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Old April 12th, 2013, 10:03 PM   #21
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Ravenna - Mausoleum of Galla Placidia





Built around 430 and decorated with mosaics in the same time, is described by Unesco as "the earliest and best preserved of all mosaic monuments, and at the same time one of the most artistically perfect".


The building was formerly the oratory of the Church of the Holy Cross and now contains three sarcophagi. The largest sarcophagus was thought to contain the remains of Galla Placidia (died 450), daughter of the Roman Emperor Theodosius I.


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Old April 12th, 2013, 10:13 PM   #22
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Ravenna - Arian Baptistry




Built around the year 500 and was part of the complex of the Arian Cathedral (which is preserved but heavily modified). The mosaics were made by Orthodox artists, because the Goths didn't have such professionals. So the images reflect the Trinitarian, not the Arian doctrine.



I won't enter in details about the differences between Trinitarianism and Arianism because on this forum there are people who suspect you of religious prozelitism if you make any reference to religion, as religion is not also a cultural phenomenon. Those interested can find info on Wikipedia or other sites.



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Old April 12th, 2013, 10:34 PM   #23
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Ravenna - Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo






It was built around the year 500 as chapel of the Royal Palace of Gothic King Theoderic.


Part of the mosaics, those containing Arian themes, have been destroyed when the church was converted to Trinitarianism. Those surviving are among the most important in Paleochristian and Byzantine art. On upper rows are biblical (Old and New Testament) themes realized during the Arian period. Between windows are saints made also by Arians. The lower row of mosaics were made 50 years later, when the church was converted to Catholicism (Trinitarianism): a row of saint men on northern side and of saint women on southern side, also the Three Magi moving towards the group of the Madonna and Child. An interesting representation of the Palace of Theoderic, as well of Classe (the port of Ravenna situated 2 km from the city), was preserved too.


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Old April 12th, 2013, 10:51 PM   #24
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Ravenna - Basilica of San Vitale






Built between 537-546, the church has an octagonal plan. The building combines Roman elements: the dome, shape of doorways, and stepped towers; with Byzantine elements: polygonal apse, capitals, and narrow bricks.


The church is most famous for its wealth of Byzantine mosaics, the largest and best preserved outside of Constantinople. The church is of extreme importance in Byzantine art, as it is the only major church from the period of the Emperor Justinian I to survive virtually intact to the present day.


These mosaics are executed in the Hellenistic-Roman tradition: lively and imaginative, with rich colors and a certain perspective, and with a vivid depiction of the landscape, plants and birds. They were finished when Ravenna was still under Gothic rule.


At the foot of the apse side walls are two famous mosaic panels, executed in 547. On the right is a mosaic depicting the East Roman Emperor Justinian I standing next to court officials. Another panel shows Empress Theodora and a train of court ladies.


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Old April 13th, 2013, 03:01 AM   #25
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So beautiful and amazing. Thank you for this thread.
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Old April 14th, 2013, 04:43 AM   #26
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Wow! a thread about Byzantine architecture without the Hagia sOPHIA.
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Old April 14th, 2013, 08:10 AM   #27
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Rascian View Post
So beautiful and amazing. Thank you for this thread.
Thank you Rascian!



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Originally Posted by haikiller11 View Post
Wow! a thread about Byzantine architecture without the Hagia sOPHIA.
There are some interior photos of Agia Sophia: post 5. I considered that the exteriors are too well known.







Mar Saba Monastery, West Bank, Palestine





Situated in Kidron, a rocky valley east of Bethlehem, was founded in 483 and the conglomerate of buildings remained almost unchanged since that period, most of the them being more than 1,500 years old.

The monastery is important because here was created the Typikon, the set of rules that regulate the life in Orthodox monasteries and liturgical services to these days.

It is considered to be one of the oldest inhabited monasteries in the world, and still maintains many of its ancient traditions. One in particular is the restriction on women entering the main compound. The only building that women can enter is the Women's Tower, near the main entrance.













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The unusual health and variety of nature, the concentric organization of relief starting from the giant circle of Carpathians, the fecundity brought by the waters of Danube, all found in same place with the oldest history and greatest ethnical-religious-cultural diversity = ROMANIA


Localisation map for all mountains in Romania * Streets of Bucharest (my photos) * Timișoara, the forgotten splendor of Austria - Hungary (my photos) * My trips around Romania

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Old April 15th, 2013, 11:54 AM   #28
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Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia





Ohrid is a city of 56,000 people on the shore of the lake with the same name. Know in Antiquity as Lychnidos and a center of early Christianity, is mentioned in 879 with the present name of Slavic origin.

Between 990 and 1015, Ohrid was the capital of the First Bulgar Empire and from 990 to 1018 the seat of the Bulgar Patriarchate. The Byzantines reconquered the city in 1018 and the patriarchate was downgraded to archbishopry. In 16th century this archbishopry reached its peak, subordinating Moldavia, parts of today Bulgaria and Serbia and even the Orthodox districts of Italy (Apulia, Calabria and Sicily), Venice and Dalmatia.



Once, Ohrid had many churches, 365 according to a legend (one for each day of the year). From the big number of religious buildings Ohrid once had (365 according to legend, one for each day of the year), around ten churches, monasteries and chapels survive to these days. the old town os dominated by the Samuil's Fortress built in 9th century over a 4th century BCE stronghold.



The lake and the architectural monuments are an Unesco site (both natural and cultural).







City views






















Sveti Sofija Cathedral, one of the most important monuments of Macedonia, was built during the First Bulgarian Empire, after the official conversion to Christianity of the Bulgars. Some sources date the building during the rule of Knyaz Boris I (852 – 889), others during the rule of Tzar Samuel of Bulgaria (997 – 1014). The interior of the church has been preserved with frescoes from the 11th, 12th and 13th century, which represent some of the most significant achievements in Byzantine painting.






















Sveti Naum - established in 905, the church dates from this year.





















Sveti Kliment i Pantelejmon Monastery - attributed to Saint Clement of Ohrid, (ca. 840 – 916) many archaeologists believe that churchman himself designed the building. His tomb is preserved in a crypt.

Judging by the architectural style and design of the monastery, researchers say that Saint Clement intended for his building to be a literary school for disciples, thus it is believed to be the first and oldest discontinued university in Europe.

The monastery is the most venerated in the Republic of Macedonia.























Sveti Jovan at Kaneo - 13th century




















Sveta Bogorodica - 1295













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Localisation map for all mountains in Romania * Streets of Bucharest (my photos) * Timișoara, the forgotten splendor of Austria - Hungary (my photos) * My trips around Romania
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Old April 16th, 2013, 02:29 AM   #29
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great job man!
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Old April 16th, 2013, 09:07 AM   #30
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great photos!
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Old April 16th, 2013, 12:18 PM   #31
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Thank you!






Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai, Egypt





Built between 548 and 565 and preserved almost entirely in its originary form, is one of the oldest continously inhabited monastery in the world and an Unesco World Heritage Site.



It was established by Emperor Justinian and enclosed an older, 4th century chapel erected by Empress Helena (246-330). The chapel was built on the spot where the mythical burning bush was saw by Moses of the Old Testament (the existence of Moses is dismissed by modern historiography).

The monastery is situated in a gorge at the foot of Mount Sinai, on whose top, according to legend, Moses received the Ten Commandments.

After the conquest of Egypt and Sinai by Muslims, a mosque was built in 10th century inside the walls of the monastery, but was never used.





The monastery library preserves the second largest collection of early codices and manuscripts in the world, outnumbered only by the Vatican Library.

The complex houses irreplaceable works of art: mosaics, the best collection of early icons in the world, as well as liturgical objects, chalices and reliquaries, and church buildings.

The large icon collection begins with a few dating to the 5th and 6th centuries, which are unique survivals, the monastery having been untouched by Byzantine iconoclasm when most of the religious images were destroyed. The oldest Christian icon in the world is also preserved there. The monastery was an important centre for the development of the hybrid style of Crusader art, and still retains over 120 icons created in the style.

The church preserves 6th century mosaics similar to those from Ravenna or Euphrasian Basilica in Poreč, Croatia.






Two interesting historical facts relates Romania and Romanians to this monastery.

One is that Justinian, when founded it, has brought peasants from what is today Romania and Balkans as guardians and servants of the monastery. A document mentions that Justinian has moved here 200 families "from the Land of Vlach" (name resembling the medieval name of Romanians and Aromanians) in south-east Europe that will later form the Jebaliyeh tribe, which still serves the monastery today, being the bedouins from the area. This ethnic group still posseses historical and oral tradition of the origin in the Land of Vlah, their initial Christian faith. There were records about the Latin language of these bedouins and about their dressing preserving elements from the traditional costumes of the people in Carpathians & Balkans. You can read an English study on this here


Another Romania-related fact is this country's main mountain resort, Sinaia, bears the this name because of the monastery that preceded the resort and which was built as a property of Saint Catherine Monastery.




image hosted on flickr

St. Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai, Egypt by Adam Hallyburton (Stories in Stills Photography), on Flickr







image hosted on flickr

St Catherine's Monastery by der_boese_basti, on Flickr






image hosted on flickr

glowing village by falas, on Flickr






image hosted on flickr

DSC_0222 by Anne Leroy, on Flickr






image hosted on flickr

monastery of st.catherine,sinai peninsula,egypt by val 45, on Flickr






image hosted on flickr

Memories... by by_irma, on Flickr




image hosted on flickr

IMG_0942, St. Catherine Monastery, Sinai, Egypt by Pet_r, on Flickr






image hosted on flickr

Walls of Monastery by jasbond007, on Flickr






image hosted on flickr

St Catherine's Monastery by Christopher Chan, on Flickr






image hosted on flickr

St Catherines Egypt by jinxsi1960, on Flickr





image hosted on flickr

Memories... by by_irma, on Flickr




image hosted on flickr

medallions of the altar mosaic by falas, on Flickr



image hosted on flickr

Theotokos and Christ Child (Sinai 6th century) by jimforest, on Flickr




image hosted on flickr

St. Peter at Sinai by phool 4 XC, on Flickr





















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The unusual health and variety of nature, the concentric organization of relief starting from the giant circle of Carpathians, the fecundity brought by the waters of Danube, all found in same place with the oldest history and greatest ethnical-religious-cultural diversity = ROMANIA


Localisation map for all mountains in Romania * Streets of Bucharest (my photos) * Timișoara, the forgotten splendor of Austria - Hungary (my photos) * My trips around Romania

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Old April 17th, 2013, 12:39 PM   #32
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Dead Cities in Syria







The Dead Cities or Forgotten Cities are a group of 40 abandoned villages grouped in eight archaeological parks between Aleppo and Idlib. Most villages which date from the 1st to 7th centuries, became abandoned between the 8th and 10th centuries. The settlements feature the well-preserved architectural remains of dwellings, pagan temples, churches, cisterns, bathhouses etc.

After conquest by the Arabs, the trade routes changed, and as a result these towns lost the majority of the business which fostered their economies.

These ancient settlements cover an area 20–40 km wide and some 140 km long. The majority of the dead cities are well-preserved and were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2011, under the name of "Ancient Villages of Northern Syria".














Kharab Shams - one of the oldest preserved Christian basilicas in the world, dates from 4th century CE





















Mushabbak Basilica, around 470























Church of Saint Simeon Stylites, is one of the most celebrated ecclesiastical monuments in Syria and among the oldest standing Christian churches in the world. The cross-planed basilica was built around 475 CE around the the pillar on whose top he lived 37 years. While Simeon (390-459) was alive and after that, this was one of the mains places of pilgrimage in late Antiquity. It was the sort of an oracle, people coming with questions and receiving answers from Simeon.



The base of Simeon's pillar is preserved (second and third pictures) in the central space, once covered by a large dome.




























Bara - established in 4th century CE




















Resafa known in Roman times as Sergiopolis, had massive fortifications built by Justinian in 6th century. In the 4th century, it became a pilgrimage town for Christians coming to venerate Saint Sergius, a military martyr.




















Serjilla - the village was built in 473
























Qasr Ibn Wardan - the most interesting in my opinion, is a sixth-century military complex built by Justinian and comprising a palace, church and barracks. Established as a part of a defensive line against the Persians, its unique style is "imported" directly from Constantinople and not found anywhere else in present-day Syria.










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The unusual health and variety of nature, the concentric organization of relief starting from the giant circle of Carpathians, the fecundity brought by the waters of Danube, all found in same place with the oldest history and greatest ethnical-religious-cultural diversity = ROMANIA


Localisation map for all mountains in Romania * Streets of Bucharest (my photos) * Timișoara, the forgotten splendor of Austria - Hungary (my photos) * My trips around Romania

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Old April 18th, 2013, 10:03 AM   #33
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Daphni Monastery, Greece






Is situated just outside Athens, on the Sacred Way to Eleusis (second most important religious center of ancient Greeks, after Delphi).

Was founded in 6th century by Christianizing the site of the Sanctuary of Apollo Daphnaios and reusing the Ionic columns of the ancient temple of Apollo in its portico (only one column remains at the site, the others having been removed to London).



The church houses the best preserved complex of mosaics from the early Comnenian period (ca. 1100) when an austere and hieratic manner was metamorphosing into a more intimate and delicate style. They're perhaps the finest known Byzantine images from anywhere.


It was declared a World Heritage Site in 1990. Heavily damaged by the 1999 Athens earthquake, Daphni Monastery is since then closed to the public for restoration.






After the church was sacked by the Crusaders in 1205, Otho de la Roche, Duke of Athens, gave it to the Cistercian Abbey of Bellevaux. The French monks had the exonarthex reconstructed, built a wall around the monastery and effected numerous other changes until the Ottomans expelled them and returned the monastery to an Orthodox community in 1458.






















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The unusual health and variety of nature, the concentric organization of relief starting from the giant circle of Carpathians, the fecundity brought by the waters of Danube, all found in same place with the oldest history and greatest ethnical-religious-cultural diversity = ROMANIA


Localisation map for all mountains in Romania * Streets of Bucharest (my photos) * Timișoara, the forgotten splendor of Austria - Hungary (my photos) * My trips around Romania

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Old April 19th, 2013, 12:42 PM   #34
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Thessaloniki






Greece's second city with a population of 790,824, it was founded around 315 BCE by Cassander, one of Alexander Macedon's generals. It was capital of Roman province of Macedonia and second city in importance and size after Constantinople during Byzantine era.





The city has many churches and other buildings from Byzantine period. All are inscribed on Unesco List of World Heritage sites under the name "Palaeochristian and Byzantine Monuments of Thessaloniki".










The Walls were first built in 4th century BCE by Cassander. Parts of the Hellenistic massive cubic massonry can be seen in some places among the byzantine structure. The present walls date from 448 CE and still measure 4,3 km, from original lenght of 8 km. Many of the original 40 towers are preserved.


The walls supported many attacks from various invaders, from Goths, Avars and Slavs, to Arabs, Crussaders and Ottomans and many important battles and sieges took place in front of them.























Hagios Demetrios - the main sanctuary in city, dedicated to its patron, Saint Demetrius (270-306), a military martyr who died under the persecution of Diocletian and Galerius.

The basilica was first built in 4th century and in present form dates from around 450. Six mosaics dating from 5th to 7th century, as well as 12th century murals are preserved inside.




























Hagia Sophia - similar to Constantinople, Thessaloniki has a church dedicated to the Holy Wisdom. In 3rd century was already a Paleochristian sanctuary here. The present one dates from 8th century and in the apse is a large mosaic with the Mother of God, dating from 797, right after the victory of the Iconodules that put an end to Iconoclasm. The plain gold mosaic the image stands against dates form Iconoclast period.

























Rotunda of Galerius was the funerary monument of this emperor . It was part of large complex, comprising the Rotunda, an arched way and the Arch of Galerius. The Arch is mostly preserved, with its interesting basreliefs.







Galerius (reigned 305-311) was an emperor of the Tetrarchy, the period when the Roman empire was divided in 4 parts and ruled by four emperors, each one over a region. Galerius was a Dacian, he hated the Roman empire and culture and wanted to rebuilt the Dacian Kingdom, by renaming the Roman Empire as the Dacian Empire.

At the beginning of his rule he was an adversary of Christians, but later he put an end to the persecutions initiated by the emperor Diocletian, with an edict of toleration in 311.




The rotunda, situated 125 from the Arch, was built in 306. It is 24.5 m in diameter and 30 m high. In 4th century, the Rotunda was converted into a Christian church (the emperor was not buried here but at Felix Romuliana / Gamzigrad, today Serbia, where he was born). After the conversion of the building, in late 4th century precious mosaics have been embelished on its interior walls, preserved in great measure.























Church of the Acheiropoietos dates from 5th century


























Church of Panagia Chalkeon - one of the many churches from middle and late Byzantine periods. This one dates from 1028
























Church of Hosios David is a late 5th-century church as the katholikon of the Latomos Monastery. In the apse is a precious 5th century mosaic in Hellenistic tradition. In 12-14th century mural paintings were added.














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The unusual health and variety of nature, the concentric organization of relief starting from the giant circle of Carpathians, the fecundity brought by the waters of Danube, all found in same place with the oldest history and greatest ethnical-religious-cultural diversity = ROMANIA


Localisation map for all mountains in Romania * Streets of Bucharest (my photos) * Timișoara, the forgotten splendor of Austria - Hungary (my photos) * My trips around Romania

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Old April 19th, 2013, 05:35 PM   #35
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Didn't know about Galerius rotunda..amazing
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Old April 20th, 2013, 07:46 AM   #36
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ooo i thought this was a roman structure, very nice
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Old April 20th, 2013, 09:45 AM   #37
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Primeval - This is an outstanding thread on one of the most fascinating topics in all of history.

Constantinople has mesmerized me since I was a boy. I would love to go back in time and attend a service at the former Hagia Sophia on a feast day. It really is a unique vanished world of its own, and to think that Byzantium was a glorious Christian empire for over 1,000 years and then disappeared is remarkable.

Thanks for the great work. The only problem is that I will spend too much time here.
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Old April 20th, 2013, 10:37 AM   #38
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Quote:
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Didn't know about Galerius rotunda..amazing



Quote:
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ooo i thought this was a roman structure, very nice
It can be considered both Roman and Byzantine. Byzantium is nothing but the direct and legitimate continuator of the Roman Empire and the Byzantine art from up to 5th and even 6th century can also be considered Roman. After that, the empire got Hellenized.


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Primeval - This is an outstanding thread on one of the most fascinating topics in all of history.

Constantinople has mesmerized me since I was a boy. I would love to go back in time and attend a service at the former Hagia Sophia on a feast day. It really is a unique vanished world of its own, and to think that Byzantium was a glorious Christian empire for over 1,000 years and then disappeared is remarkable.

Thanks for the great work. The only problem is that I will spend too much time here.
Thank you Timothy!

Byzantium is fascinating for everybody know a little more about it. For me is something intriguing this passing from Latin to Greek, from Slavery to Feudalism and from Antiquity to Middle Age that took place between 4th - 8th centuries. And is amazing how the spirit of Classic Antiquity survived until late Middle Age in Byzantine culture.












Castelseprio, Italy



Castelseprio was the site of a Roman fort in antiquity, and a significant Lombard town in the early Middle Ages, before being destroyed and abandoned in 1287. It is today preserved as an archaeological park in the modern comune of Castelseprio, near the modern village of the same name.




Importance
The fame of Castelseprio lies in the Early Medieval frescoes contained in the small Church of Santa Maria foris portas. These frescoes are of exceptional rarity and artistic significance. Hidden for centuries, the frescoes were only rediscovered in 1944. In 2011, the church - and the castrum with the Torba Tower - became a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of a group of seven inscribed as Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568-774 A.D.).




Style
It is thought by some scholars that two different hands can be detected, but the origins of these artists are uncertain and subject to speculation. While some aspects of the frescoes, notably the iconography, are clearly Byzantine, others may draw on the Christian art of Syria or Egypt. The frescoes also have significant aspects which relate most closely to the late antique art of Italy. Some art historians see the style as coming from the tradition of Alexandria, from which no other painting on a similar scale remains.


Dating
In 1950, soon after the frescoes were first discovered, a poll of the scholars who attended a conference in Castelseprio showed a rough split between dates in the 7th and 10th century, although the extreme range of dates that have been suggested stretches from the 6th to the 14th century - an almost unprecedented range in medieval art history. A "terminus ante quem" was provided by the discovery of graffiti scratched into the fresco plaster recording a number of clerical appointments, the earliest of which is dated (by the name of the presiding Archbishop of Milan) to 948 at the latest.












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The unusual health and variety of nature, the concentric organization of relief starting from the giant circle of Carpathians, the fecundity brought by the waters of Danube, all found in same place with the oldest history and greatest ethnical-religious-cultural diversity = ROMANIA


Localisation map for all mountains in Romania * Streets of Bucharest (my photos) * Timișoara, the forgotten splendor of Austria - Hungary (my photos) * My trips around Romania

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Old April 21st, 2013, 12:33 PM   #39
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Trebizond and Soumela Monastery, Turkey







Hagia Sophia, Trebizond, built around 1250, was turned into a mosque in 1461 and into a museum in 1964. Now there is a decision to turn it back into a mosque. The paintings inside dates from 13th century.



Founded in 756 BCE, Trebizond was one of the ten Greek colonies of Miletus at Black Sea (Miletus was the main Greek settlement on Aegean coast of Turkey, before the rise of Ephesus). When The Byzantine Empire was conquered by Crussaders in 1204, a Byzantine state, the Empire of Trebizond, was founded as a successor of the Empire of Constantinople but lasted much after the restoration of the Empire of Constantinople in 1261, in parallel with it. Trebizond was conquered by Ottomans in 1461.



























Soumela Monastery - founded in 386, is one of the oldest Christian monasteries. Its present form dates from 13th century. It was given privileges by the Ottoman sultans and remained a monastery until 1923, when the Greek population from the area (as well from most of the Turkey coasts, where they were majoritary) was moved to Greece, following forced population exchanges between Greece and Turkey.


It overlooks forests and streams, making it extremely popular for its aesthetic attraction as well as for its cultural and religious significance.








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Old April 22nd, 2013, 07:08 AM   #40
TimothyR
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I had no idea there were so many magnificent churches that have been preserved with their mosaics.

Wonderful.
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