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Old March 16th, 2016, 11:42 PM   #41
Domen123
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I would like to recommend some good free PDF e-books (written in English) about Silesia's history:

First of all, a series of books by Lucyna Harc and Przemysław Wiszewski (as well as some other authors), covering years 1000-2000 AD:

Vol. 1., The Long Formation of the Region Silesia c. 1000-1526 (PDF) - http://www.bibliotekacyfrowa.pl/Cont...egio_vol_1.pdf

Vol. 2., The Strengthening of Silesian Regionalism 1526–1740 (PDF) - http://www.bibliotekacyfrowa.pl/Cont...egio_vol_2.pdf

Vol. 3. - to my knowledge, it has not been published yet.

Vol. 4., Region Divided: Times of Nation-States 1918-1945 (PDF) - http://www.bibliotekacyfrowa.pl/Cont...egio_vol_4.pdf

Vol. 5., Permanent Change: The New Region(s) of Silesia 1945-2015 (PDF) - http://www.bibliotekacyfrowa.pl/Cont...egio_vol_5.pdf

And here a book by Tomasz Kamusella (I may not agree with its author's interpretations, but he provides a lot of good statistical data):

"The Dynamics of the Policies of Ethnic Cleansing in Silesia in the 19th and 20th Centuries": http://rss.archives.ceu.hu/archive/00001016/01/17.pdf

If you guys read German, then I can also recommend some good books in German.
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Last edited by Domen123; May 25th, 2016 at 09:58 AM. Reason: volume 5 added
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Old March 17th, 2016, 12:13 AM   #42
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Amazing!
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Old March 17th, 2016, 01:43 AM   #43
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Quote:
Originally Posted by alexandru.mircea View Post
Very interesting thread, please keep it up. As a Transylvanian this feels very familiar to, the main difference being that architectural heritage in Transylvania is of much smaller scale, its charm coming rather from the Saxon (Sachsen) villages rather than impressive castles, palaces and others of the sort. The migration of the Germanic inhabitans has been more acute and there are now a lot of completely deserted villages, for which the thread title ("land of dying country houses") feels so very adequate.
It seems very understated at minimum to refer to the ethnic cleansing and mass murder of Silesian Germans as "migration". While there are varying opinions on the righteousness of the post WWII actions against the native Germans, I think it is universally accepted that the people who owned and inhabited these country homes (as well as the rest of the region) were forcibly and painfully removed against their wills and not compensated.
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Old March 17th, 2016, 02:19 AM   #44
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^ I'm talking about the leaving of Transylvanian Saxons, both before and after 1989.
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Old March 17th, 2016, 03:47 PM   #45
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Originally Posted by keepthepast View Post
It seems very understated at minimum to refer to the ethnic cleansing and mass murder of Silesian Germans as "migration". While there are varying opinions on the righteousness of the post WWII actions against the native Germans, I think it is universally accepted that the people who owned and inhabited these country homes (as well as the rest of the region) were forcibly and painfully removed against their wills and not compensated.
When talking about that "migration" we should note that it must be divided into 4 phases - evacuation, flight, expulsion, and organized deportation - with most of the Germans leaving the region already during the first two phases (evacuation and flight), which took place in last months of 1944 and first months of 1945, during the course of WW2. Christopher Duffy estimated the number of those German civilian refugees as being ca. 7 million.

From page 277 (or page 289 of my Polish language edition), the beginning of chapter "The Experience of the Catastrophe" (link):

Link to Duffy's book: https://archive.org/stream/Red_Storm...ge/n0/mode/2up

"(...) As early as 28 January 1945, the Wehrmacht calculated that 3.5 million German civilians were on the move in the East. By the end of the war the number of German non-combatants fleeing from the Russians had nearly doubled to about 7 million people. Most of those who tried to stay in their homes were evicted after the war, a process which by 1950 brought the number of Germans displaced by the Russians and their clients to a final total of 11 million. (...)" - so as you can see the majority of Germans fled already before the end of WW2.

Polish historian Piotr Eberhardt estimates the number of refugees - either German citizens (but not only ethnic Germans) or Volksdeutsche - escaping or evacuated (not expelled) from lands to the east of the Oder-Neisse line in late 1944 and early 1945 as 7.5 million.

See Tables III.19. and III.20. (pp. 109-111) and Table III.21. (pp. 117-118) in this 2011 book (which is 225 pages long):

http://rcin.org.pl/Content/15652/WA5...Monografie.pdf

In case if link above doesn't work: http://www5.zippyshare.com/v/tAn358PE/file.html

However, out of those who escaped on their own or were evacuated, ca. 30% later tried to return. But still, when the Polish administration took over those areas from the Soviets in mid-1945, most regions were already very depopulated (compared to pre-1939 situation).

Eberhardt's 7.5 million is his adjusted estimate from 2011 book. In his earlier 2006 publication the number was a bit smaller.

Here are links to the 2006 (shorter - 72 pages) publication:

(see chapter 8. "Evacuation and flight of the German population to the Potsdam Germany"):

http://www5.zippyshare.com/v/sbDoTwxu/file.html

http://www.igipz.pan.pl/en/zpz/Political_migrations.pdf

This article (in German) also says, that over 1/2 of German citizens escaped already during the war, and did not try to return:

http://www.transodra-online.net/de/node/1410

Quote:
Originally Posted by keepthepast View Post
and mass murder of Silesian Germans
Indeed. But who sows the wind, will reap the whirlwind.

From Christopher Duffy's book (see chapter: "The Cycle of Revenge", pages 272 - 276):

https://archive.org/stream/Red_Storm.../n283/mode/2up

"(...) Again and again we hear of the Russian tank forces opening fire on trains, or driving straight down columns of civilian refugees, crushing people and animals and machine-gunning the survivors in the ditches and fields. Massacre, rape and plunder contributed to the very marked decline in discipline that was evident in the last ten days of January, when the Russians moved into German territory. The marshals were appalled, and in his ferocious order of 27 January [1945] Konev cited a number of spectacular lapses and gave a long list of commanders who had been consigned to penal battalions. One of his officers remarked on a tank battalion where the tanks were so tightly packed with loot and plunder that the members of the crew could not move inside and would have been unable to go into action in case of emergency. (...) The Russian way with German civilians first became known after the Germans recaptured the town of Nemmersdorf in East Prussia, which was the scene of a wholesale massacre of the population in October 1944. This experience was relived on every theatre of the Eastern Front, and on every occasion it provoked in the German troops an intense desire for revenge. In Silesia the grisly findings extended into March. At Sagan the Germans beat Russians to death with shovels and rifle butts; at Striegau, which was cleared by the 208th Infantry Division, the few surviving civilians were wandering around literally out of their minds. 'After Striegau there was no question of giving quarter. When the soldiers were asked to hold themselves back, they replied in words to the effect that: 'After what we saw and lived through at Striegau, you can't ask us to take prisoners' (Ahlfen, 1977, 169; see also Neidhardt, 1981, 379). (...)"

From Piotr Eberhardt's publication (see pages: 117 - 118):

http://www5.zippyshare.com/v/tAn358PE/file.html

"According to the calculations of the German historians, between 75,000 and 100,000 persons were killed by the Soviet soldiers only within the areas of East Prussia and Pomerania. This would be equivalent to 2-3% of the total pre-war population of these areas (Nitschke, 2000, p. 58). (...) Usually, these crimes were the individual actions of the Soviet military, consisting in murders, mass rapes of women, and robberies[49]. Such events would happen mainly during the short period after the German army retreated. The crimes were committed under the influence of alcohol, with utmost cruelty. This is confirmed by the reports from many persons, who managed to survive this nightmare[50].

[49] The accounts of the German women refugees, who went through rapes and cruelty from the side of the victors, were collected and published (Weber, 2008), as well as commented upon (Bachmann, Kranz, 1997).

[50] The brutal behaviour of the Soviet soldiers with respect to the German civilian population did not result, though, from the lack of discipline and individual licence. They had full freedom and approval of committing murders, robberies and rapes. The evidence is provided by the stance taken by Stalin himself, as noted by Polish communist leader Władysław Gomułka: "The pronouncement [of Stalin] was made in front of our delegation just after the Soviet army entered at the beginning of 1945 East Prussia, that is - the territory having belonged before the war to Germany. Stalin was highly excited by the fact, he radiated joy and at the same time boiled with hatred and the desire of a blood shedding revenge on the Germans. He told us that he ordered to place at the roads on the quite recent border the boards with the inscription: 'Zdes' nachinayetsya proklataya Germaniya' ('Here the damned Germany starts'). At the same time, he uttered the words full of sadistic feeling of retaliation, just soaked with blood: 'Nashi boytsy nachnut seychas r'ezat' Germantsev ('Our fighters shall now start to slaughter the Germans'). He must have had the image of this butchery at that instance before his eyes, for his face twisted with enchantment, his small, half-closed eyes, set in the pock-marked face, burned with some weird flames" (Gomułka, 1994, p. 414). The account of Gomulka's on the attitude of Stalin regarding the German civilian population on the areas taken by the Soviet troops finds confirmation in the known book by Milovan Djilas, who wrote: "Soon after my return from Moscow I heard, to my dismay, of a much more significant example of Stalin's 'indulgency' for the trespasses of the Red Army. It was namely so that when passing across East Prussia, Soviet soldiers, especially the tank units, would drive into one place and kill all the German civilian refugees - women and children. When informed of this and asked what to do, Stalin answered: 'We give our soldiers too many orders and advice, let them have a bit of initiative'" (Dżilas, 1962, p. 85)."


And not only Germans fell victim - check for example this excerpt from A. Solzhenitsyn's "Prussian Nights":

"Allenstein has just been taken.
An hour ago, a sudden strike
Of tanks and cavalry overwhelmed it...
Now the night flares. Burning sugar.
It flames with violet-coloured fire
Over the earth. It seems to simmer,
A trmbling blaze, a lilac shimmer...
Knocks. Rings. A tumult. Then we hear
A moment later, the cry of a girl,
Somewhere from behind a wall,
"I'm not a German. I'm not a German.
No. I'm Polish, I'm a Pole!"
Grabbing what comes handy, those
Like-minded lads get in and start-
And oh, what heart
Could well oppose?"

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Old March 17th, 2016, 03:55 PM   #46
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Very interesting thread. Thanks
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Old March 17th, 2016, 04:38 PM   #47
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Originally Posted by Domen123
When talking about that "migration" we should note that it must be divided into 4 phases - evacuation, flight, expulsion, and organized deportation - with most of the Germans leaving the region already during the first two phases (evacuation and flight), which took place in last months of 1944 and first months of 1945, during the course of WW2. Christopher Duffy estimated the number of those German civilian refugees as being ca. 7 million.

From page 277 (or page 289 of my Polish language edition), the beginning of chapter "The Experience of the Catastrophe" (link):

Link to Duffy's book: https://archive.org/stream/Red_Storm...ge/n0/mode/2up

"(...) As early as 28 January 1945, the Wehrmacht calculated that 3.5 million German civilians were on the move in the East. By the end of the war the number of German non-combatants fleeing from the Russians had nearly doubled to about 7 million people. Most of those who tried to stay in their homes were evicted after the war, a process which by 1950 brought the number of Germans displaced by the Russians and their clients to a final total of 11 million. (...)" - so as you can see the majority of Germans fled already before the end of WW2.

Polish historian Piotr Eberhardt estimates the number of refugees - either German citizens (but not only ethnic Germans) or Volksdeutsche - escaping or evacuated (not expelled) from lands to the east of the Oder-Neisse line in late 1944 and early 1945 as 7.5 million.

See Tables III.19. and III.20. (pp. 109-111) and Table III.21. (pp. 117-118) in this 2011 book (which is 225 pages long):

http://rcin.org.pl/Content/15652/WA5...Monografie.pdf

In case if link above doesn't work: http://www5.zippyshare.com/v/tAn358PE/file.html

However, out of those who escaped on their own or were evacuated, ca. 30% later tried to return. But still, when the Polish administration took over those areas from the Soviets in mid-1945, most regions were already very depopulated (compared to pre-1939 situation).

Eberhardt's 7.5 million is his adjusted estimate from 2011 book. In his earlier 2006 publication the number was a bit smaller.

Here are links to the 2006 (shorter - 72 pages) publication:

(see chapter 8. "Evacuation and flight of the German population to the Potsdam Germany"):

http://www5.zippyshare.com/v/sbDoTwxu/file.html

http://www.igipz.pan.pl/en/zpz/Political_migrations.pdf

This article (in German) also says, that over 1/2 of German citizens escaped already during the war, and did not try to return:

http://www.transodra-online.net/de/node/1410
Here is chapter 8. from the 2006 (older and shorter) version of Eberhardt's publication:






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Old March 17th, 2016, 04:50 PM   #48
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Karasek
interpreted the gate as a expression of the Polishness of the Silesian Piasts
The Polishness of Piasts cannot be questioned - it was a Polish dynasty and aware of their Polish descent, even after some of them became German-speakers. But the opinion of Silesia's Piast dukes about German immigration to Silesia was different depending on which duke you asked. Some Piast dukes favoured German immigration and cherished multi-culturalism of their duchies, while some other Piast dukes even wanted to expel the new immigrants.

The Polish-Silesian Chronicle (Kronika Polsko-Śląska; Latin: "Chronica Polonorum") written by monks of the Lubiąż Abbey (German: Kloster Leubus), mentions ethnic conflicts between local Poles and immigrant Germans taking place in Silesia, during the 13th century.

It mentions a conflict between two membes of the Piast dynasty, brothers, sons of duke Henry the Bearded - older son Conrad the Curly and younger son Henry the Pious. According to the chronicle, Conrad wanted to expel German immigrants from Silesia. Henry, on the other hand, defended "multi-culturalism" and fought, quote - "cum Theutinicis advenis, tam agricolis quam militibus, quos aliunde congregaverat". Conrad was supported by Poles from Silesia as well as by ethnic Polish volunteers from other regions. Forces of the two brothers clashed in year 1213 near Studnica (German name: Rothkirch).

Forces of "multi-cultural" Henry the Pious won against "ethno-centric" Conrad the Curly - and Germans weren't expelled.

The chronicle also suggests that Konrad's fatal "accident" shortly after his defeat in the battle of Studnica, was in fact a murder.
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Old March 17th, 2016, 05:04 PM   #49
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So, it is true that German (as well as other - because not only Germans came) immigrants were invited in the Middle Ages to Poland (including Silesia) by local Piast rulers. Why did they do that? Well - almost always when you invite immigrants, you do this to stimulate economic growth - isn't this the case also today? One reason was also that - before the Black Death - Germany had a surplus of people (was overpopulated), and Poland had a shortage of people (low population density). Germany was also more modern, so immigrants were going to bring Western European innovations and solutions with them.

IMO German (and other - Walloon, Fleming, etc.) settlement in Piast Poland, was in many ways a similar case as that of Scotland.

Today almost all of Scotland's population speaks English (or its local dialects - e.g. Scots is actually a dialect of English). But when Scotland was founded around 843 AD, it was a fully Celtic-speaking kingdom (even though not all of the population spoke Gaelic Celtic - some groups in the south and east spoke Brythonic Celtic). It became a strong enough and centralised enough state to resist significant invasions, except for those in lightly populated fringes in the extreme north - the Northern Isles, etc. A core of the kingdom was solid from that time. No invaders subsequently permanently annexed any part of Scotland and no hostile wave of Germanic (and certainly not English) settlers happened.

The opposite thing was actually the case - Celtic Scotland annexed a large English-speaking territory after the battle of Carham in 1016 AD, and those lands became the south-eastern part of Scotland. That expansion brought for the first time a large group of English-speakers politically into the Scottish kingdom. Then - especially after 1100-1200 AD - Scottish kings invited small numbers of nobles/knights of the Anglo-Norman type tradition in order to form heavy cavalry shock troops loyal to the Scottish Crown. They also invited some urban-type settlers (including traders) and fishers of a mix of Norman, Breton, Fleming, Anglo-Saxon, French and other North-Western continental European backgrounds, presumably in order to increase the population and to help stimulate economic growth (so probably very similar intentions as in Piast Poland).

Initially those migrants formed just scattered foreign islands in a sea of local Celtic-speakers. It was really only after 1400 (or between 1300 and 1600) that - for some reasons - Celtic language started to gradually disappear from much of Scotland, getting replaced by English language - and that eventually led to the highland-lowland division, and to a funny invertion of identity. Up until around the 1500s the main languages of Scotland were called Scottis (meaning Gaelic) and Inglis (meaning lowland Scots dialect of English). However, from around 1500 with Gaelic language retreating to the highland line and its loss of prestige relative to English, a weird invertion of identity and historical reality happened - Inglis started to be called Scottis, while Gaelic was falsely alienized by calling it Erse (Irish). So, identities morphed and turned reality on its head. However, in the case of Scotland the first waves of reduction of Gaelic to a retreating language was an internal process. The process of replacement of Slavic by German in Lower Silesia was similar.

Between 843 AD and 1603 AD Scotland only suffered a handful or two years with invaders controlling parts of Scotland and none of them led to permanent settlement. The replacement of Gaelic was peaceful. Scotland kind of colonised itself culturally. Whether the change of language in Scotland was mostly cultural (i.e. local Celtic-speakers gradually adopting English language), or caused by higher natural growth rates of that "intrusive" population which entered Scotland in the High Middle Ages (but the language of which started to replace native Celtic dialects in the countryside only few centuries later) than of locals, remains debatable. Genetic evidence could shed some light on it.

By the way - a much less known fact is that there was also Late Medieval and Early Modern Era German settlement in Scandinavia - not just in Denmark but also in Norway and in South Sweden. We can call that "Nordsiedlung". It isn't as well known as "Ostsiedlung".

And those Germans became allegedly so influential in Scandinavia, that at the beginning of the 16th century a royal decree was issued establishing quotas according to which Germans could not occupy more than 50% of seats in city councils in the Kalmar Union (implying that before that decree, in at least some Scandinavian city councils migrants from the HRE had managed to take control of more than half of all seats). Southern Schleswig became actually permanently Germanized (in the Early Middle Ages ethnically Danish territory extended as far south as a line connecting the mouth of the River Eider with the Bay of Kiel - today these lands are German-speaking rather than Danish). In other parts of Scandinavia, continental settlers eventually got assimilated by local populations (speakers of Norwegian, Danish, Swedish).

=======================

One reason why only some parts of Piast Poland (chiefly Lower Silesia and Western Pomerania) - and not most of the country (as in case of Scotland) - became linguistically Germanized over the centuries, is because in Medieval Poland, there were also strong circles which stressed the importance of ethnic and linguistic unity of the country - represented by such people as Duke Konrad the Curly (12th-13th century), Duke Ziemomysł of Kuyavia (13th century), Archbishop Jakub Świnka (13th-14th centuries), King Władysław Łokietek (13th-14th centuries), Voivode Jan Ostroróg (15th century), etc. Similar tendencies could be observed also among Medieval Czechs, for example in writings of such people as Dalimil (13th-14th centuries) or King Ottokar II (13th century), who wrote a letter-manifesto to the Poles, in which he emphasized cultural and linguistic closeness of Czechs and Poles, contrasting the two groups with Germans. A letter of congratulations to the Poles was later written by Czech Jan Hus (14th-15th centuries), after the battle of Grunwald. In that letter Hus for example underlined the "Slavic solidarity". There are also over 200 interesting witness testimonies from Polish-Teutonic court trials (14th-15th centuries):

https://www.academia.edu/2579308/Mem...enth_centuries
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Old March 17th, 2016, 08:30 PM   #50
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we need mores pics and less talks...
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Old March 17th, 2016, 10:49 PM   #51
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Also it is interesting to learn that the communist regime, instead of striving towards internationalism like it was supposed to, generated its own version of integrist nationalism (which is usually happening at the far right end of the ideological spectrum) to build up historical justification for the boundaries of the state in their current forms
Well I think it have more to do with trying to create a more effective propaganda, that could actually win over the population, which was mostly rather hostile to the new regime and saw it as Soviet/Russian occupation rather than some sort of "revolution" so they couldn't care less about the marxist-leninist dogma. You don't need any "historical justification" from internationalist perspective.
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Old March 18th, 2016, 04:07 AM   #52
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^ these regimes needed to "win over" the population? They had other methods of "convincing", like sending you to prison, forced labour or deporting you.

When neighbouring countries feel entitled to chunks of your country, you'll always find useful an ideological construct about how your nation and your country as it is has always been there from the first place and the territory is therefore your and yours only.
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Old March 18th, 2016, 08:56 PM   #53
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One reason why only some parts of Piast Poland (chiefly Lower Silesia and Western Pomerania) - and not most of the country (as in case of Scotland) - became linguistically Germanized over the centuries, is because in Medieval Poland, there were also strong circles which stressed the importance of ethnic and linguistic unity of the country.
Well I guess the main raison simply was that the german imigration came almost entirely to an end when the centers of emigration in the west (Netherlands, Flanders, Rhineland, Franconia etc.) were hit by the black death in the middle of the 14th century. Poland as we know was much less effected by this disease and in Germany overpopulation was no longer a reason to leave.
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Old March 18th, 2016, 10:19 PM   #54
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^ these regimes needed to "win over" the population? They had other methods of "convincing", like sending you to prison, forced labour or deporting you.
You can't rule with hard power alone, even Stalin understood that. Also this "other methods" you mentioned were largely out of the question after 1956 and it's not like the Party had no real support in the population at this point, especially since most hostile parts were largely pacified.
Even in Poland you had to wait to the late '70 for some real opposition to emerge and our regime was alway pretty open for the Eastern Block standards with quite many economical and cultural contacts with the West.
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Old March 19th, 2016, 05:10 PM   #55
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^actually you can rule with hard power. Romanian communism, the harshest West of the Soviet Union, fell at the same time as the "soft" regimes of Czechoslovakia or Poland. In fact, what made it happen in Romania was not the brutality of the regime but getting it wrong economically. I'm referring to the self-imposed austerity (of the extreme kind) that lasted for almost a decade when Ceausescu decided to eliminate the external debt. People "stood up" when there was no food anymore to buy in shops, no heat / warm water in the pipes, etc.
Unsurprisingly, the only proper communist regime still standing is the harshest one (North Korea).
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Old March 20th, 2016, 02:11 AM   #56
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the black death in the middle of the 14th century. Poland as we know was much less effected by this disease
Yes, this is true. I found the following comparison (relative) of population densities:

Evolution of population density in several countries (if density in 1300-1340 = 100):



So in Germany in 1400-1450 population density was 20% lower than in 1300-1340.

By comparison in Poland during the same time population density increased by 60%.
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Old May 3rd, 2016, 06:34 AM   #57
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Thanks for an interesting thread

Quote:
Originally Posted by Karasek View Post
Kamieniec Zabkowicki/Kamenz


Lake house today



Today the castle is named Pałac Marianny Orańskiej and open to the public

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Old May 3rd, 2016, 05:48 PM   #58
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The Silesia people came as immigrants from the northeast and had the permit from Germany to settle. Most Germans hat left going south and west.
Around 800 - 850 that was. The people mixt with the remaining German Gothics. The Silesians had no knowledge of making many things of life like tools or glass and alike.

Short time later the Polish arrived. The Polish mixed with the Germans around 80 / 20 P/G

Because the Polish had no knowledge of how to make plows for example [because they where horsemen] So starting 950 to Polish started raiding the other countries like Silesia and the Sorben or the Pruss or the Koestritzer or Westgothic, Saxon, Angeln and alike.

Between 950 and 1050 Germany had many complaints about Polish raids and more then 20 peace agreements had not been kept by the Polish. So, there where peace talks in Quetlinburg and Magdeburg with different Polish dukes, but the Polish counterparts where usually murdered or deposed of within there own people. In 1069 there was a peace agreement that Poland as well as Silesia will call for more German to come back with skills, so that no raids are required anymore.

Around 1250, Warschau had a German speaking population of 80% for the first time in 350 years.

Silesia also tried to keep a close bond with Germany, because of Poland.

In the years fallowing peace could not be archived. In 1410 the Vatican and Silesia had a battle that Silesia won and a new chapter started.
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Old May 3rd, 2016, 08:46 PM   #59
Sentyme
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Quote:
Originally Posted by The Eagle View Post
The Silesia people came as immigrants from the northeast and had the permit from Germany to settle. Most Germans hat left going south and west.
Around 800 - 850 that was. The people mixt with the remaining German Gothics. The Silesians had no knowledge of making many things of life like tools or glass and alike.

Short time later the Polish arrived. The Polish mixed with the Germans around 80 / 20 P/G

Because the Polish had no knowledge of how to make plows for example [because they where horsemen] So starting 950 to Polish started raiding the other countries like Silesia and the Sorben or the Pruss or the Koestritzer or Westgothic, Saxon, Angeln and alike.

Between 950 and 1050 Germany had many complaints about Polish raids and more then 20 peace agreements had not been kept by the Polish. So, there where peace talks in Quetlinburg and Magdeburg with different Polish dukes, but the Polish counterparts where usually murdered or deposed of within there own people. In 1069 there was a peace agreement that Poland as well as Silesia will call for more German to come back with skills, so that no raids are required anymore.

Around 1250, Warschau had a German speaking population of 80% for the first time in 350 years.

Silesia also tried to keep a close bond with Germany, because of Poland.

In the years fallowing peace could not be archived. In 1410 the Vatican and Silesia had a battle that Silesia won and a new chapter started.
Wow, some leute even reach historical medieval revisionism Anyway, don't feed the troll
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Old May 4th, 2016, 04:53 AM   #60
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Near the Pałac Marianny Orańskiej is the railway station





Two railroads cross here. In times past the region was called Frankenstein.

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