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Old May 3rd, 2013, 04:07 PM   #1
Oslo2022
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Gdańsk - Danzig, the lost pearl of the Baltic

Danzig (Gdańsk) pre-war was considered to be one of the most beautiful and best preserved historic cities in Europe.



Nicknamed the "Venice of the North" (Venedig des nordes), it was one of the most powerful port-cities in Europe in the 16th and 17th century, and the by no doubt largest city in the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth with nearly 90 000 inhabitants at its peak in the turn of the 18th century.

The pre-war city consisted of the best preserved examples of dutch manneristic and renaissance architecture in this part of Europe.


http://www.danzig-online.pl/color/29.jpg


http://www.danzig-online.pl/color/01.jpg


http://www.danzig-online.pl/color/014.jpg


http://www.danzig-online.pl/color/17.jpg
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Old May 6th, 2013, 09:04 PM   #2
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Panoroma´s of the city

1500-1550:

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/15/15159.jpg

1550-1600:

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/119/119853.jpg

1630:

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/380/380119.jpg

1650-1655:

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/317/317796.jpg

1715:

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/162/162854.jpg

1800:

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/380/380128.jpg

1870:

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/404/404635.jpg

1880:

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/385/385646.jpg

1890:

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/12/12151.jpg

1891: (Right before the fortifications were removed)

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/11/11071.jpg

1895: The fortifications are about to be removed

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/12/12358.jpg

1900:

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/216/216459.jpg

1916:

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/115/115155.jpg

1930-1939:
Last pre-war panorama of the city

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/136/136648.jpg

Next post: Upland gate
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Old May 6th, 2013, 09:45 PM   #3
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Upland gate

The traditional entry point for kings to Gdansk, at the western end of the Royal Way.

It was built in 1574 as part of the new fortifications and as a representative entrance to the city, which were constructed outside the city's medieval walls to strengthen the system. Authorities weren't happy with the original structure, so in 1586 they commissioned Flemish artist, Willem van den Block, to embellish it, covering it with sandstone slabs and ornamenting it with 3 coats of arms: Royal Prussia - Westpreussen (unicorns), Poland (angels) and Gdańsk (lions).


http://fotopolska.eu/foto/10/10442.jpg

Shortly after construction (1587-1588)

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/11/11290.jpg

Gate in 1876

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/115/115680.jpg

1910-1914:

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/395/395650.jpg

1947 (It survived the destruction of the city):

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/177/177931.jpg

Today: (Front side)

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/354/354692.jpg

Today: (Rear side: Coat of arms of the kingdom of Prussia)

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/304/304869.jpg

Next post: The prison tower - Stockthurm
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Old May 6th, 2013, 10:01 PM   #4
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Stockthurm - Prison tower and house of torture

Originally built as part of the city’s fortifications in the second half of the 14th century, the complex was rebuilt by Antoni van Obberghen between 1593 and 1604 with the smaller of the two buildings becoming a torture chamber and courthouse while the larger tower became the prison. It was here that executions were carried out until the middle of the 19th century.

Damaged during WWII, it has been extensively renovated and how houses the Amber and Torture Museums

House of tortures

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/261/261389.jpg

House of tortures and prison tower

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/391/391096.jpg

Seen from the side

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/406/406203.jpg

Courtyard:

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/241/241101.jpg


http://fotopolska.eu/foto/385/385768.jpg

Rear side of the Prison tower

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/369/369870.jpg

And finally how it appears today:

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/298/298597.jpg

Next post: Kohlenmarkt - Coal market
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Old May 6th, 2013, 11:29 PM   #5
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Kohlenmarkt - Coal market

Already in the 15th century this square was used as a market for selling coal. The original market was huge, but was in the 19th century reduced when the City theater (1800) was built. Later it became the most important commercial squares in the city with the Danziger Hof hotel, several bank offices and the shopping house Freymann.

The square is/was also linked with several important historic structures: Langgasser Tor -The golden gate, Stockthurm - City prison, Upland gate, and Große Zeughaus - The Great Arsenal (rear side).

Historic view of the square (During the times of the Polish - Lithuanian commonwealth)

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/391/391205.jpg

1800: construction of the city theatre. On the right side you can see the Great arsenal.

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/369/369864.jpg


http://fotopolska.eu/foto/373/373423.jpg


http://fotopolska.eu/foto/359/359475.jpg


http://fotopolska.eu/foto/98/98917.jpg


http://fotopolska.eu/foto/142/142475.jpg


http://postcard.com.pl/wp-content/up.../01/GM196E.jpg

Next post: Langgasser Tor - The golden gate
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Old May 7th, 2013, 10:16 PM   #6
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Beautiful city. Typical medieval architecture
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Old May 8th, 2013, 03:04 PM   #7
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Why "lost"? The old part is still well preserved, and the city is one of Poland's main tourist attractions.
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Old May 8th, 2013, 03:59 PM   #8
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Danzig/Gdańsk

Quote:
Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post

Quote:
Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post
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Old May 9th, 2013, 02:14 PM   #9
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Fallout View Post
Why "lost"? The old part is still well preserved, and the city is one of Poland's main tourist attractions.
Just a small part of the city was reconstructed, and since this city was on a same level as Brugge or Lubeck it would be necessary to reconstruct the entire city in order to return its former position. But what is even worse is that the city has lost its pre-war climate when it lost all its former inhabitants, we must remember that the mentality has changed, the culture is different and many of the most recognized commercial institutions and habits connected with Gdansk/Danzig were lost forever.

The reconstruction of Gdansk was also different than the one conducted in Warsaw. In the Old town of Warsaw both exteriors and most interiors where reconstructed (except the churches). Gdansks historic main town (90 percent of the historic core destroyed) was first supposed in entirety to be rebuilt the similar way, but it was finally decided that only a few buildings would be "reconstructed", meaning a reconstruction of the facades but not the interiors.

In this way we can say that Danzig was lost and not rebuilt. Even Poland´s prime minister and historian Donald Tusk has public spoken: That Gdansk deserved to be reconstructed more faithfully after WWII.
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Old May 9th, 2013, 04:40 PM   #10
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Excellent summary of what "lost forever" means relative to Danzig.
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Old May 9th, 2013, 06:17 PM   #11
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I suppose it's impossible to fully preserve the cultural heritage when former inhabitants constitute much less than 50% of the city population like in the post-war Lwow/Lviv, Wilno/Vilnius, Breslau/Wroclaw, Stettin/Szczecin, etc. Hopefully, ethnic composition in some of those areas (maybe even with EU's help) will be restored.

Poles, former inhabitants in Wilno (after WW2 annexed by Soviets)

Before the war majority, now only about 20% of the city's population due to the Ponary massacre and expulsion of Poles from the Kresy region.
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Old May 9th, 2013, 11:03 PM   #12
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Quote:
Originally Posted by RS_UK-PL View Post
I suppose it's impossible to fully preserve the cultural heritage when former inhabitants constitute much less than 50% of the city population like in the post-war Lwow/Lviv, Wilno/Vilnius, Breslau/Wroclaw, Stettin/Szczecin, etc. Hopefully, ethnic composition in some of those areas (maybe even with EU's help) will be restored.

Poles, former inhabitants in Wilno (after WW2 annexed by Soviets)

Before the war majority, now only about 20% of the city's population due to the Ponary massacre and expulsion of Poles from the Kresy region.
I wish you that someday you will stop talking these nonsenses
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Old May 21st, 2013, 10:15 AM   #13
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Langgasser Tor - The golden gate

It was raised in 1612–14 in place of the 13th century gothic gate (Brama Długouliczna) and was designed by architect Abraham van den Blocke. The chief of construction was Jan Strakowski. The architectural style of the gate is Dutch manierism. Next to it is the late-gothic building of the Brotherhood of St.George.

Both sides of the gate have attiques, with figures symbolising citizen's qualities. They were designed in 1648 by Jeremias Falck ("Polonus"), and reconstructed in 1878 due to the originals being damaged by time and climate.

From the West side they represent: Pax (Peace), Libertas (Freedom), Fortuna (Wealth) and Fama (Fame). From the East side (Long Lane) they are Concordia (Agreement), Iustitia (Justice), Pietas (Piety) and Prudentia (Prudency). The Latin inscription on the gates reads: Concordia res publicæ parvæ crescunt - discordia magnæ concidunt, which means "In agreement small republics grow, because of disagreement great [republics]fall".

Destroyed in World War II, it was rebuilt in 1957. The original German inscription has recently been restored: "Es müsse wohl gehen denen, die dich lieben. Es müsse Friede sein inwendig in deinen Mauern und Glück in deinen Palästen"


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/11/11291.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/123/123405.jpg


http://www.fotopolska.eu/foto/27/27020.jpg


http://www.danzig-online.pl/tours/446.jpg


http://www.danzig-online.pl/color/07.jpg
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Old June 26th, 2013, 04:13 PM   #14
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An overview of Danzig´s Vorstadt and Rechtstadt

Visible buildings: St. Mary´s church, Main city town hall, Artus Court, Golden house, the pre-war post office, the medieval crane, Observatorium, the Green gate and of course the Granaries


http://i.imgur.com/RDPWZ.jpg
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Old June 27th, 2013, 11:54 PM   #15
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wish they would recreate the context of these area - would enhance quality of life and aesthetic of city so much:

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Warsaw Post-War Reconstruction to Present

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Old June 28th, 2013, 08:11 PM   #16
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The Great armory - Zeughaus

The Great Armoury was built in 1600-09 on the mediaeval line of the city walls. A working arsenal until the 1800's, the armoury remains the finest example of Renaissance architecture in the city. It was designed by Opperghen and is the most impressive of his works in Gdańsk. The well-like structure in front was used as an elevator to transport gunpowder and cannon balls from their storage place in the basement. The armoury was badly damaged in WWII and rebuilt.


http://www.fotopolska.eu/302501,foto.html?o=b3051


http://fotopolska.eu/foto/253/253414.jpg

Rear side

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/140/140532.jpg

Next post: Jopengasse
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Old June 28th, 2013, 08:26 PM   #17
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Jopengasse (beer street, home to the Jopen beer)


http://www.danzig-online.pl/tours/485.jpg

Shopping home Potrykus & Fuchs

http://www.danzig-online.pl/tours/488.jpg

Schlüterhaus

http://fotopolska.eu/foto/272/272133.jpg

Other tenements

http://www.danzig-online.pl/tours/482.jpg


http://www.danzig-online.pl/tours/483.jpg


http://postcard.com.pl/wp-content/up...2/11/DZG2E.jpg

Next post: Marienkirche - St.Mary´s church
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Old June 28th, 2013, 08:47 PM   #18
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Marienkirche - St.Mary´s church

The foundation stone for the new brick church was placed on on 25 March 1343, the feast of the Annunciation. At first a six-span bay basilica with a low turret was built, erected from 1343 to 1360. Parts of the pillars and lower levels of the turret have been preserved from this building.

In 1379 the masonry master Heinrich Ungeradin led his team to start construction of the present church. St. Mary's Church in Lübeck, the mother of all Brick Gothic churches dedicated to St. Mary in Hanseatic cities around the Baltic, is believed to be the archetype of the building. By 1447 the eastern part of the church was finished, and the tower was raised by two floors in the years 1452-1466.
Since 1485 the work was continued by Hans Brandt, who supervised the erection of the main nave core. The structure was finally finished after 1496 under Heinrich Haetzl, who supervised the construction of the vaulting.
In the course of the Reformation most Danzigers adopted Lutheranism, likewise St. Mary's parishioners.[3] After a short wave of turbulent religious altercations in 1525 and 1526, also overthrowing the previous city council, the new city council was rather in favour of a smooth transition to Lutheran cult than a harsh caesura.[3] In 1529 the first Lutheran preach was held in St. Mary's. Since 1536 - consented with Włocławek's Catholic official - one Lutheran preacher was permanently employed at St. Mary's and Lutheran services and preaches were held besides Catholic masses.[3][1] The Lutheran congregation started in this time registering acts of rites de passage and the oldest surviving register is that of burials starting in 1537.

After on 4 July 1557 King Sigismund II Augustus had granted Danzig the religion privilege allowing to celebrate the communion under both kinds the city council ended Catholic masses in all other parish churches in the city and those in its countryside territory, except of in St. Mary's. Here Catholic Masses at the high altar were continued until the city council stopped them in 1572. As part of the smooth transition Lutheran pastors and services at first also continued Catholic traditions, including using precious liturgical garments, such as chasubles. However, over time these traditions unnecessary in Lutheranism were more and more given up and the traditional garments fell into disuse and were stored away.

In most Catholic churches garments were continuously used until new ones could be afforded or the old ones fell apart, with the garments cast-off being burnt. At St. Mary's this practice ended with Lutheranism. Danzig's Lutheran congregation, like a number of congregations such as Brunswick, Halberstadt, Lübeck, Stralsund, and Uppsala, once richly endowed with garments and which had smoothly adopted Lutheranism, stored their garments - less and less used in Lutheran services - and then forgot about them.
The inventories of St. Mary's tell us about the actual usage of Catholic-style accessories in Danzig's Lutheran services. The inventory of 1552 still mentions a great stock of garments and embroideries, exceeding today's collection by far. The parishioners of St. Mary's formed a Lutheran congregation which - as part of Lutheran church polity - adopted a church order (Ordnung, wie es mit predigt und anderem in der pfarrkirche zu St. Marien zu halten, 1567, besides the all-Danzig Kirchenordnung of 1557) and elected bodies. Each pastor of St. Mary's was member of the spiritual ministerium (Geistliches Ministerium), the collegial body leading the Danzig state church. Since 1567 the senior of Danzig chaired the spiritual ministerium as primus inter pares. The first senior of Danzig's Lutheran state church was Johannes Kittelius, prime pastor (Erster Pfarrer, pastor primarius) at St. Mary's between 1566 and 1590. The church was called Supreme Parish Church of St. Mary's (Oberpfarrkirche St. Marien), indicating its prominent position in the city.

In 1577 the Polish King Stephen Báthory imposed the Siege of Danzig (1577) onto the city. The defense of its liberty forced the city to hire mercenaries, who were so costly that all around the city, the city council confiscated gold and silver of the inhabitants and from the treasuries of the city and its Lutheran state church. Thus most of the gold- and silverware of St. Mary's had to be minted to pay the mercenaries. An inventory of 1552 still recorded no less than 78 silver gilt chalices, 43 altar crucifixes, 24 great silver figures of saints and the like more. After 1577 most of it was gone. The Danzig rebellion ended with a compromise forcing the city to pay the king the sum of 200,000 Polish guilders. But he also acknowledged for Danzig's religious reality and recognised its Lutheran faith on 12 December 1577.

As a compromise the jurisdiction over Danzig's Lutherans as to marital and fornication matters remained with Włocławek's Catholic official. What remained with the congregation was the collection of precious garments, however, dropping into oblivion. Inventories of the 17th and 18th century don't mention the garments anymore, although they record lengthy and detailed lists of various items.

When in 1594 the Polish royal court tribunal declared St. Mary's Church to be restituted for Catholic rite the city council rejected that judgment. But as a compromise, since the kings of Poland had remained Catholic and being the nominal heads of the City since 1466, the city council authorised building the baroque Catholic Royal Chapel. It was erected by Tylman van Gameren (Gamerski), completed in 1681, near St. Mary's Church for the king's Catholic service when he visited the City. With St. Mary's pastor Constantin Schütz (1646–1712) a moderate pietist theology and practice replaced the previously dominant Lutheran Orthodoxy.

In the course of the Partitions of Poland the city lost its liberty in 1793, regaining it for a short period (1807–1814), however, as a Napoleonic client state only, before it – impoverished by the previous Prussian economic embargo and the Napoleonic requisitions and wars – returned to the Kingdom of Prussia. The Prussian government integrated St. Mary's and all the Lutheran state church into the all-Prussian Lutheran church administration. In 1816 the Danzig Consistory was established taking on the tasks and some of the members of the Danzig spiritual ministerium.[1] Danzig's then senior, and prime pastor at St. Mary's (1801–1827), Karl Friedrich Theodor Bertling, became a consistorial councillor in the church body. In 1817 the government imposed the union of Reformed and Lutheran congregations within the entire monarchy. First intended to win all these congregations to adopt a United Protestant confession, the vast Lutheran majority insisted to retain their Augsburg Confession, thus St. Mary's remained a Lutheran church and congregation, but joined the new umbrella of the Evangelical Church in Prussia (this name as of 1821), a regional Protestant church body of united administration but no common confession, comprising mostly Lutheran, but also some Reformed and united Protestant congregations.

Between 1861 and 1864 Sexton Hinz systematically searched chests, cabinets and other storages in chambers and rooms, also in the tower, and found many more ancient garments. In the 1870s and 1880s the congregation sold more than 200 incomplete pieces, but also intact altar cloths and embroideries to the Berlin Museum of Decorative Arts. The remaining pieces of the garment collection, the so-called Danziger Paramentenschatz (Danzig Parament Treasure), mostly originate from the 150 years between 1350 and 1500. Older garments were rather not in use anymore, when the Reformation in Danzig prevented their further usage and wear, and newer were hardly bought anymore, since Lutherans stopped using them.

The congregation also sold other artifacts, such as the winged triptych by Jan van Wavere, acquired by Archduke Maximilian, it is today held in the Church of the Teutonic Order in Vienna; and the sculpture of the Madonna and Child by Michael of Augsburg from the main altar, sold to Count Alfons Sierakowski, is today located in the chapel in Waplewo Wielkie. In addition, the Prussian authorities melted down gold and silver reliquaries for reuse; they also reused golden threads from embroideries in uniforms for Prussian officers. Until the 20th century, both the church interior and exterior were well preserved.

Between 1920 and 1940 St. Mary's became the principal church within the Protestant Regional Synodal Federation of the Free City of Danzig. In this time the presbytery (board of the congregation) discerned the value of its parament collection and prompted its inventarisation. During the renovation of St. Mary's in the 1920s more ancient garments, no chasubles, but altar cloths, were found.[3] From 1930 to 1933 Walter Mannowsky, then director of the City Museum (now taken on by the National Museum, Gdańsk), delivered a detailed four volume inventory of the Paramentenschatz.

The church was severely damaged in World War II, during the storming of Danzig city by the Red Army in March 1945. The wooden roof burned completely and most of the ceiling fell in. Fourteen of the large vaults collapsed. The windows were destroyed. In places the heat was so intense that some of the bricks melted, especially in the upper parts of the tower, which acted as a giant chimney. All non requisitioned bells crashed down when their bell cages collapsed in the fire. The floor of the church, containing priceless gravestone slabs, was torn apart, allegedly by Soviet soldiers attempting to loot the corpses buried underneath.

By the end of the Second World War many parishioners of St. Mary's fled westwards, and also the parament treasure was rescued in the west. In March 1945 Poland started expelling remaining ethnic German Danzigers as part of the ethnic cleansing which was consented in August the same year by the three powers at the Potsdam Conference. Most of St. Mary's parishioners, fled or expelled, stranded in the British zone of Allied occupied Germany. Lübeck became a centre of exiled Danzigers. Whereas all property of St. Mary's Lutheran congregation in Gdańsk was expropriated, its cemetery desecrated, the presbytery could regain the few of its chattels located in the British zone. Two unsmelted bells of St. Mary's, both acquired by the Lutheran congregation in 1632 and 1719, respectively, were found in the so-called Hamburg bell cemetery (Glockenfriedhof). The bell Osanna (1632) was later loaned to the Lutheran congregation of St. Andreas in Hildesheim.


http://www.danzig-online.pl/bud/109.jpg


http://www.danzig-online.pl/bud/084.jpg


http://www.danzig-online.pl/bud/085.jpg


http://www.danzig-online.pl/bud/110.jpg

Entrance

http://www.danzig-online.pl/bud/094.jpg

Interiors

http://www.danzig-online.pl/bud/096.jpg


http://www.danzig-online.pl/bud/103.jpg


http://www.danzig-online.pl/bud/097.jpg


http://www.danzig-online.pl/bud/101.jpg


http://www.danzig-online.pl/bud/102.jpg


http://www.danzig-online.pl/bud/098.jpg


http://www.danzig-online.pl/bud/099.jpg

Gothic astronomical clock

http://www.danzig-online.pl/bud/105.jpg

Statue of beautiful Madonna

http://www.danzig-online.pl/bud/113.jpg


http://www.danzig-online.pl/bud/106.jpg

Last judgment by Hans Memling

http://www.danzig-online.pl/bud/108.jpg


http://www.danzig-online.pl/bud/090.jpg

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Old November 22nd, 2013, 12:11 AM   #19
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Brotbänkergasse - Chlebnicka street


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Old November 22nd, 2013, 12:14 AM   #20
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Frauengasse - Mariacka street


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