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Old April 23rd, 2013, 11:54 PM   #41
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Thank you Timothy for comment and likes!

Nicaea, Turkey

The ancient city's ruins are near the modern city of Iznik, on the shore of the lake with the same name (Iznik).

Its present walls are 3,1 km long, 10-13m tall and 5-7 m thick at the base and as much of the existing architecture, they date from early 4th century.

The church of Aya Sophia was built by emperor Justinian in 6th century and was where in 787 was held the Second Council of Nicaea and seventh and last ecumenical (general) council of the church (according to Orthodox church).

Aya Sophia was first converted into a mosque in 1331, when Nicaea was conquered by Ottomans. In 192o it was transformed into a museum and in 2011 it became to be used as a mosqur again.

Nicaea dates from early Antiquity but was rebuilt after a rigurous plan around 300 BCE. It will become residence and metropolis (main city) of the kings of Bithynia, one of the many states that existed in Antiquity in Minor Asia (today Turkey).

Nicaea was and is extremely important for the development of Western world, because here was created the dogma of Christianity, as exist in the doctrine of the three main denominational groups: Eastern (Orthodox, Armenian etc), Catholic and Protestant, summarized in the Niceen Creed. This was done at the First Council of Nicaea, which was also the first ecumenical (comprising representatives of all local churches) council of the Christianity. This council was held at the order of Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, to end the disputes between Arians and Trinitarians.

Before this council, the Christian church had not a clear defined belief. And as Christianity was one of the main factors (if not the main) that shaped the Western mentality, can be said that Nicaea was crucial for the evolution of the West and the world.

Between 1204-1261, when Constantinople was taken by the Western knights of the Fourth Crusade and became the capital of the Latin Empire, at Nicaea was created by Greeks one of the successor states, the Empire of Nicaea.

The Second Council of Nicaea was held to restore the veneration of icons which had been supressed in 726 by imperial edict.

The unusual health and variety of nature, the concentric organization of relief starting from the giant circle of Carpathians, the fecundity brought by the waters of Danube, all found in same place with the oldest history and greatest ethnical-religious-cultural diversity = ROMANIA

Localisation map for all mountains in Romania * Streets of Bucharest (my photos) * Timișoara, the forgotten splendor of Austria - Hungary (my photos) * My trips around Romania

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Old May 1st, 2013, 11:47 PM   #42
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what about the church in albania and fortification of city of Dures

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Old May 2nd, 2013, 03:22 AM   #43
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Originally Posted by PRIMEVAL View Post
Thank you Timothy for comment and likes!
You're welcome. I enjoy the combination of beautiful photography and the written material about such an interesting subject.

“In keeping silent about evil, in burying it so deep within us that no sign of it appears on the surface, we are implanting it, and it will rise up a thousand fold in the future. When we neither punish nor reproach evildoers we are thereby ripping the foundations of justice from beneath new generations.”

“The meaning of earthly existence lies not, as we have grown used to thinking, in prospering but in the development of the soul.”
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

"We are more closely connected to the invisible than to the visible"

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