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Old September 15th, 2013, 11:49 PM   #21
Adde
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The next church is something slightly different. It's a parish church inside a town. Helga Trefaldighets kyrka (Church of the Holy Trinity) in Uppsala, Uppland province.

This church is a parish church for the residents of Uppsala town. It stands next to Uppsala Cathedral, seat of the archbishopric of Sweden and head church of the Church of Sweden. The cathedral was not a parish church where the ordinary townspeople of Uppsala could attend regular services, so a small separate church (as well as three other churches in other parts of town) was built next to the cathedral in the middle ages. The church was nick-named "Peasant's church" since it was a used by ordinary people.

Holy Trinity Church was built at the end of the 13th century just south of the new cathedral (which was still under construction). It's believed that it was the third church on the site. It's a three-isled basilica built of granite and brick. Transept and tower were added in the 1400's. The interior of the church was decorated by the master painter Albertus Pictor at the end of the 15th century.

The spire of the tower was destroyed in the great Uppsala fire of 1702, and replaced by a lower hood.

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Helga Trefaldighets kyrka by foje64, on Flickr

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Helga Trefaldighet Church and Uppsala Cathedral by Ingeborg van Leeuwen, on Flickr

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Chruch by eisfaerie, on Flickr

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Helga Trefaldighets kyrka by Michael Cavén, on Flickr

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Holy Trinity Church III by http://www.henriksundholm.com/, on Flickr

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Holy Trinity Church II by http://www.henriksundholm.com/, on Flickr
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Old September 16th, 2013, 12:07 AM   #22
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Great thread. Some beautiful churches. When was brick first used as building material in churches and what date did Gothic architecture arrive in Sweden ? Incidentally have you visited any Stave churches in Sweden, I would love to visit one some time.
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Old September 16th, 2013, 01:31 AM   #23
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Thanks!

Brick was introduced in Sweden in the late 12th century, but was still quite rare and therefor prestigious in the 13th century. That's the reason high prestige buildings like Uppsala cathedral as well as several royal palaces (for instance Alsnö hus and the Folkunga palace) built during the 1200's were built of brick rather than stone. A general lack of easily worked sandstone in Scandinavia also contributed to the popularity of brick in prestigious buildings.

In the towns brick was soon produced at an industrial scale, and so brick dominates in medieval Scandinavian towns. In the countryside stone dominates throughout the medieval period.

Gothic architecture was introduced in Sweden during the 1200's. Uppsala Cathedral (begun around 1270) is an example of Baltic brick gothic, while Linköping Cathedral (rebuilt beginning in the 1240's) is an example of English high gothic.

There is only one surviving medieval stave church in Sweden, Hedared church in Västergötland. It's much simpler than the Norwegian stave churches, and was built at the end of the medieval period around 1500. Generally, stave churches quickly became considered old fashioned in Sweden, and almost all of them were replaced by stone churches during the medieval period.
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Old September 16th, 2013, 06:29 PM   #24
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Adde View Post
Thanks!

Brick was introduced in Sweden in the late 12th century, but was still quite rare and therefor prestigious in the 13th century. That's the reason high prestige buildings like Uppsala cathedral as well as several royal palaces (for instance Alsnö hus and the Folkunga palace) built during the 1200's were built of brick rather than stone. A general lack of easily worked sandstone in Scandinavia also contributed to the popularity of brick in prestigious buildings.

In the towns brick was soon produced at an industrial scale, and so brick dominates in medieval Scandinavian towns. In the countryside stone dominates throughout the medieval period.

Gothic architecture was introduced in Sweden during the 1200's. Uppsala Cathedral (begun around 1270) is an example of Baltic brick gothic, while Linköping Cathedral (rebuilt beginning in the 1240's) is an example of English high gothic.

There is only one surviving medieval stave church in Sweden, Hedared church in Västergötland. It's much simpler than the Norwegian stave churches, and was built at the end of the medieval period around 1500. Generally, stave churches quickly became considered old fashioned in Sweden, and almost all of them were replaced by stone churches during the medieval period.
Thanks,very informative. In contrast to Sweden brick was very rarely used in church buildings in England before 1600. It arrived from the low countries in the late 1300's(excluding the Roman period in Britain) and was only used on the eastern side of England and then only on domestic premises. Where stone was in short supply flint was used.

The Stave churches of Scandanavia must be some of the most beautiful wooden structures surviving anywhere in the world. There are handful of half-timbered medieval parish churches remaining in England. Similarly to the Stave churches in Sweden they went out of fashion in the late medieval period.

Look forward to more pictures.

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Old September 17th, 2013, 05:37 AM   #25
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Lovely churches, beautiful pictures, informative thread. Thank you, Adde!
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Old September 17th, 2013, 07:47 AM   #26
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Quote:
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Thanks,very informative. In contrast to Sweden brick was very rarely used in church buildings in England before 1600. It arrived from the low countries in the late 1300's(excluding the Roman period in Britain) and was only used on the eastern side of England and then only on domestic premises. Where stone was in short supply flint was used.
Like I said, brick churches in Sweden are mostly found in the towns. In the countryside they're mostly built of stone. Exceptions are for instance a couple of churches built around Uppsala while the cathedral was under construction (taking advantage of the large amounts of brick being produced for the cathedral).

In much of Scandinavia there's mostly granite bedrock. Limestone is only found in a few places. Brick became popular in towns because its much easier to built with than granite.
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Old September 20th, 2013, 08:09 PM   #27
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Here is one of the countryside churches built of brick during the construction of Uppsala cathedral.

Danmark church in Uppland province was built of brick in the early 14th century, taking advantage of the master builders and brick kilns employed by the construction of Uppsala cathedral just a few km away.

The first parts of the church were, based on stylistic analysis, constructed around the year 1300. The oldest sources referencing the church are from 1291, but it is unclear whether that source refers to the current brick church or an earlier building on the same time. A flat inner roof was replaced by a brick vault around 1450, and Albertus Pictus and his teacher Johannes Rosenrod decorated the church in the second half of the 15th century.

The church was damaged by fire in 1699 and 1889. The current neo-gothic spire was built after the 1889 fire, caused by a lightning strike, destroyed an older spire.



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A12452 by davidnaylor83, on Flickr

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A15016 by davidnaylor83, on Flickr

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A12451 by davidnaylor83, on Flickr


Danmark kyrka nave02 [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5)], by Håkan Svensson (Xauxa) (Own work), from Wikimedia Commons

There are several runestones at the church. One of them is U945:

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Runestone of the week by catarina.berg in Sweden for a while, on Flickr

The inscription reads:

Quote:
Signjótr and Áviðr had the stone raised in memory of Ófeigr, their father. May God and God's mother help his spirit. Fótr carved the runes.
The runestone was carved in the middle of the 11th century and was used as threshold in one of the church's entrances until it was recovered in the 1950's.
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Old September 20th, 2013, 08:47 PM   #28
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Great stuff. One noticeable difference between the these churches and parish churches in England and France from the gothic period is the lack of window tracery. In England quite often you can date a medieval church by its windows,or at least the period when the church was rebuilt.
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Old September 20th, 2013, 09:34 PM   #29
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Most Swedish medieval churches had their windows enlarged in the 18th century, so original window tracing is rare. When the churches were built, many of them only had windows on the south side of the nave, because the north side was considered evil, and the original windows were rather small. In the 18th century, the fashion was for lighter church interiors, so windows were added on the north wall, the south facing windows were enlarged and the wall paintings were often covered up by white plaster.

Another reason for the lack of window tracing in most churches is practical. Most parish churches were built of granite or brick. Granite is not conducive to sculptural stone cutting, at least not for poor rural parishes, and tracing in brick requires specialized knowledge that probably was rare on rural building sites. You're much more likely to find tracing in areas with access to sandstone, such as Gotland or Kinnekulle, than in the rest of the country.
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Old September 20th, 2013, 11:54 PM   #30
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Adde View Post
Most Swedish medieval churches had their windows enlarged in the 18th century, so original window tracing is rare. When the churches were built, many of them only had windows on the south side of the nave, because the north side was considered evil, and the original windows were rather small. In the 18th century, the fashion was for lighter church interiors, so windows were added on the north wall, the south facing windows were enlarged and the wall paintings were often covered up by white plaster.

Another reason for the lack of window tracing in most churches is practical. Most parish churches were built of granite or brick. Granite is not conducive to sculptural stone cutting, at least not for poor rural parishes, and tracing in brick requires specialized knowledge that probably was rare on rural building sites. You're much more likely to find tracing in areas with access to sandstone, such as Gotland or Kinnekulle, than in the rest of the country.
Thanks. The door on the north side of English parish churches is known as the devil's door As regards plastering of the walls, the reverse happened in England. Medieval church interiors were plastered and then either frescoed or simply painted with religious images. Then in the 18th and 19th centuries most medieval churches went under drastic 'restoration' their walls being stripped back to the bare stone,often in the process destroying the medieval wall paintings that had escaped the iconoclasm of the reformation.

Some fantastic roof types you have there in Sweden.
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Old September 21st, 2013, 02:08 AM   #31
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Yeah, we're lucky that the medieval wall plaster with medieval frescoes usually wasn't knocked down but rather just covered by another layer of white plaster. This certainly damaged the frescoes, but restorations in the late 19th century or early 20th century often managed to uncover at least parts of them.

Bare interior church walls here usually means that there either never were any wall plaster to begin with, or that there were no surviving frescoes for the restoration to uncover, and so they decided to leave the walls bare.
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Old September 29th, 2013, 09:43 PM   #32
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Sorry for lack of updates, been busy.

The next church is Adelsö church on the island Adelsö in Lake Mälaren, Uppland province.

Adelsö became a royal estate in the Viking period (ca 750-1050 AD), when the trading town of Birka flourished on the neighboring island of Björkö. A large hall building (a ceremonial feasting hall) from the Viking period has been excavated on the site, as well as a richly furnished burial mound. Other remains from the Viking period are further burial mounds, a harbor and an exceptional runestone that mention a king named Håkan.

Adelsö remained a royal estate in the Middle Ages. A stone church was built at the end of the 12th century, and the king Magnus Birgersson Ladulås built a brick palace in the 1270's. The palace served as a royal summer residence. It was fortified with a dry moat and a palisade.


Adelso kyrka 2008 [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], by Holger.Ellgaard (Own work), from Wikimedia Commons

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Adelso kyrka by Udo Schröter, on Flickr

Remains of the manor site with the church in the background:

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Hovgården by MauronB, on Flickr

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Hovården by N Stjerna, on Flickr

A royal burial mound close to the church:

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2007.4.17 002 by catarina.berg, on Flickr

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Kungshögarna by N Stjerna, on Flickr


Hovgårdsstenen September 2013 01 [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], by Arild Vågen (Own work), from Wikimedia Commons

The runstone mentiones a late viking age/early medieval king named Håkan:

Quote:
You read the runes! Right let cut them Tolir, bailiff in Roden, to the king. Tolir and Gylla let carve (these runes), this pair after themself as a memorial... Håkon bade carve.
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Old October 5th, 2013, 10:21 PM   #33
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Next up is Örberga church in Östergötland province.

This church was built in the early 12th century. Beams in the tower and nave have been dated using dendrochronology to the winter of 1116-1117 AD. These parts of the church were built in the Romanesque style. In the 13th century a gothic chancel was added to the church.

The tower has got two spiral stairs on the outside, similar to the larger Husaby church that I've already presented in this thread.

The inside of the church is decorated with medieval wall paintings.


Örberga church, Vadstena, Sweden. Photo by Riggwelter, July 20, 2006.


Örberga church, Vadstena, Sweden. Photo by Riggwelter, July 20, 2006.


Örberga church, Vadstena, Sweden. Photo by Riggwelter, July 20, 2006.
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Old March 29th, 2015, 05:05 AM   #34
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Rydaholms kyrka in Rydaholm dating back to 1100:

Rydaholmskyrka från 1100-talet . by petersson.krister, on Flickr

Rydaholms kyrka från 1100 - talet . by petersson.krister, on Flickr
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Old March 29th, 2015, 05:10 AM   #35
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Very well preserved structures; they look very sturdy too.
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Old April 1st, 2015, 12:22 AM   #36
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They are sturdy

Almost all of the churches in this thread are countryside churches built to serve small rural congregations of a few hundred people at most. They're not the monuments of power and wealth that the great cathedrals of the medieval period were. At the same time, they were often the largest and most impressive building in the parish, and they represent a substantial investment by the local farmers and noblemen. Because of that, they've been lovingly cared for over the last 900-600 years.
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Old September 22nd, 2016, 05:25 PM   #37
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Granhults kyrka in Småland was built in the 13th century and is the oldest standing wooden church in Sweden. There were plans to demolish it when it stopped being used in 1829 but luckily the locals refused.
The interior of the church is, with the exception of a few fragments, primarily from the 16 and 1700s. However, the exterior is to a large extent as it would have looked in the 13th century.





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Old April 2nd, 2017, 12:37 PM   #38
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Amazing thread, do more, Dalköpinge is my parish church and might deserve a showing one day
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