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Old April 12th, 2013, 11:27 AM   #1
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Byzantine Architecture

Architecture of the Byzantine Empire





Territorial evolution of the empire from Wikipedia



Byzantium is an amazing world. The legimitimate continuators of the Roman empire, they always called their state Roman Empire (Greek: Basileia Rhōmaiōn) up to 1453.

They have been the only light of civilisation in a barbarized world for almost 1000 years, between the end of Antiquity and Late Middle Age. Their wealth and the fast of the imperial court fascinated the Barbarians who either tried to conquer it or to become their allies, the same way happened with the Roman Empire in Antiquity.


Their capital, Constantinople, situated on two continents is a symbol of the blend of European and Asian influences in the their culture.

The Byzantine art reflects not the only the Hellenistic heritage but also the heritage of the countless peoples and cultures from Mediterrana and surrounding areas: Anatolian, Levantine, Caucasian, Latin and so on.
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Old April 12th, 2013, 11:28 AM   #2
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Walls of Constantinople


The city was founded with the name Byzantium in 657 BCE by Greeks from Megara (an ancient city in Athens region - Attica).
For several centuries it benefited of the commerce between the Black Sea and Mediterrana.


In 330 CE emperor Constantine decided to move here the capital of the Roman empire. The reason was both political and religious. He wanted the capital to be closer to the eastern borders exposed to the attacks of empire's main enemy - Persia, as well as to other invaders.


Also, he wanted to accelerate the Christianization of the empire by abandoning Rome with its strong pagan institutions and creating a new capital in the eastern, Greek speaking half of the empire, where the percent of Christians was much higher at his time (10-20% compared with 2-3% in the Latin world).


He built a completely new city over the old one, with monumental constructions and ornated with works of art (both pagan and Christian) collected from various other cities.

The name of the new city was The New Rome, but later the name Constantinople (Constantinopolis, "Constantine's city") prevailed.



During Theodosius II (408–450) the city expanded much over the line of fortifications built by Constantine and a new line, longer and much stronger was built, which is mostly preserved until today: the Theodosian Walls, 5,7 km long, 12 m tall with 96 towers 15-20 m tall.

This is one the most complex systems of fortifications ever built, beaten perhaps only by the the Great Wall of China.





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The Theodisan Walls of Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey by Nickmard, on Flickr


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The Theodisan Walls of Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey by Nickmard, on Flickr


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The Theodisan Walls of Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey by Nickmard, on Flickr

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Old April 12th, 2013, 11:29 AM   #3
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Constantinople







Valens Aqueduct finished in 368 has a lenght of 921 m (from the original 971 m), a height of ~29 m and a width of 7.75–8.24 m.




























The Golden Gate on the Constantinople Walls (built during Theodosius II, 408–450) was the ceremonial gate in the fortifications of the city.


The Golden Gate was used especially for the occasions of a triumphal entry of an emperor into the capital on the occasion of military victories or other state occasions such as coronations. On rare occasions, as a mark of honor, the entry through the gate was allowed to non-imperial visitors: papal legates (in 519 and 868) and, in 710, to Pope Constantine. The Gate was used for triumphal entries until the Komnenian period; thereafter, the only such occasion was the entry of Michael VIII Palaiologos into the city on 15 August 1261, after its reconquest from the Latins. With the progressive decline in Byzantium's military fortunes, the gates were walled up and reduced in size in the later Palaiologan period, and the complex converted into a citadel and refuge.






























The Obelisk of Theodosius is an ancient Egyptian obelisk of Pharaoh Tutmoses III (1479–1425 BCE) re-erected in the Hippodrome of Constantinople by the Roman emperor Theodosius I (379-392).

The marble pedestal had bas-reliefs dating to the time of the obelisk's re-erection in Constantinople. On one face Theodosius I is shown offering the crown of victory to the winner in the chariot races, framed between arches and Corinthian columns, with happy spectators, musicians and dancers assisting in the ceremony.















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Old April 12th, 2013, 11:30 AM   #4
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Constantinople - Late antiquity churches





The Studios Monastery was historically the most important monastery of Constantinople. Although the monastery has been derelict for half a millennium, the laws and customs of the Stoudion were taken as models by the monks of Mount Athos and of many other monasteries of the Orthodox world; even today they have influence.

It was founded in 462 by the consul Stoudios, a Latin patrician from Rome who had settled in Constantinople.

The only part to survive into the 20th century was the Cathedral of St. John Baptist, probably the oldest remaining church in Istanbul, a 5th century basilica which was converted by Bayezid II's equerry into the mosque. The ruins of the monastery complex were looted by local inhabitants to repair their houses, while the magnificent 13th century pavement still lies open to elements "and disappears slowly but steadily".




In the eighth and eleventh centuries, the monastery was the centre of Byzantine religious poetry; a number of the hymns are still used in the Orthodox Church.

Three of the Stoudite monks rose to become the patriarchs of Constantinople (which was the head of most of the Orthodox Church up to 19th century, when national churches of Slavs, Romanians and other people rose to autocephaly). Three emperors (Michael V 1041–1042, Michael VII Doukas1071–1078 and Isaac I Komnenos 1057–1059) became monks inside the walls of Studion.

In 1204, the monastery was destroyed by the Crusaders and was not fully restored until 1290. The Russian pilgrims Anthony (c. 1200) and Stephen (c. 1350) were amazed by the size of the monastic grounds. It is thought that the cloister sheltered as much as 700 monks at the time.


The greater part of the monastery was again destroyed when the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453.























The Church of the Saints Sergius and Bacchus, also known as the Little Hagia Sophia is one of the few Late Antiquity basilicas in Constantinople.

This Byzantine building with a central dome plan was erected in the sixth century by Justinian, likely was a model for Hagia Sophia (St. Sophia), and is one of the most important early Byzantine buildings in Istanbul. In fact, it created the model of the Byzantine church, by combining two Roman types of buildings: the basilica composed of a single nave (a type of longitudinal construction used for commerce and public meeetings) with other Roman type of structure, the dome (used for example and the Pantheon in Rome). With further evolutions, most of the Orthodox churches all around the world are still built after the initial model of Sergius and Bacchus.



In second picture, in the backdrop can be seen a relatively new white building lying on a bricked structure. This brick wall is nothing else but the remainnings of the famous Hippodrome of Constantinople, the sporting and social centre of the city for most of its history.

On the upper part is the present square Sultanahmet Meydanı, where is the Obelisk of Theododius and two other columns erected by two emperors.
























Agia Irene Church, situated near Agia Sophia (in the actual courtyard of Topkapî Palace, the residence of the Ottoman Sultans), was the first church built in Constantinople after the capital of Roman Empire was moved from Rome to this city (previously named Byzantium.

It was first erected by Constantine the Great (306-337), the re-founder of Constantinople. In present form, it was built between 532-537, shortly after Sergius and Bacchus and little before the actual building of Agia Sophia.



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Old April 12th, 2013, 11:30 AM   #5
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Constantinople - Agia Sophia Mosaics





Because is well known, I won't present exterior views of the basilica but some interior mosaics which date from after the Iconoclast Period (726-787, 814-842) when almost all religious images in the Byzantine Empire were destroyed, including the original mosaics of Agia Sophia.

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The Virgin and Child in the apse was inaugurated in 867 and was the first of the post-iconoclastic mosaics.

These mosaics were believed to be a reconstruction of the mosaics of the 6th century that were previously destroyed during the iconoclastic era. The mosaics are set against the original golden background of the 6th century.

















The portraits of the archangels Gabriel and Michael (the latter largely destroyed) in the bema of the arch also date from the 9th century.



















Empress Zoe mosaic dates from the 11th century

















Comnenus Mosaics date from 1122

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Old April 12th, 2013, 11:31 AM   #6
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Constantinople - Medieval Churches





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Myrelaion Church was built in 922. Like almost all the churches in the city, was converted into a mosque that is called the Bodrum Mosque.























The Pantokrator Monastery was and still is the second largest Christian religious edifice in the city after Agia Sophia.

Is made of two churches adjoined by a chapel and it represents the most typical example of architecture of the Byzantine middle period. Built between 1118-1124, the monastery was converted into a mosque called Zeyrek Mosque.



Until a few years ago, the edifice was in a desolate state, and as a result it was added to the UNESCO watchlist of endangered monuments. During the recent years it underwent extensive (albeit still unfinished) restoration. My pictures date from the period of abandonment.




































The Lips Monastery, also called The Monastery of Mary Panachrantos and today as Fenari Isa Mosque, has two churches, one from 908 and one from 1304


























The Pammakaristos Church, now Fethiye Mosque, is believed by many historians and archaeologists that can be attributed to Michael VII Ducas (1071–1078).


Following the fall of Constantinople, the seat of the Orthodox Patriarchate was first moved to the Church of the Holy Apostles (a vanished building were the emperors were buried, demolished to make place to the present Fatih Mosque), and in 1456 to the Pammakaristos Church, which remained as the seat of the Patriarchate until 1587. In 1592 was converted into a mosque.

While the main building remains a mosque, the parekklesion has since then been a museum.

In second picture you can see a Greek inscription on the girdle surrounding the church.

































Saint Theodosia Monastery, now Gül Mosque, is one of the most important Byzantine buildings of Constantinople. Its dedication and the date of its construction, which for long time appeared certain, are now disputed by scholars.

The church and adjoining monastery were erected by Emperor Basil I ( 867–886) toward the end of the ninth century.

You can see here a photo of the building in a larger view of the urban setting.
























Theotokos Kyriotissa Church, now the Kalenderhane Mosque, was rebuilt three times between 6th and 12th centuries and in present form dates from 1197.

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Old April 12th, 2013, 11:32 AM   #7
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Constantinople - the Museum of the former monastery Chora




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The Holy Saviour is considered to be one of the most beautiful surviving examples of a Byzantine church. In the 16th century was converted into a mosque and, finally, it became a museum in 1948.


Chora in Greek language means outside, referring to its location originally outside of the walls, because the original church was built in the early 5th century, and stood outside of the 4th century walls of Constantine the Great (see map in the second post of the thread).


The majority of the fabric of the current building dates from 1077–1081.


The powerful Byzantine statesman Theodore Metochites endowed the church with much of its fine mosaics and frescos. Theodore's impressive decoration of the interior was carried out between 1315 and 1321. The mosaic-work is the finest example of the Palaeologian Renaissance (the final phase of Byzantine civilisation and art).















































































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Old April 12th, 2013, 11:34 AM   #8
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Mystras







Mystras is a ghost Byzantine town perched on a last slope of Taygetos Mountains in Peloponnese, just near the site of ancient Sparta and modern town of Sparti.


Is the best preserved complex of Byzantine architecture, an Unesco site comprising some twenty churches and monasteries entirely preserved dating from 13-15th century, most of them with precious murals from the same epoch inside, a Crussader castle on top of the mountains and Crussader alace in town and the ruined buildings of houses.


It was founded by Crussader William II Villehardouin in 1249, who built the castle and made Mystras the capital of the Latin Principality of Morea (the medieval name of Peloponnese).


In 1261 Mystras and Peloponnese was ceded to Byzantines and with the threat of the Ottomans that reached the walls of Constantinople, in 14-15h century Mystras become the cultural center of the Byzantine Empire, the Greek scholars living here influencing the Italian Renaisance, inclusively because many of the them fled to Italy when Mystras fell to Turks in 1460 (four years after the Fall of Constantinople).


The town was inhabited until 1834, when the modern Sparti was created in the valley and the population moved there.







The site of Mystras in Taygetos Mountains can be seen in this aerial film between the minutes 41.02 and 41.32.


















Film from ground level:









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Old April 12th, 2013, 11:35 AM   #9
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Mystras






General views from the site. The big building is the Crussader Palace (13th century) that was later used as residence of the Despot of Morea, a ruler of the province that was usually a relative of the Byzantine emperor.























The Frankish Castle (13th century) atop of the mountain

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Old April 12th, 2013, 11:36 AM   #10
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Mystras






Some photos with the churches and monasteries:

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Old April 12th, 2013, 11:38 AM   #11
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Mystras




And some interiors:


The marble double-headead eagle (coat of arms of Byzantine empire and Byzantine emperors) marks the spot in Agios Dimitrios Church (Mystras Cathedral) wher Constantine XI Palaiologos, the last Byzantine emperor, was crowned in 1449, 4 years before the end of the empire. Also other interior views of the same church:
























Murals inside Pantánassa, the monastery with a large courtyard that appears in the center of panoramic photo




















Murals in other churches:

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Old April 12th, 2013, 01:16 PM   #12
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Amazing, and Beautiful
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Old April 12th, 2013, 01:52 PM   #13
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Adrian12345Lugo View Post
Amazing, and Beautiful

Thank you Adrian!





Mount Athos




Mount Athos is a mountain and peninsula in Macedonia, Greece. A World Heritage Site and autonomous polity in the Hellenic Republic, Athos is home to 20 stavropegial Eastern Orthodox monasteries under the direct jurisdiction of the patriarch of Constantinople.


The peninsula, the easternmost "leg" of the larger Halkidiki peninsula, protrudes 50 kilometres into the Aegean Sea at a width of between 7 and 12 kilometres and covers an area of 335.6 square kilometres.


The Mount Athos, situated at the end of the peninsula, has steep, densely forested slopes reaching up to 2,033 metres. The surrounding seas, especially at the end of the peninsula, can be dangerous.



Though land-linked, Mount Athos is practically accessible only by boat.


The daily number of visitors entering Mount Athos is restricted and all are required to obtain a special entrance permit valid for a limited period. Only males are allowed entrance into Mount Athos, which is called "Garden of the Virgin" by monks, and Orthodox Christians take precedence in the permit issuance procedure. Only males over the age of 18 who are members of the Eastern Orthodox Church are allowed to live on Athos, either as monks or as workers.





It is certain that monks have been there since the 4th century, and possibly since the 3rd. During Constantine I's reign (324–337) both Christians and pagans were living there.


After the Islamic conquest of Egypt in the 7th century, many orthodox monks from the Egyptian desert tried to find another calm place; some of them came to the Athos peninsula.


On a chrysobull of emperor Basil I, dated 885, the Holy Mountain is proclaimed a place of monks, and no laymen or farmers or cattle-breeders are allowed to be settled there.


The Byzantine Empire was conquered in the 15th century and the Ottoman Empire took its place. Russian tsars, and princes from Moldavia, Wallachia and Serbia (until the end of the 15th century) helped the monasteries survive with large donations. Many of the present buildings are erected by princes from Romanian principalities.




The Athonite monasteries possess huge deposits of invaluable medieval art treasures, including icons, liturgical vestments and objects (crosses, chalices), codices and other Christian texts, imperial chrysobulls, holy relics etc. Until recently no organized study and archiving had been carried out, but an EU-funded effort to catalogue, protect and restore them is under way since the late 1980s. Their sheer number is such, it is estimated that several decades will pass before the work is completed.



In use is Byzantine time, in which the day commences at sunset as does the liturgical day and not at midnight as in the reckoning of civil time and the difference between the two varies according to the season of the year.



All the monastic lodging types exist until today, named as seats, cells, huts, retreats, hermitages, caves, sketae and all of them are known under the general term "dependencies" of the Holy Monasteries.

A cell is a house with a small church, where 1–3 monks live under the spiritual and administrative supervision of a monastery. A skete is a community of Christian hermits following a monastic rule, allowing them to worship in comparative solitude, while also affording them a level of mutual practical support and security. There are two kinds of sketes in Mount Athos. ther4e are twelve sketes in Athos.





The sovereign monasteries, in the order of their place in the Athonite hierarchy:

1. Great Lavra monastery
2. Vatopedi monastery
3. Iviron monastery – built by Georgians
4. Helandariou monastery – Serbian
5. Dionysiou monastery
6. Koutloumousiou monastery (it was built by Wallachian princes in 14th century and inhabited by Romanian monks during middle age)
7. Pantokratoros monastery
8. Xiropotamou monastery
9. Zografou monastery – Bulgarian
10. Dochiariou monastery
11. Karakalou monastery
12. Filotheou monastery
13. Simonos Petras monastery
14. Agiou Pavlou monastery
15. Stavronikita monastery
16. Xenophontos monastery
17. Osiou Grigoriou monastery
18.Esphigmenou monastery
19. Agiou Panteleimonos monastery – Russian and Ukrainian
20. Konstamonitou monastery




The twelve sketes:

1. Agias Annas
2. Agias Triados
3.Timiou Prodromou
4. Agiou Andrea
5. Agiou Dimitriou
6. Timiou Prodromou Iviron
7. Agiou Panteleimonos
8. Profiti Ilia
8. Theotokou or Nea Skiti
10. Agiou Dimitriou tou Lakkou
11. Evangelismou tis Theotokou
12. Bogoroditsa






Settlements (a sort of villages)

- Karyes - the capital of the monastic republic
- Dafni - the main harbour and access point into the Mountain





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Old April 12th, 2013, 01:53 PM   #14
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Mount Athos - Monastery of Simonos Petra




The Monastery of Simonos Petra, or more simply Simonopetra, is without doubt the most daring construction on the Holy Mountain. It stands proudly at a height of 330 metres on the end of a rocky mountain range.

The Monastery was founded around 1257.



image hosted on flickr

Mt. Athos, Greece - Holy Monastery of Simonos Petra (Simonopetra) by ConstantineD, on Flickr




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Mt Athos - Holy Monastery of Simonos Petra (Simonopetra) by ConstantineD, on Flickr



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Mount Athos by DimitriS Photography, on Flickr




[URL="http://www.flickr.com/photos/dimitrisotiropoulos/4574368021/"]image hosted on flickr

Simonopetra Monastery,Mount Athos by DimitriS Photography, on Flickr




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Aegean view by olympic, on Flickr








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AGION OROS-SIMONOPETRA by DIMOSTHENIS.limnos, on Flickr
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Old April 12th, 2013, 01:57 PM   #15
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Mount Athos - Gregoriou Monastery




Founded in 14th century. The present church is built in 1500 by Stephen the Great, ruler of Moldavia, together with the watchtower and some cell buildings.



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Old April 12th, 2013, 01:59 PM   #16
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Mount Athos - Great Lavra Monastery






The founding of the monastery in AD 963 by Athanasius the Athonite marks the beginning of the organized monastic life at Mount Athos. At the location of the monastery, there was one of the ancient cities of the Athos peninsula, perhaps Akrothooi, from which the sarcophagi of the monastery that are in the oil storage house come from.




The history of the monastery is the most complete compared to the history of the other monasteries, because its historical archives were preserved almost intact. It is possible that the study of these archives may contribute to the completion of the knowledge of the history of other monasteries, whose archives were partially or completely lost.




The main church (Katholikon) was found by Athanasius who lost his life together with 6 other workers when one of the domes fell during the construction. This style was then consecrated and was copied by the other monasteries. The frescoes were made in 1535 by the great painter Theophanis.




The library of the monastery is located behind the main church. It contains 2,116 Greek manuscripts and 165 codices. The collection is one of the richest collections of Greek manuscripts in the world. Some of the most important artifacts are a manuscript of a gospel with a golden cover which is a gift from Nikephoros II Phokas and the list (Kouvaras) of the monks since Athanasius. There are also 2,500 icons which cover the whole history of hagiography of the second millennium.



Two precious Byzantine icons, Panagia Koukouzelissa and Panagia the Econome are found here.

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DSC03827 by Πεζοπορικός Όμιλος, on Flickr



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Mount Athos: Great Lavras Monastery by rogeriod, on Flickr




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Megistis Lavras monastery by Paul Soulellis, on Flickr



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Lavras - chapel by Dill Pixels, on Flickr



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Mount Athos: Great Lavras Monastery by rogeriod, on Flickr


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Mount Athos: Great Lavras Monastery by rogeriod, on Flickr



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Mount Athos: Great Lavras Monastery by rogeriod, on Flickr



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Mt Athos Megristi Lavra by rajnugent, on Flickr





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DSC02658 by rajnugent, on Flickr




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Megistis Lavra, Mount Athos by Ark in Time, on Flickr



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IMG_3092 by Πεζοπορικός Όμιλος, on Flickr
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Localisation map for all mountains in Romania * Streets of Bucharest (my photos) * Timișoara, the forgotten splendor of Austria - Hungary (my photos) * My trips around Romania

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Old April 12th, 2013, 02:00 PM   #17
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Mount Athos - Vatopedi Monastery



Was founded during the second half of the 10th century. From then onwards, several buildings have been constructed, most of them were built during the Byzantine period and during the 18th and 19th centuries when the monastery reached its highest peak.




Like most of the Athonite monasteries, many of the present buildings were erected by rulers form Romaniabn principalities: the fortified harbour is a foundation from 1496 of Stephen the Great of Moldavia. The prince's bas-relief can be seen on the votive inscription. Neagoe Basarab of Wallachia (early 16th century) built one of the churches, the cellar, the press house, the granaries. Alexandru Lăpușneanu and Vasile Lupu (rulers of Moldavia) have made too reparations and other donations. No less than 24 monasteries in Moldavia and Wallachia were subordinated to Vatopedi, the most famous being Golia in Iași, Slatina in Bukovina and Precista church in Galați. [info from crestinortodox.ro]




Like most monasteries in Athos, Vatopedi looks like a small city because of the buildings unorderly added in several epochs and in various architectural styles.



The library holds inestimable 2000 Byzantine manuscripts (like gospels from 9-13th centuries) and many other.



About 100 monks live in the monastery today, where extensive construction projects are underway to restore the larger buildings.



The monastery is open to males and male animals. No females may enter, except female cats are allowed and female animals the size of chickens or smaller are allowed.



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Vatoped by ljubar, on Flickr





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Vatopediou_Athos_ 21-Jul-2012_159 by James Hyndman, on Flickr






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Vatopedi Monastery,Mount Athos. by DimitriS Photography, on Flickr






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Vatopedi Monastery by Catalin_Dobrescu, on Flickr





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Vatopedi Monastery Yard by Catalin_Dobrescu, on Flickr





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Vatopediou_Athos_ 21-Jul-2012_395 by James Hyndman, on Flickr







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DSC01728 by dennisnik, on Flickr







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Vatopedi Trapeza by catalin vasile tudora, on Flickr







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Vatopediou_Athos_ 21-Jul-2012_195 by James Hyndman, on Flickr





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Vatopedi Monastery,Mount Athos. by DimitriS Photography, on Flickr






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Going to early morning Divine Liturgy. by DimitriS Photography, on Flickr





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Vatopediou_Athos_ 21-Jul-2012_029 by James Hyndman, on Flickr












Icon paintings and other religious handicrafts are one of the main earning sources.














Arsana (harbour) built in 1496 by Stephen the Great of Moldavia















Ruins of Athonite Academy (1754). On a hill near monastery are the 18th century ruins of the Athonite Academy, the most important learning institution in Greek lands in 18th-19th centuries.













Fish pool
















Painting showing the present buildings

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The unusual health and variety of nature, the concentric organization of relief starting from the giant circle of Carpathians, the fecundity brought by the waters of Danube, all found in same place with the oldest history and greatest ethnical-religious-cultural diversity = ROMANIA


Localisation map for all mountains in Romania * Streets of Bucharest (my photos) * Timișoara, the forgotten splendor of Austria - Hungary (my photos) * My trips around Romania

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Old April 12th, 2013, 02:21 PM   #18
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awesome..
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Old April 12th, 2013, 09:48 PM   #19
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San Vitale in Ravenna was built between 526 and 547. It is one of the most important examples of Early Byzantine architecture and famous for its great mosaics:


exterior:


http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-QTEsBwWXFz...MG_3842med.jpg


interior:

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http://www.flickr.com/photos/profzuc...n/photostream/

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http://www.flickr.com/photos/frenchi...n/photostream/

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http://www.flickr.com/photos/frenchieb/7638714944/

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http://www.flickr.com/photos/frenchieb/7638702278/

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http://www.flickr.com/photos/profzucker/8552265835/

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http://www.flickr.com/photos/jpwchi/6329858029/
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Old April 12th, 2013, 09:54 PM   #20
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Thank you Sanii!



Ravenna - Neon Baptistery





Ravenna was the capital of Western Roman Empire between 402- 476. It then served as the capital of the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths until it was conquered in 540 by the Byzantine Empire. Afterwards, the city formed the centre of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna until the invasion of the Franks in 751, after which it became the seat of the Kingdom of the Lombards.




During the reign of Gothic King Theoderic the Great (491–501) and during the Byzantine rule, many magnificent churches, baptisteries and other structures were built, of which many survive to these days and are listed by Unesco as world heritage sites. No less than eight such buildings are Unesco monuments, more than in any other city in Italy, if not in the entire world.








Baptistry of Neon, also called the Orthodox Baptristry, dates from 430, together with its mosaics. It was the baptistery used by the Trinitarian population of Ravenna, made mostly by local (Latin speaking) people, in contrast with the occupying Goths who were of Arian faith.







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The unusual health and variety of nature, the concentric organization of relief starting from the giant circle of Carpathians, the fecundity brought by the waters of Danube, all found in same place with the oldest history and greatest ethnical-religious-cultural diversity = ROMANIA


Localisation map for all mountains in Romania * Streets of Bucharest (my photos) * Timișoara, the forgotten splendor of Austria - Hungary (my photos) * My trips around Romania

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