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Old June 10th, 2013, 08:21 PM   #1
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Classical Lahore Collection - Pre & Post Independence of Pakistan (1947)

Introduction to Lahore:

Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country having population of more than 10 million. It is the largest native Punjabi-populated city in the world and an important historical centre of the country. With a rich history dating back over a millennium, Lahore is a main cultural centre of Punjab and Pakistan. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains an economic, political, transportation, entertainment, and educational hub. It is referred to as the "Mughal City of Gardens" due to the historic presence of gardens in and around the city dating back to the Mughal period.

History of Lahore:

Origin:

A legend based on oral traditions holds that Lahore, known in ancient times as Shehwar Elahi ka thikana ("Den of Shehwar" in Sanskrit), was founded by Prince Lava or Loh, the son of Rama, the Hindu deity, while Kasur was founded by his twin brother Prince Kusha.

To this day, Lahore Fort has a vacant temple dedicated to Lava (also pronounced Loh, hence Loh-awar or "The Fort of Loh").

Ptolemy, the celebrated 2nd-century Egyptian astronomer and geographer, mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla situated on the route between the Indus River and Palibothra, or Pataliputra (Patna) mostly, in a tract of country called Kasperia (Kashmir). It was described as extending along the rivers Bidastes or Vitasta (Jhelum), Sandabal or Chandra Bhaga (Chenab), and Adris or Iravati (Ravi). This city may have been ancient Lahore.

The oldest authentic surviving document about Lahore was written anonymously in 982. It is called Hudud-i-Alam (The Regions of the World). In 1927 it was translated into English by Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky and published in Lahore. In this document, Lahore is mentioned as a shehr or town inhabited by infidels "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards." It refers to "two major markets around which dwellings exist", and it also mentions "the mud walls that enclose these two dwellings to make it one." The original document is currently held in the British Museum. Lahore was called by different names throughout history. To date there is no conclusive evidence as to when it was founded. Some historians trace the history of the city as far back as 4000 years ago. However, historically, it has been proved that Lahore is at least 2,000 years old. Hieun-tsang, the famous Chinese pilgrim has given a vivid description of Lahore which he visited in the early parts of the 7th century. Lying on the main trade and invasion routes to South Asia, Lahore has been ruled and plundered by a number of dynasties and hordes.

Ghaznavid Empire to Delhi Sultanate:

Lahore appears as the capital of the Punjab for the first time under Anandapala – the Hindu Shahi king who is referred to as the ruler of (hakim i lahur) –after leaving the earlier capital of Waihind. Few references to Lahore remain from before its capture by Sultan Mahmud of Ghaznavi in the 11th century. The sultan took Lahore after a long siege and battle in which the city was torched and depopulated. In 1021, Sultan Mahmud appointed Malik Ayaz to the throne and made Lahore the capital of the Ghaznavid Empire. As the first Muslim governor of Lahore, Ayaz rebuilt and repopulated the city. He added many important features, such as city gates and a masonry fort, built in 1037–1040 on the ruins of the previous one, which had been demolished in the fighting (as recorded by Munshi Sujan Rae Bhandari, author of the Khulasatut Tawarikh in 1695–96). The present Lahore Fort stands on the same location. Under Ayaz's rule, the city became a cultural and academic centre, renowned for poetry. The tomb of Malik Ayaz can still be seen in the Rang Mahal commercial area of town.

After the fall of the Ghaznavid Empire, Lahore was ruled by various Turkic dynasties based in Delhi, known as the Delhi Sultanate, including the Khiljis, Tughlaqs, Mamluk, Sayyid and Lodhis.[28] During the reign of Qutb-ud-din Aibak, Lahore was known as the 'Ghazni of India'. Scholars and poets from as far away as Kashghar, Bukhara, Samarkand, Iraq, Khorasan and Herat, gathered in Lahore and made it a city of learning. Under Aibak, Lahore had more poets of Persia than any other Islamic city.

In the 7th Century, the Loharana king, Chahir Ray, was betrayed by his confidant Kualnger, who turned traitor for a large fortune in gold and gems. Due to this, the Lohana community split, and a new leader emerged who again unified the Lohanas. Rana Jashraj, who is revered as Veer Dada Jashraj, was born in the city of Lohar (today's Lahore in Pakistan), which was the capital of Lohargadh. His domain extended from Lahore to Multan (also in Pakistan today). As the folklore goes, Mongol invader Changez Khan, attacked Multan and was killed by Dada Jashraj, Rana of Lohargadh.

This finds mention in Mongol folklore, which say, "King of Mongols was killed by Mirana, the tiger of Multan fort". His descendants who proudly carry the surname of 'Mirana' preserve the memory of this great warrior king. Dada Jashraj was also treacherously killed when only 28 – a life so short but full of heroic deeds.

After the death of Dada Jashraj, the decline of Lohana kingdom began and their reign at Lohargadh ended. King Dahir ruled for a while from Narayankot (today's Hyderabad, Sindh).

After his demise in a war against Muslims, Narayankot and Sindh fell to Muslims. It was around this time that some Lohanas converted to Islam. Many migrated to far-off southern regions like Kutchchh, Saurashtra and Gujarat and gradually became a trader community like Agarwals and Baranwals.

Mughal Era:

In the early 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley (modern day Uzbekistan), swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering modern day Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. The Mughals were descended from Central Asian Turks (with a significant Mongol admixture). Lahore reached the zenith of its glory during the Mughal rule from 1524 to 1752. Lahore reached the peak of its architectural glory during the rule of the Mughals, many of whose buildings and gardens have survived the ravages of time. During this time, the massive Lahore Fort was built. A few buildings within the fort were added by Akbar's son, the Mughal emperor Jahangir, who is buried in the city. Jahangir's son, Shahjahan was born in Lahore. He, like his father, extended the Lahore Fort and built many other structures in the city, including the Shalimar Gardens. The last of the great Mughals, Aurangzeb, who ruled from 1658 to 1707, built the city's most famous monuments, the Badshahi Masjid and the Alamgiri Gate next to the Lahore Fort.

Post-Mughal Era:

During the 18th century, as Mughal power dwindled, Punjab, including Lahore, was often invaded, and government authority was lacking. In 1739, Nader Shah, the Turkic emperor of Afsharid dynasty in Persia, invaded north western India, defeated the Mughal Emperor Mohammed Shah at the huge Battle of Karnal, and occupied most of Balochistan and the Indus plain including Lahore. In 1747, the Durrani Empire was established by Ahmad Shah Abdali in Afghanistan, during this period, Punjab saw frequent invasions by Ahmad Shah Abdali, The great Punjabi poet Baba Waris Shah said of the situation, "khada peeta lahy da, baqi Ahmad Shahy da"("we have nothing with us except what we eat and wear, all other things are for Ahmad Shah").

In 1758, the Maratha Empire's general Raghunathrao conquered Lahore, Attock and Peshawar, and drove out Timur Shah Durrani, the son and viceroy of Ahmad Shah Abdali. Lahore, Multan, Peshawar, Kashmir and other subahs on the south and eastern side of Attock were under the Maratha rule for the most part. In Punjab and Kashmir, the Marathas were now major players. In 1761, following the victory at the Third battle of Panipat between the Durrani and the Maratha Empire, Ahmad Shah Abdali captured remnants of the Maratha Empire in Punjab and Kashmir regions and consolidated control over them.

Sikh Region:

During the late 18th century, frequent invasions by the Durrani Empire and the Maratha Empire due to the decline of the Mughal Empire, led to a lack of governance in the Punjab region. The Sikh Misls were in close combate with the Durrani Empire, but began to gain territory and eventually the Bhangi Misl captured Lahore. When Zaman Shah invaded Punjab again in 1799 Maharaja Ranjit Singh was able to make gains in the chaos. He defeated Zaman in a battle between Lahore and Amritsar. The citizens of Lahore, encouraged by Sada Kaur, offered him the city and he was able to take control of it in a series of battles with the Bhangi Misl and their allies. Lahore served as the capital city of the Sikh Empire in accordance with Lahore being the capital of Punjab. While much of Lahore's Mughal era fabric lay in ruins by the end of 18th century a close struggle to gain control, rebuilding efforts under the Sikh Empire were shaped by and indebted to Mughal practice.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh moved into the Mughal palace in Lahore's citadel. By 1812 he had mostly refurbished the city's defenses by adding a second circuit of outer walls that followed the outline of Akbar's original walls and were separated from them by a moat. The Maharaja also partially restored Shah Jahan's decaying gardens at Shalimar, and British maps of the area surrounding Lahore dating from the mid-19th century show that walled private gardens – many of them bearing the names of prominent Sikh nobles – continued in the Mughal pattern under Sikh rule. The Sikh court continued to endow religious architecture in the city, including a number of Sikh gurdwaras, Hindu temples and mosques. The Sikhs and Hindus both belonging to the indic religions, had good relations. During the relatively short periode of the Sikh Empire, the structures and architecture of Lahore were rebuiled which were further developed during the British Raj.

British Raj:

Maharajah Ranjit Singh made Lahore his capital and was able to expand the kingdom to the Khyber Pass and also included Jammu and Kashmir, while keeping the British from expanding across the River Sutlej for more than 40 years. After his death in 1839 the internecine fighting between the Sikhs and several rapid forfeitures of territory by his sons, along with the intrigues of the Dogras and two Anglo-Sikh wars, eventually led to British control of the Lahore Darbar ten years later. For the British, Punjab was a frontier province, because Lahore had boundaries with Afghanistan and Persia. Therefore, the Punjabis, unlike the Bengalis and the Sindhis, were not allowed to use their mother tongue as an official language. The British first introduced Urdu as an official language in Punjab, including Lahore, allegedly due to a fear of Punjabi nationalism. Under British rule (1849–1947), colonial architecture in Lahore combined Mughal, Gothic and Victorian styles. Under British rule, Sir Ganga Ram (referred to as the father of modern Lahore) designed and built the General Post Office, Lahore Museum, Aitchison College, Mayo School of Arts (now the NCA), Ganga Ram Hospital, Lady Mclagan Girls High School, the chemistry department of the Government College University, the Albert Victor wing of Mayo Hospital, Sir Ganga Ram High School (now Lahore College for Women) the Hailey College of Commerce, Ravi Road House for the Disabled, the Ganga Ram Trust Building on Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam, and the Lady Maynard Industrial School. He also constructed Model Town, a suburb that has recently developed into a cultural centre for Lahore's growing socioeconomic elite.

The GPO and YMCA buildings in Lahore commemorated the golden jubilee of Queen Victoria, an event marked by the construction of clock towers and monuments all over British India. Other important British buildings included the High Court, the Government College University, the museums, the National College of Arts, Montgomery Hall, Tollinton Market, the University of the Punjab (Old Campus) and the Provincial Assembly. Even today, Mall Road retains a variety of Gothic and Victorian style buildings built during the British Raj. At one end of The Mall stands the university, one of the most prestigious in Pakistan. The British also launched the city's first horse-racing club in 1924, starting a tradition that continues today at the Lahore Race Club.

Partition of British India:

Lahore played a special role in the independence movements of India. The 1929 Indian National Congress session was held at Lahore. In this Congress, the Declaration of the Independence of India was moved by Jawaharlal Nehru and passed unanimously at midnight on 31 December 1929. On this occasion, the Swaraj flag (with a charkha at its centre) was adopted by the Congress. Lahore's prison was used by the British to detain revolutionary freedom fighters. Noted freedom fighter Jatin Das died in Lahore's prison after fasting for 63 days in protest of British treatment of political prisoners. One of the greatest martyrs in the history of Indian independence, Shaheed Sardar Bhagat Singh, was hanged here. The most important session of the All India Muslim League (later the Pakistan Muslim League), demanding the creation of Pakistan, was held in Lahore in 1940. Muslims under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah demanded a separate homeland for Muslims of India in a document known as the Pakistan Resolution or the Lahore Resolution. It was during this session under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the leader of the league, that Muslims League publicly proposed the Two-Nation Theory for the first time.
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Old June 10th, 2013, 08:26 PM   #2
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Lahore c. 1900-10s



The new "Burt" Railway Institute, Lahore, c. 1914

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Lahore Railway Station c. 1908

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Railway Head Quarters - Lahore c. 1910

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Lahore Museum c. 1908
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Old June 11th, 2013, 06:44 PM   #3
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A Rainy Day - Lahore c. 1970s













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Old June 13th, 2013, 05:34 PM   #4
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Lahore c. 1900-10s



Lahore General Post Office c. 1910s

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Lahore High Court c. 1908

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"Zam Zamah" Gun , Lahore c. 1914

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Punjab University, Lahore, c. 1915
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Old June 15th, 2013, 09:20 PM   #5
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Lahore c. 1900-10s



Lahore: Mosque c. 1909

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Lahore Railway Recreation Grounds & pavilion c. 1914

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Lahore Railway Station c. 1914

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Cathedral of the Resurrection, Lahore, c. 1915
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Old June 16th, 2013, 09:21 PM   #6
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Punjab University, 1960s

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Old June 17th, 2013, 09:59 PM   #7
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Masjid Wazir Khan, Inside Delhi Gate - 1900s



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Old June 18th, 2013, 12:03 AM   #8
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Nice thread, do those amazing buildings still exist? I also like the picture of the kid who's obviously enjoying himself with his bike in the flood
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Old June 18th, 2013, 10:03 AM   #9
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Thanks

And yes all these buildings still exist and well preserved by the authorities.
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Old June 19th, 2013, 02:41 PM   #10
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The Mall - Lahore c. 1959

By Shahid Zaidi (Zaidis Photographers)



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Dinga Singh Building, The Mall #Lahore c. 1959

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Zaidis Photographers, Masson Narsingdas Building, The Mall #Lahore c. 1959

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YMCA Building, The Mall #Lahore c. 1959
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Old June 20th, 2013, 06:27 PM   #11
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Pak Tea House, The Mall #Lahore c. 1962

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Old June 20th, 2013, 06:31 PM   #12
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The Mall - Lahore c. 1959



Masson Narsingdas Buildings,. The Mall #Lahore c. 1959

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GPO Chowk, The Mall #Lahore c. 1959

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Hico @ The Mall #Lahore c. 1959
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Old June 21st, 2013, 08:41 PM   #13
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The Mall - Lahore c. 1959



A View of Regal Chowk, The Mall #Lahore c. 1959

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Dyal Singh Building, The Mall - Lahore c. 1959

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Old June 22nd, 2013, 04:56 PM   #14
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Asian Lawn Tennis Championships - Lahore c. 1958



Lahore - 1958: The Doubles finalists, British lawn tennis players J.A. Pickard and W.A. Knight (near the camera), playing Ulrich (Denmark) and Legestein (Germany). The British pair won the title in Asian Lawn Tennis Championships held in Lahore

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The participants in the Asian Lawn Tennis Championships from the various countries line up before the championships began in Lahore, Pakistan, recently.

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W.A. Knight receiving Doubles Trophy from the President, General Mohammad Ayub Khan, at the completion of the Asian Lawn Tennis Championships held recently in Lahore. Knight and his parter, J.A. Pickard, British tennis players, won the Doubles Final
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Old June 23rd, 2013, 05:07 PM   #15
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Telecommunications Training School - Lahore (1954-55)

Regional Telecommunications Training School, Lahore (1954-55)



Mr. Richards from the British Post Office lecturing on automatic telephony to students at the Regional Telecommunications Training School, Lahore, Pakistan.

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Demonstration in the adjustment of intricate relays and keys.

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A demonstration on telephone hand-sets being given by Mr P J R Jones, British Post Office expert at the Telecommunications Training School at Lahore.

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Machine-shop training; early steps in the use of a lathe.

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Demonstration on line construction practice being given by one of the Pakistani instructors.

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A student is being shown how to locate underground telephone cables by using a search coil and tone oscillator.
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Old June 24th, 2013, 07:43 PM   #16
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Life in Lahore c. 1960

"Kasera Bazar" adjacent to Sunehri masjid in Kashmiri Bazar











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Old June 25th, 2013, 10:11 PM   #17
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Life in Lahore c. 1960

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Old June 26th, 2013, 05:15 PM   #18
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Life in Lahore c. 1960

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Old June 28th, 2013, 09:29 PM   #19
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Jummah Prayer at Nila Gumbad - 1950s

A Photo album of people offering Jummah Prayer at Nila Gumbad - Lahore in 1950s









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Old June 29th, 2013, 07:40 PM   #20
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Jummah Prayer at Nila Gumbad - 1950s

A Photo album of people offering Jummah Prayer at Nila Gumbad - Lahore in 1950s









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