to the city wall. In 1606, a garden was laid out next to the hetman's residence. It contained a menagerie with wisents, deers, and chamois. The palatine chapel was consecrated in 1640.

The golden age of the Żˇłkiew Castle was the late 17th century when it passed through inheritance to Jakub Sobieski and then to his son Jan Sobieski, a native of Żˇłkiew. It was there that the king celebrated his victory under the walls of Vienna. In the 18th century the castle's facade was decorated with the statues of its owners from the Żˇłkiewski, Daniłowicz, Sobieski, and Radziwiłł families (link).

After the partition of Poland the castle fell into disuse and was auctioned off. During the 19th century the chapel and some other structures were dismantled or rebuilt to accommodate a local school. The castle sustained further damage during WW1. Some restoration was undertaken just before WW2, but much more was required following the end of hostilities.





Drawing from the 18th century


Foundation plaque




More photos: LINK
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Old April 27th, 2014, 03:41 PM   #139
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Tarnopol - Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, now Ukraine



Tarnopol Castle was a stronghold, which was built in the 16th century to protect southern border of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

King of Poland Sigismund the Old granted land ownership and rights erecting the castle to dubded Polish Crown Hetman, Jan Tarnowski. Castle construction lasted for 8 years and completed in 1548. The castle was reinforced and upgraded by Tarnowski's son, Krzysztof. Sizable expense was credited towards enlargement and improvement by Tomasz Zamoyski, who received the city as his wife's dowry, daughter of renowned Ruthenian maecenas and statesman, Konstanty Ostrogski.

In the early 17th century Tarnopol passed through inheritance in the female line to Tomasz Zamoyski who commissioned extensive renovations. It was besieged by the Turks in 1544, 1575, 1589 and 1672. The Ottoman army under Şişman İbrahim Paşa reduced the castle to ruins in 1675. Count Korytowski revived it in the 1840s as his summer residence; he also had its towers, walls and other fortifications dismantled.

Russian army during WW1 burned the Old castle. On April 15, 1931 building restored anew, then religious blessing ceremony was held. It was occupied by Officer Cadet Reserve school and Science Committee of Baborowski that secured valuable collection of manuscripts and documents. During WW2 fort-post was last defense foothold of German army destroyed by the Red Army. Ruins of a new castle were cleaned out and on its place hotel "Ternopil'" built.

Drawing from the second half of the 19th century


Reconstruction


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Last edited by RS_UK-PL; April 30th, 2014 at 06:48 PM.
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Old April 28th, 2014, 01:01 PM   #140
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